How telecom spread to remote areas in India

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Bishnu Pradhan explains how the first telephone exchanges were setup in India in the 1980s. This presentation was made for Dr Ramamritham's class on ICTs for Development - hence the emphasis on the …

Bishnu Pradhan explains how the first telephone exchanges were setup in India in the 1980s. This presentation was made for Dr Ramamritham's class on ICTs for Development - hence the emphasis on the rural rollouts of CDOT.

Rich (never-seen-before) photographs bring out the harsh environments these telephone exchanges had to survive in. They brought about an impact akin to the setting up the Railways a century earlier. They brought Indians closer promoting family ties, business ties and employment opportunities.

Also making a guest appearance are Dr. Neil Gershenfeld of MIT (you can spot him in the picture of Pabal) and Dr. P. Anandan who heads Microsoft Research in India (you can spot him making a phone call in the Internet Telephony picture).

Dr Bishnu is a cofounder of Agrocom Software (inc 2006).

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  • rural telephony in india has been a big bugbear, which has not achieved the goals set for it several times. political hot potato. incremental approach hasn’t really made a breakthrough. lot of has to do with costs. high speed tech that can break the barrier. concerns: quality of service, security, billing, proven
  • rural telephony in india has been a big bugbear, which has not achieved the goals set for it several times. political hot potato. incremental approach hasn’t really made a breakthrough. lot of has to do with costs. high speed tech that can break the barrier. concerns: quality of service, security, billing, proven

Transcript

  • 1. Communications in ICT ForDevelopment – A PerspectiveBishnu D. Pradhan PhD, FNAE Mumbai
  • 2. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA• FIXED LINES – 40 MILLION• MOBILE CONNECTIONS – 40 MILLION• TELEDENSITY APPROXIMATELY 8• INTERNET CONNECTIONS – 5 MILLION• INTERNET USERS NEARLY – 25 MILLION
  • 3. TELEPHONES IN REMOTE VILLAGES IN NEPAL
  • 4. LINKING POKHARA WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD
  • 5. Remote Rice Fields
  • 6. Manual Exchanges
  • 7. RURAL ENVIRONMENT
  • 8. C-DOT 256P RAX SWITCH
  • 9. Rural Exchange in Orissa
  • 10. RAX in Rajasthan Village
  • 11. A RAX by the bedside
  • 12. Rural Microwave – 6RU10
  • 13. INSTALLING IN NEPAL NETWORK
  • 14. RAX base WLL• Wireless connectivity to RAX• Use Motorola AMP Cellular Base station• Enhanced capacity to : 400 Wireless and 200 wired subscribers• First Wireless Local Loop solution• Not approved by DOT for connectivity to the network
  • 15. UNIT BEING WASHED ON A SUNNY DAY !
  • 16. Satellite Phones
  • 17. Wireless Technologies deployed TDMA-PMP RADIO RSU RSU 30 Channel PCM 4W E&MP 2WTST BSU RSU RAXN RSU
  • 18. FIELD DEPLOYMENT RURAL OVERALL C-DOT 45% OTHERS OTHERS 9% 55%C-DOT 91% C-DOT C-DOT OTHERS OTHERS
  • 19. Objective : provide Urban like features in Rural sectors with minimized cost and appropriate technology. With 50,000 more remote Rural wireline villages to be covered, wireless technologies may play a vital role.Satellite modems Rural wireless
  • 20. CORDECT Rural Model
  • 21. Vigyan Ashram in Pabal
  • 22. PABAL INTERNET SERVICE
  • 23. Technology Customization Example: Internet Access in Rural India Further range extension using multi-hoppingInternet accesswithin 0.5 Km radius of thevillage center802.11b range extensionusing directional, home grown,custom made antennas Alternate path routing for high reliability K m 5-8 Village Internet Metro
  • 24. 802.11b Rural Connectivity
  • 25. Internet Telephony
  • 26. Video Conferencing from the Village
  • 27. IITK’s 802.11b DGP Test Bed Lucknow End to end distance 85 Km Km 38. 2 Rajajipuram BSNL Tower Info kiosk 16 Km VOIP Km Safipur 23 Sarauhan 18 Km hw ay Lucknow Airport HigInfo kiosk Bithoor kn ow km MS3 ur - Luc 37 Ajgain p K an Mandhana VOIP 5.5 Km Km Lodhar 22 23 Km IISTEM 2.5 Km Banthar Riv Mobile Health IITK er G ang Care es Sawayajpur
  • 28. 802.16 Wireless Standard• Approved by IEEE Standards body in 2003• Broadband Point to Multipoint System• Frequency range 10 GHz to 66 GHz• Line of Sight• Average bandwith 70 Mb/s to 268 Mb/s
  • 29. WiMax Standard• Approved as 802.16 a standard• Operates in frequency range 2GHz to 11 GHz.• Non Line of Sight• Bandwidth of 75 Mb/s• Range of 3 – 5 miles, maximum of 30 miles, depending on tower height, power gain.
  • 30. VSAT BASED RURAL NETWORK Multihop access Central Tower 802.11 VSAT access station VSAT hub points RouterInternet Local server
  • 31. Village school in Harayan
  • 32. Villager reaction
  • 33. THANK YOUBishnu D. Pradhan PhD, FNAE Mumbai