FRAMING & REFRAMING Assignment 3 2nd - 7th Nov. 2012 A Crash Course on Creativity Professor Tina Seelig, Stanford UniversityTeam 27053Andre Baldini , Adriana Rusu-Sadovei ,Shenshen Song, Pedro Ruiz Aldasoro ,Khalid AL-Khateb
• Bread Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants. It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread. Around 10,000 BC, with the dawn of the Neolithic age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest will become naturally leavened.• There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer to produce "a lighter kind of bread than other peoples." Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed of grape juice and flour that was allowed to begin fermenting, or wheat bran steeped in wine, as a source for yeast. The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter.• A major advance happened in 1961 with the development of the Chorleywood bread process, which used the intense mechanical working of dough to dramatically reduce the fermentation period and the time taken to produce a loaf. The process, whose high-energy mixing allows for the use of lower protein grain, is now widely used around the world in large factories. As a result, bread can be produced very quickly and at low costs to the manufacturer and the consumer.• Recently, domestic bread machines that automate the process of making bread have become popular.• Fresh bread is prized for its taste, aroma, quality, appearance and texture. Retaining its freshness is important to keep it appetizing. Bread that has stiffened or dried past its prime is said to be stale. Modern bread is sometimes wrapped in paper or plastic film or stored in a container such as a breadbox to reduce drying. Bread that is kept in warm, moist environments is prone to the growth of mold. Bread kept at low temperatures, in a refrigerator for example, will develop mold growth more slowly than bread kept at room temperature, but will turn stale quickly due to retrogradation.• Germany prides itself on having the largest variety of breads worldwide. More than 300 basic kinds of bread are produced with more than 1,000 types of small bread-rolls and pastries. It has been estimated that the basic kinds of bread are so widely varied by more than 16,000 local bakeries that more than 1,000 different breads have been presented at a 2005 Cologne bread show. Germans are worldwide the biggest consumers (per capita) of bread, followed by ChileSource: Wikipedia
PrehistoryThe earliest archaeological evidence for flour, which was likely processed into an unleavened bread, dates to the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe, around 30,000 years ago. During this period of human history cereals constituted just one of many food sources exploited by hunting and gathering; palaeolithic European diets were based mainly on animal proteins and fats.Cereals and bread became a staple food during the Neolithic, around 10,000 years ago, when wheat and barley were among the first plants to be domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. Wheat-based agriculture spread from Southwest Asia to Europe, North Africa and the Indian Subcontinent. In other parts of the world cereals such as rice (East Asia), maize (the Americas) and sorghum (sub-Saharan Africa), which are also sometimes made into bread, were independently domesticated and formed the basis of alternative agricultural systems.Around the world, the shift from varied hunter-gatherer subsistence to agricultural diets based predominantly on a cereal staple such as wheat bread marked an important turning point in human history. Though in many ways nutritionally deficient compared to hunting and gathering, cereal crops allowed agricultural societies to sustain much larger populations than had previously been possible, which in turn led to greater economic specialisation, social complexity and eventually the rise of civilized states.Source: Wikipedia
History of Bread• c. 8000 BC. At first grain was crushed by hand with pestle and mortar. In Egypt a simple grinding stone (quern) was developed. All bread was unleavened, there were no raising agents and bread was made from a mixed variety of grains. Todays equivalents are Indian chapattis and Mexican tortillas.• c. 5000 - 3700 BC. Egypt developed grain production along the fertile banks of the Nile. Grain became a staple food and spread to the Balkans and throughout Europe, eventually being cultivated in Britain.• c. 3000 BC. Tougher wheat varieties were developed and the baking of bread became a skill in Egypt along with brewing beer. In this warm climate wild yeasts were attracted to multi-grain flour mixtures and bakers experimented with leavened doughs. The Egyptians invented the closed oven and bread assumed great significance. Homage was paid to Osiris, the god of grain, and bread was used instead of money; the workers who built the pyramids were paid in bread.• c. 2300 BC. In India grain cultivation began along the Indus valley.• c. 1500 BC. Horses took over ploughing from men, using the first iron ploughshares.• c. 1050 BC. The south of England became a centre of agriculture - barley and oats were grown freely; by 500 BC wheat in Britain started to become important.• c. 1000 BC. In Rome risen, yeasted bread became popular and by 500 BC a circular quern was developed - a circular stone wheel turned on another which was fixed. This was the basis of all milling until the industrial revolution in the 19th century and is still the way stoneground flour is produced today.• c. 450 BC. In Greece the watermill was invented, although it was a few centuries before its significance was fully realised.• c. 150 BC. In Rome the first bakers guilds were formed and well-to-do Romans insisted on the more exclusive and expensive white bread - a preference which persists in Europe and English speaking countries to this day. A Roman invented the first mechanical dough-mixer, powered by horses and donkeys.• c. 55 BC. Romans invaded Britain where wheat was still being crushed by hand and baked over open fires. More sophisticated techniques were introduced, including watermills.• c. 40 BC. Bread and politics. In Rome the authorities decreed that bread should be distributed free to all adult males.• AD• c. 500 AD. Saxons and Danes settled in Britain and introduced rye which was well suited to cold northern climates. Dark rye bread became a staple which lasted to the Middle Ages.• c. 600 AD. The Persians are said to have invented the windmill. The power generated could drive much heavier stone querns for milling but it was 600 years before they appeared in Western Europe.Source: Wikipedia
Other Use for Bread• White bread• Brown bread• Wholemeal bread• Wheat germ• Roti• Chapatti• Naan• Granary bread• Rye bread• matzo• Sourdough bread• Hempbread Hemp• Crisp bread• cracker• Quick bread• ONION CHEESE LOAF BREAD• BUBBLE LOAF BREAD• FROZEN BREAD CARAMEL ROLLS• home-made croutons• for bread pudding, strata, french toast, panninis, and grilled sandwiches.• bread and butter pudding• Monkey Bread• garlic toast, bread crumbs, croutons, grilled cheese, hot ham and cheese.• French toast.• French Onion Soup• Easy Soufflé/Quiche• Stuffing/Dressing• Breadcrumbs• Meat Loaf• Refreshed Bread• Cinnamon Toasts• Bisques and Bread Soups• Bread Salads• Bread Pudding• Sandwiches; Grilled Cheese Sandwiches, Open Faced Sandwiches/Bruschetta• French Toast• Gourmet Croutons• Bread Dumplings• muffins, pancakes, American-style biscuits, and sweet breads such as banana bread.
• The cultural importance of bread goes beyond slang to serve as a metaphor for basic necessities and living conditions in general. A "bread-winner" is a households main economic contributor and has little to do with actual bread-provision, for example. This is also seen in the phrase "putting bread on the table".
Other Use for Bread Than Food1- Use it as RICE: Potato/Rice Substitute2- Bird Food3- Strong and very very dry Old Bread use as a Small Bullet in Air Gun4- Straight dough for kids to play (as Molding Clay)5- Use the Yeast in the Bread for (brewing alcoholic beverages)6- Use the Bacteria in Bread ; Salt rising bread employs a form of bacterial leavening that does not require yeast.7- Use the Soft Inner Part of Bread as a Wood-Fillers; known to bakers and other culinary professionals as the crumb, which is not to be confused with small bits of bread that often fall off, called crumbs. The outer hard portion of bread is called the crust.8- Use the Water in the Bread; Most artisan bread formulas contain anywhere from 60 to 75% water,9- Use the Starch in the Beard (for Ironing) ; Each of these grains provides the starch and protein needed to form bread10- Use the Breda a Source of Protein; containing more protein (12-14%),11- Use the Breda a Source Carbohydrates for Bodybuilders; Bread Contains Carbohydrates12- Chemical leavening; A simple technique for leavening bread is the use of gas-producing chemicals. There are two common methods. The first is to use baking powder or a self-rising flour that includes baking powder. The second is to include an acidic ingredient such as buttermilk and add baking soda; the reaction of the acid with the soda produces gas. Chemically leavened breads are called quick breads and soda breads. This method is commonly used to make muffins, pancakes, American-style biscuits, and sweet breads such as banana bread13- Use the Bread as Source of ferulic acid ; In wheat, phenolic compounds are mainly found in hulls in the form of insoluble bound ferulic acid where it is relevant to wheat resistance to fungal diseases. Rye bread contains phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers. Three natural phenolic glucosides, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside and ferulic acid glucoside, can be found in commercial breads containing flaxseed.14- Use the Bread as Chemical Source of; What is the chemical in bread ; There is no single chemical in bread. It is made up of many different kinds of molecules, mainly complex carbohydrates, salt, yeast, milk, egg, etc. If the anion has a charge of -2, the cation has a charge of +2. With 18 electrons it could be: - Ca++ & Na2++, Sodium thiosulfate Na2++S2O3-− would have a polyatomic anion with 5 atoms. However, I dont know about it being contained in bread. Following compounds is contained in bread: - Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) also called bread soda However, it is amphoteric and its ions have a charge of +/-1 (Na+; HCO3-).15- Use the Toasted Bread for an Art, Drawing as Charcoal : Toast Burns When Bread Carbohydrates Fully Carbonize.16- Straight dough for kids to play (as Molding Clay)17- ) There is kind of Chinese Traditional Medication named Liu Shen Qu. It is made by dough with beans powder then work with good yeast. It is to cure dyspepsia18- Ladies using dough with honey and egg for facial mask19- Toasted Bread. Sliced bread can be Toasted into some pattern by toasted machine. It can be characters, artistic shape s and figures20 – Bread Can give as a present. With a loaf of bread we can eat and let others eat. So we can give it as a present21- We can use it like material for a fine art. Make a picture with the loaf.22- We can take a photograph of it for doing an advertisements display23- We can use it for making an special neck lace.24- We can use it for stabilizing an unstable and unbalanced chair or table.25- We can use it for doing a mouse trap
Use the Chemical Components of Bread• White bread contains 2.6 percent sugar, 46.7 percent starch, 1.9 percent total fat, 8.4 percent total protein, 1.7 mg per 100 gm vitamin and 5 percent glutenin. The active gluten is added to flour for the enhancement of protein content as well as for enhanced baking performance. Thus, white bread contains 90 percent wheat, 10 percent commodities and additives of dairy products, sugar and shortenings. The refined white flour is bleached with the use of chlorine-like chemical agents and baked at high temperatures. The added gluten may produce allergic reactions to a number of people.• Alloxen, one of the chemicals that are added to white flour to make it look clean to the consumer, destroys beta cells that are located in the pancreas. This chemical is often given to laboratory rats to induce diabetes
Use the Toasted Bread for an Art, Drawing as Charcoal• Art: Toast Burns When Bread Carbohydrates Fully Carbonize. Toasted bread of one sort or another is a staple menu item in households around the world. The appeal of the toasty flavour, caramel brown colour and crisp texture is universal. The process of toasting seems so simple--a hot toaster makes bread brown on the outside--but actually, the brown colour and appetizing complex flavour of a perfect piece of toast are the result of a precise combination of bread ingredients, dry heat and a bit of chemistry
Cultural & Political Importance of Bread• The bread and wine become the Body and Blood of Christ• Unleavened breads have symbolic importance in Judaism & Christianity.• Jews consume unleavened bread called matzo during Passover.• Roman Catholic & some Protestant Christians consume unleavened bread during the Christian liturgy when they celebrate the Eucharist, a rite derived from the narrative of the Last Supper when Jesus broke bread with his disciples, perhaps during a Passover Seder.• In contrast, Orthodox Christians always use leavened bread during their liturgy.