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System Administration Basics  Session 3 By:  Bahaa S. Salama (bahaa2008)
Agenda <ul><li>Users Administration
Permissions
Partitions
Booting process
Processes
Applications
Networking Basics </li></ul>
Important Files <ul>/etc/passwd /etc/shadow /etc/group /etc/gshadow </ul>
Users Administration <ul>Add user  useradd Delete user  userdel Modify user  usermod Change/Set password  passwd Display l...
User Administration cont. <ul>Who is login/what is he doing  w Current logged in users  users Message all users   wall Add...
Permissions <ul><li>Why Permissions ?
User,Group,Other
Read,Write,Execute
Permissions symbolically </li><ul><li>r   read  u   user
w   write  g   group
x   execute  o   other </li></ul></ul>
Permissions - cont. <ul>Permissions numerically <ul>7  rwx  3  -wx 6  rw-  2  -w- 5  r-x  1  --x  4  r--  0  --- </ul><li>...
Change group chgrp
Change permissions chmod </li></ul>
Partitions Information <ul><li>List Partition  fdisk  -l
Partion Editor fdisk /dev/sda </li><ul><li>-n add new partition
-d  delete partition
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System Administeration Basics

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Introduction to linux administration basics

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Transcript of "System Administeration Basics"

  1. 1. System Administration Basics Session 3 By: Bahaa S. Salama (bahaa2008)
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Users Administration
  3. 3. Permissions
  4. 4. Partitions
  5. 5. Booting process
  6. 6. Processes
  7. 7. Applications
  8. 8. Networking Basics </li></ul>
  9. 9. Important Files <ul>/etc/passwd /etc/shadow /etc/group /etc/gshadow </ul>
  10. 10. Users Administration <ul>Add user useradd Delete user userdel Modify user usermod Change/Set password passwd Display logged in users who Display effective user whoami Display real/effective id id </ul>
  11. 11. User Administration cont. <ul>Who is login/what is he doing w Current logged in users users Message all users wall Add group groupadd Delete group groupdel Modify group groupmod Groups that I'm memer in groups </ul>
  12. 12. Permissions <ul><li>Why Permissions ?
  13. 13. User,Group,Other
  14. 14. Read,Write,Execute
  15. 15. Permissions symbolically </li><ul><li>r read u user
  16. 16. w write g group
  17. 17. x execute o other </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Permissions - cont. <ul>Permissions numerically <ul>7 rwx 3 -wx 6 rw- 2 -w- 5 r-x 1 --x 4 r-- 0 --- </ul><li>Change user chown
  19. 19. Change group chgrp
  20. 20. Change permissions chmod </li></ul>
  21. 21. Partitions Information <ul><li>List Partition fdisk -l
  22. 22. Partion Editor fdisk /dev/sda </li><ul><li>-n add new partition
  23. 23. -d delete partition
  24. 24. -l list partition
  25. 25. -a add bootable flag </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Disk space <ul><li>File System usage df
  27. 27. File Space usage du </li><ul><li>-s summerize
  28. 28. -h human readable </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Mounting Partitions <ul><li>List current mounts mount
  30. 30. Mount partitions </li><ul><li>mount -t fstype -o options device dir </li></ul><li>Examples </li><ul><li>mount -t vfat /dev/sda1 /media/sda1 </li></ul><li>Unmount umount device </li><ul><li>umount /dev/sda1 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. /etc/fstab <ul><li>File Syntax
  32. 32. <file system> <mount point> <type> <options>
  33. 33. UUID vs devices </li></ul>
  34. 34. Processes Management <ul><li>List processes ps aux
  35. 35. Kill process </li><ul><li>kill by pid kill -9 pid
  36. 36. kill by name killall prog_name </li></ul><li>Processes tree pstree
  37. 37. Top processes top </li></ul>
  38. 38. Boot Process <ul><li>BIOS - Boot Sequence
  39. 39. Stage 1 bootloader (MBR)
  40. 40. Stage 2 bootloader (Grub,LILO, etc)
  41. 41. Kernal (linux kernel)
  42. 42. Init (starting userspace applications) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Boot loader <ul><li>Grub </li><ul><li>Installation
  44. 44. /boot/grub/menu.lst
  45. 45. Splash screen
  46. 46. Timeout
  47. 47. Default option
  48. 48. Other Systems
  49. 49. Kernel && init </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Init Runlevels <ul>0 halt 1 single-user mode 3 multi-user mode 5 multi-user mode + X-based login screen 6 reboot </ul>
  51. 51. Init Scripts <ul><li>Understanding init scripts
  52. 52. /etc/init.d/
  53. 53. How to use init scripts </li><ul><li>Start
  54. 54. Stop
  55. 55. Restart
  56. 56. Reload
  57. 57. Status </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Installing Applications <ul><li>Installation Methods </li><ul><li>From source
  59. 59. Using Package mangers
  60. 60. Using Package utilites </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Installing from source <ul><li>Get the source
  62. 62. Get dependencies
  63. 63. Installing dependencies
  64. 64. Installing the application
  65. 65. Installation Process </li><ul><li>./configure && make && make install </li></ul><li>Uninstallation Process </li><ul><li>make uninstall && make clean </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Package Managers <ul><li>/etc/apt/sources.list
  67. 67. /etc/apt/sources.list.d/
  68. 68. Apt-get </li><ul><li>-install
  69. 69. -remove
  70. 70. -purge </li></ul><li>Apt-cache </li><ul><li>-search </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Package Utilities <ul><li>dpkg </li><ul><li>-i install .deb package
  72. 72. -r remove .deb package
  73. 73. -l list installed packages
  74. 74. --reconfigure reconfigure package </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Configuring Network Interface <ul>Display interfaces ifconfig -a Set ip manually ifconfig eth0 <ip> Get ip automatic dhclient eth0 Set default route route add def gw <ip> eth0 Set wireless ap iwconfig eth1 essid <name> Set DNS Servers in /etc/resolv.conf (demo) </ul>
  76. 76. Questions
  77. 77. Thanks
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