Qualitative research Mkep


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Qualitative research Mkep

  1. 1. Introduction to Qualitative Research Elsye Maria Rosa
  2. 2. DefinisiPendekatan kualitatif adalah suatu prosespenelitian dan pemahaman yangberdasarkan pada metodologi yangmenyelidiki suatu fenomena sosial danmasalah manusia
  3. 3. DefinisiBogdan dan Taylor dalam Moleong (2007:3)mengemukakan bahwa metodologikualitatif merupakan prosedur penelitianyang menghasilkan data deskriptif berupakata-kata tertulis maupun lisan dari orang-orang dan perilaku yang diamati.
  4. 4. Qualitative Research Characteristics:Starts with general Data collected with semi-question or problem structure & unstructured instrumentsNo pre-definedhypothesis Presents results descriptivelyUses a purposeful sam- Utilizes researcher’s aware-ple, not a random one ness of own orientations,Uses a relatively small biases, experiences thatsample might affect data collection & interpretation
  5. 5. Approaches to ResearchPositivist (Quantitatif research)Tujuan, realitas yang stabil, konteks hubungansebab-akibatIlmiah, berbasis bukti pengetahuan, deduktifMetode penelitian terstruktur, dapatdireplikasi, eksperimental; hasil kuantitatif
  6. 6. Interpretive (Qualitatif research) Subyektif , konstruksi sosial, yang harus ditafsirkan Pengetahuan dipengaruhi oleh realitas jamak, peka terhadap konteks, penelitian bertujuan untuk mengungkap makna fenomena Peneliti adalah pencipta makna, membawa pengalaman subyektif sendiri untuk penelitian, metode mencoba untuk menangkap orang dalam pengetahuan, penelitian yang dilakukan dalam pengaturan alam
  7. 7. The process ofqualitative research
  8. 8. The steps in designing aqualitative study1. Menetapkan masalah umum untuk diselidiki - Menarik bagi peneliti2. Menyatakan tujuan penelitian - Berdasarkan analisis masalah - Muncul dari studi sebelumnya - Dipandu oleh tinjauan pustaka - Ditentukan oleh siapa yang akan menggunakan hasil penelitian
  9. 9. 3. Mengembangkan kerangka konseptual / teoretis untuk studi4. Merumuskan pertanyaan penelitian umum dan khusus (tujuan dan sasaran)5. Pilih desain penelitian kualitatif6. Pilih strategi sampling7. Pemilihan peserta
  10. 10. 7. Pastikan trustworthiness dari penelitian8. Menentukan metode pengumpulan data dan mengembangkan alat-alat pengumpulan data9. Menetapkan bagaimana data akan dikelola dan dianalisis10. Interpretasi dan diskusi temuan11. Siapkan laporan penelitian
  11. 11. Qualitative Research:Funnel Approach General research questions Collect data Narrower research questions Collect data Narrower research questions Conclusions
  12. 12. Qualitative Research:Inductive Approach Specific narrow research question Collect data Broader question Collect data Broader question Conclusions
  13. 13. Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures
  14. 14. Elements of the Research Process DEDUCTIVE & INDUCTIVE REASONINGDeductive thinking (Quantitative)THEORY HYPOTHESIS OBSERVATION CONFIRMATION
  15. 15. Elements of the Research Process (Cont.)Inductive thinking (Qualitative)OBSERVATION PATTERNS HYPOTHESIS THEORY
  16. 16. QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVEResearch process is Research process isdeductive. inductive.Measure objective facts. Social reality, meaning is constructed.Focus on variables. Focus on in-depth meaning.Value-free research. Values are present & explicit (empathy).Independent of context. Contextual importance.Many cases, subjects. Few cases, participants.
  17. 17. QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVEStatistical analysis Thematic analysisObjective instruments of Researcher as thedata collection. central tool for data collection.Highly structured Loosely structuredresearch process. research process.Researcher is detached Researcher is immersed(outsider). (insider).(Adapted from Neuman, 1997: 14)
  18. 18. QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVEresult oriented process orientedparticularistic and analytical holistic perspectiveobjective “outsider view” subjective “insider view” distant from data and closeness to datageneralized by population generalization by comparison of properties and membership contexts of individual organism
  19. 19. Qualitative Research Methods 1. Biografi 2.Fenomenology 3. Grounded Theory 4.Etnografi 5. Case Study 6. Action Reseach
  20. 20. Grounded Theory
  21. 21. Grounded TheoryRooted in social sciencesEmphasises the development of theoryWhich is grounded in data systematicallycollected and analysed (constant comparativeanalysis to produce substantive theory)Theory must be faithful to the evidenceLooks for generalisable theory - by makingcomparisons across situationsFocus is on patterns of action and interaction
  22. 22. Phenomenology
  23. 23. Features of PhenomenologyRooted in philosophyCentral question: what is the meaning,structure, and essence of the livedexperience of this phenomenon for thisperson/group of people?How is each individual’s subjective realityapplied to make experiences meaningful?Analysis of the language used
  24. 24. Action Research
  25. 25. Action ResearchBuild action theories - action scienceAim is to develop effective action, improvepractice, and implement changeCyclical process, alternating between actionand reflection
  26. 26. Action-research groupsAction-learning group – facilitated or self-directed Emphasis on individual learning Reflection-in-action Reflection-on-actionAction-research team Focus on operational problems Facilitated (technical to empowering continuum)
  27. 27. Sampling in qualitative research
  28. 28. Considerations in samplingPurpose of qualitative research Produce information-rich data Depth rather than breadth Insight rather than generalisationConceptual rather than numericalconsiderations Choose information-rich sites and respondents
  29. 29. Common sampling approachPurposive sampling Not hazard Select information-rich cases Not the same as convenience sampling
  30. 30. Qualitative Research Methods: Case Study Purpose ProcedureTo determine the  Determine the casefactors, & relationships (individual, group, oramong the factors, that environment) to studyhave resulted in current  Determine databehavior or status of collection strategiessubject & data to beFocus is on a single collectedsubject or unit (could  Collect the databe multiple individuals)  Analyze the data
  31. 31. Qualitative Research Methods: Case Study Potential Problems Observer (researcher) bias Lack of generalizability Requires extensive data collection
  32. 32. Gambar: Jenis-jenis DasarPenelitian Studi Kasus (Sumber:Yin, 2009, 46)
  34. 34. Example :Rethinking Interventionist Research: Case Study: Using Baldrige Criteria to AchieveNavigating Oppositional Networks in a Danish Performance Excellence at the Robert W oodHospital Johnson University Hospital Hamilton
  35. 35. Case study:W illiam Beaumont Hospital-- Royal Oak Campus Fire Detection Projects
  36. 36. In-Hospital M anagem of P ent atients W H ith yperglycem Transitioning ia:FromIV Insulin Therapy to S ubcutaneous Insulin Regim and E ens ffectiveDischarge P lanning to M aintain Glycem Control (An Interactive Case icStudy) BruceBode, MD; Michelle Magee, MD; Chris Hogness, MD, MPH
  37. 37. Qualitative Research Methods: Ethnography Purpose ProcedureTo determine the fac-  Refine the problem &tors & relationships setting of interestamong the factors that  Decide on mostresult in a subject’s appropriate & effectivecurrent status in a level of participationsetting natural to the  Develop “working”subject hypothesesRelies on extensive &  Determine initial datadetailed description collection strategies  Collect data over time
  38. 38. Qualitative Research Methods:Ethnography Potential Problems  Results can be difficult to analyze  Findings are nearly impossible to replicate  Small sample size  Generally fairly costly  Time consuming
  39. 39. Types of Data Collection (or “fieldwork”) Observation Interviewing Focus Groups Document Analysis
  40. 40. The Three-Interview Series (Seidman, 1998) Interview One: Life History Interview Two: Details of the ExperienceInterview Three: Reflection on the Meaning
  41. 41. Men’s focus group, Hunan, China. Photo: Yuan Liping
  42. 42. FGDs often work well by using existing social groups Photo:Yuan Liping
  43. 43. Resources (Kuh & Andreas, 1991)• Recording devices• Transcribing equipment• Software packages for analyzing• Member checks participants• Space• Time
  44. 44. Qualitative Research: Data Analysis The Data AnalysisGenerally collected in Some form of the form of… analysis usuallyfield notes, takes place at the same time data isdiaries being collectedaudio & video tapes, Researcher seekscopies of documents, to identify patternsnarrative descriptions or trends
  45. 45. Qualitative Research: Data AnalysisQualitative data may be analyzed by a 3- part strategy: reducing the data coding the data synthesizing the data
  46. 46. Qualitative Research: Data Analysis• Read and re-read data, become engrossed in it.• Identify themes: common, conflicting, minority• Test themes across the data set, where are they common, under what circumstances are they found, not found. This sets the parameters on the interpretation and generalisation of data• Get more than one person to analyse the data independently then together• Demonstrate trustworthiness in data analysis
  47. 47. Qualitative Research Methods: TriangulationMetode untukmeningkatkan validitas &reliabilitas penelitiankualitatifMeningkatkan akurasiinterpretasiMenegaskan bahwa datayang dikumpulkan bukankarena kesempatan atausikap
  48. 48. Qualitative Research Design: Triangulation For example: Collect data from  May interview teachers, multiple sources principals & parents Collect data in  May interview & multiple ways from observe students subjects Collect different  May review student kinds of data in records, interview multiple ways from teachers, observe multiple subjects students
  49. 49. Qualitative Research Design: Triangulation Multiple data collection strategies Kinds of data Subjects Data collection Multiple (data sources) strategies Multiple datakinds of data sources
  50. 50. Processes in qualitative data analysis1. Reading / Data immersion  Read for content  Are you obtaining the types of information you intended to collect  Identify emergent themes and develop tentative explanations  Note (new / surprising) topics that need to be explored in further fieldwork
  51. 51. 2. Read noting the quality of the data  Have you obtained superficial or rich and deep responses  How vivid and detailed are the descriptions of observations  Is there sufficient contextual detail  Problems in the quality of the data require a review of:  How you are asking questions (neutral or leading)  The venue  The composition of the groups  The style and characteristics of the interviewer  How soon after the field activity are notes recorded  Develop a system to identify problems in the data (audit trail)
  52. 52. - Read identifying patterns - After identifying themes, examine how these are patterned  Do the themes occur in all or some of the data  Are their relationships between themes  Are there contradictory responses  Are there gaps in understanding – these require further exploration
  53. 53. 3. Coding –  No standard rules of how to code  Emergent  Borrowed  Record coding decisions  Record codes, definitions, and revisions  Usually - insert codes / labels into the margins  Building theme related files  Cut and paste together into one file similarly coded blocks of text  NB identifiers that help you to identify the original source  Identify sub-themes and explore them in greater depth
  54. 54. 3. Displaying data  Capture the variation or richness of each theme  Note differences between individuals and sub- groups  Return to the data and examine evidence that supports each sub-theme
  55. 55. 4. Developing questioning and verification  Extract meaning from the data  Do the categories developed make sense?  What pieces of information contradict my emerging ideas?  What pieces of information are missing or underdeveloped?  What other opinions should be taken into account?  How do my own biases influence the data collection and analysis process?
  56. 56. 5. Data reduction i.e.distill the information to make visible the most essential concepts and relationships  Get an overall sense of the data  Distinguish primary/main and secondary/sub- themes  Separate essential from non-essential data  Use visual devices – e.g. matrices, diagrams
  57. 57. 6. Interpretation i.e. identifying the core meaning of the data, remaining faithful to to the perspectives of the study participants but with wider social and theoretical relevance  Credibility of attributed meaning  Consistent with data collected  Verified with respondents  Present multiple perspectives (convergent and divergent views)  Did you go beyond what you expected to find?
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