Using A “Bagh Heralu” Network  To Map The Metapopulation  Structure Of Tigers In Nepal Bhim Gurung J. L. David Smith Mahen...
<ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Reserves were established in the1970s and 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul>...
Is there an adequate land base to support tigers? <ul><li>Reserve range from 300 – 1500 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>These suppo...
Basic conservation theory suggests that larger connected reserves increases population viability <ul><ul><li>There are ext...
The goal of our research was to evaluate the role of national forest lands as tiger habitat <ul><li>Specific objectives we...
Methods <ul><li>Establishing Network of “Bagh Heralu” </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>Training and Capacity Building for “Bagh Heralu” </li></ul>
Pugmark Measurement
Determination of Tiger and Leopard Pugmark   Pad width   Total Length     Front  Rear   Rear Tiger  ≥ 8.5 cm  ≥ 7.5 cm   >...
Criteria Used to Determine Tiger or Leopard Kill <ul><ul><ul><li>Pugmark size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large pr...
Determination of Tiger Kill <ul><li>Ribs bone well chewed </li></ul>
The Criteria Used for Breeding Habitat   <ul><li>When female and cub pugmarks are </li></ul><ul><li>observed together. </l...
Field Methodology Villagers report livestock kills to the “Bagh Heralu” Together they visit the site and investigate the k...
To Provide Quality  Control     <ul><li>Coordinators visit each </li></ul><ul><li>“ Heralu” monthly to: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
 
 
 
 
 
Discussion <ul><li>Corridors   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The corridor between Suklaphanta and Bardia has potential to be resto...
Discussion (cont.) <ul><li>Breeding Habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 breeding areas were identified  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Social Aspects of the Study <ul><li>“ Bagh Heralu” is a new approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have a strong professional...
Future Directions of Research   <ul><li>Expand the duties of “Bagh Heralu” to include prey assessment </li></ul>
Future Conservation Needs <ul><li>Strengthen community based conservation by empowering “Bagh Heralu” biodiversity monitor...
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Citizen Tiger Rangers

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Villagers map tigers

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  • The tiger is globally an endangered species. Until 1990, major threat to tigers was habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation. Poisoning of carcasses in the hope of killing tiger also became a problem at the same time. However, after 1990, poaching became a series problem due to the use of tiger bones in Asian medicine. Tigers were killed for the bone as well as other parts.
  • Citizen Tiger Rangers

    1. 1. Using A “Bagh Heralu” Network To Map The Metapopulation Structure Of Tigers In Nepal Bhim Gurung J. L. David Smith Mahendra Shrestha University of Minnesota
    2. 2. <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Reserves were established in the1970s and 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior & life histories </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Prey </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersal </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>Previous Tiger Conservation and Research in Nepal
    3. 3. Is there an adequate land base to support tigers? <ul><li>Reserve range from 300 – 1500 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>These support 16 to 50 breeding adults </li></ul><ul><li>Are these viable population sizes? </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t know because we can not predict the effects of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease outbreaks in tiger and prey populations or catastrophic events, e.g., floods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbreeding depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furthermore we do not even have models for the interaction of these factors </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Basic conservation theory suggests that larger connected reserves increases population viability <ul><ul><li>There are extensive lowland forests in Nepal, unfortunately these forests have become fragmented and degraded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tigers occurred in these forests, but the extend of use was not known </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The goal of our research was to evaluate the role of national forest lands as tiger habitat <ul><li>Specific objectives were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess the connectivity among the protected areas populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine if breeding occurs outside of protected areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To establish a community-based network of “Bagh Heralu” to accomplish the above objectives </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Methods <ul><li>Establishing Network of “Bagh Heralu” </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Training and Capacity Building for “Bagh Heralu” </li></ul>
    8. 9. Pugmark Measurement
    9. 10. Determination of Tiger and Leopard Pugmark Pad width Total Length Front Rear Rear Tiger ≥ 8.5 cm ≥ 7.5 cm >12 cm Leopard < 7.0 cm < 6.0 cm < 10 cm
    10. 11. Criteria Used to Determine Tiger or Leopard Kill <ul><ul><ul><li>Pugmark size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large prey size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large / Deep canine mark </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag mark </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribs bones broken </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Determination of Tiger Kill <ul><li>Ribs bone well chewed </li></ul>
    12. 13. The Criteria Used for Breeding Habitat <ul><li>When female and cub pugmarks are </li></ul><ul><li>observed together. </li></ul>
    13. 14. Field Methodology Villagers report livestock kills to the “Bagh Heralu” Together they visit the site and investigate the kill and measure pugmarks
    14. 15. To Provide Quality Control <ul><li>Coordinators visit each </li></ul><ul><li>“ Heralu” monthly to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And record location </li></ul></ul>
    15. 21. Discussion <ul><li>Corridors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The corridor between Suklaphanta and Bardia has potential to be restored because the current gap is relatively short (22 km) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The gap between Bardia and Chitwan is wide (55 km) and has the city of Butwal in the middle which creates a strong barrier to tiger dispersal </li></ul></ul>
    16. 22. Discussion (cont.) <ul><li>Breeding Habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 breeding areas were identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even with further habitat restoration these areas may remain sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, a weak sink & stable source may result in a larger more stable population than the source population alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiger source-sink dynamics are poorly understood and need further investigation </li></ul></ul>
    17. 23. Social Aspects of the Study <ul><li>“ Bagh Heralu” is a new approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have a strong professional pride about their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The project increased their understanding of tiger biology and conservation issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We hypothesize and plan to examine if local villagers also have increased understanding of tigers and conservation issues </li></ul></ul>
    18. 24. Future Directions of Research <ul><li>Expand the duties of “Bagh Heralu” to include prey assessment </li></ul>
    19. 25. Future Conservation Needs <ul><li>Strengthen community based conservation by empowering “Bagh Heralu” biodiversity monitoring system </li></ul><ul><li>Joint training and monitoring of carnivore and prey survey by forest guards and “Bagh Heralu” </li></ul><ul><li>Explore source sink dynamics and livestock grazing practices </li></ul>
    20. 26. THANK YOU
    21. 27. THANK YOU

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