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FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING

COMP 107
FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER
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PROGRAMMING
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FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING

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Network
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Advantages of networking
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Network

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Type of Connection

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Type of Connection
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Physical Topology

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Mesh Topology
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Star Topology
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Dedicated point-to-po...
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Bus Topology
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One long cable that ...
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Ring Topology
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Hybrid Topology
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Example: Main star top...
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Categories of Networks

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LAN
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Usually privately owned
A netwo...
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MAN
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FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING

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WAN
• Long distance transmission, e.g., a co...
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FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING

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Internetwork

• Internetwork (internet) : tw...
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Internetwork WANs and two LANs
Example
A ...
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Network Vs Internet
Internet
Network of netw...
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Internet programming langua...
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The Internet
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The Advanced Research Projects Agency
Networ...
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Internet Connections
Various technologies av...
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2...
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Internet Connections
Broadband
A connection ...
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Data
• Analog data
– Voice
– Images
• Digita...
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Modem

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Analog Signaling
amplitude (volts)

1 cycle
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FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING

Three Components of Data
Communication

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• Da...
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Modem
• Anlog
• Digital
• Modulation
– Digit...
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Modem Internet Connections
• Dial-up connect...
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Faster Internet Connections
ISDN (Integra...
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ISP (Internet Service Provider)
If you want ...
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Internet Service Provider (ISP)
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SERVICES OF INTERNET
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WWW
FTP
Telnet...
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What is the difference between the World Wid...
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World Wide Web Basics

Files interco...
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FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
File Transfer P...
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The basic objectives of FTP are
• to give fl...
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Telnet (Remote Computing)
• Telnet (Remote C...
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E-Mail (Electronic Mail)
E-mail or Electroni...
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Voice Messaging
Voice Messaging
It is a new ...
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E-Commerce
Electronic commerce or e-commerce...
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Internet Important Terms
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HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
• HTTP st...
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URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
• The URL (Un...
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• URLWorld

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Wide Web Basics

– No spaces and...
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Network Addresses
Hostname
A name made up of...
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Host number
Domain Name System
The part of t...
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Domain Name System
matisse.csc.villanova.edu...
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Domain Name System

Figure 15.10 Top-level d...
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Domain Namethan the United States
System
Org...
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Domain Name System
Domain name system (DNS)
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Domain Name Addressing

• Domain names can i...
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Uniform Resource Locators

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• The IP address ...
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Structure of a Uniform Resource Locators
pat...
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Hyperlink
A hyperlink is a piece of text (or...
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What is a web browser?
Web browsing applicat...
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• What are cookies?
• Some web sites can sto...
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What is an Internet cache?
Each time you dis...
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SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
• What is a digital ...
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• What is encryption?
• Encryption is a mean...
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• What is a firewall?
• A fire wall consists...
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FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING

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Internet vs Interanet
• Intranet is an inter...
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FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING

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Modem Internet Connections
• Dial-up connect...
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FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING

•

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Faster Internet Connections
ISDN (Integra...
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FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING

Credit Hours

Internet vs Interanet
• Intranet is an inter...
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Transcript of "Comp 107 cep ii"

  1. 1. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING COMP 107 FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Chapter II By D.Balaganesh Credit Hours
  2. 2. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Network • Network one computer connected to more then one computer is called Network 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 2
  3. 3. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Advantages of networking • • • • • • • • Connectivity and Communication Data Sharing Hardware Sharing Internet Access Internet Access Sharing Data Security and Management Performance Enhancement and Balancing Entertainment 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 3
  4. 4. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Network • Network: A set of devices (nodes) connected by communication links • Node: Computer, printer, or any device capable of sending and/or receiving data • To be considered effective and efficient, a network must meet a number of criteria 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-4
  5. 5. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Type of Connection 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-5
  6. 6. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Type of Connection • Point-to-point – Dedicated link between two devices – The entire capacity of the channel is reserved – Ex) Microwave link, TV remote control • Multipoint – More than two devices share a single link – Capacity of the channel is either • Spatially shared: Devices can use the link simultaneously • Timeshare: Users take turns 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-6
  7. 7. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Physical Topology 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-7
  8. 8. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Mesh Topology • Dedicated point-to-point link to every other nodes • A mesh network with n nodes has n(n-1)/2 links. A node has n-1 I/O ports (links) • Advantages: No traffic problems, robust, security, easy fault identification & isolation • Disadvantages: Difficult installation/reconfiguration, space, cost 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-8
  9. 9. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Star Topology • • • • Dedicated point-to-point link only to a central controller, called a hub Hub acts as an exchange: No direct traffic between devices Advantages: Less expensive, robust Disadvantages: dependency of the whole on one single point, the hub 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-9
  10. 10. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Bus Topology • • • • • One long cable that links all nodes tap, drop line, cable end limit on the # of devices, distance between nodes Advantages: Easy installation, cheap Disadvantages: Difficult reconfiguration, no fault isolation, a fault or break in the bus stops all transmission 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-10
  11. 11. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Ring Topology • • • • Dedicated point-to-point link only with the two nodes on each sides One direction, repeater Advantages: Easy reconfiguration, fault isolation Disadvantage: Unidirectional traffic, a break in the ring cab disable the entire network 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-11
  12. 12. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Hybrid Topology • • Example: Main star topology with each branch connecting several stations in a bus topology To share the advantages from various topologies 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-12
  13. 13. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Categories of Networks 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-13
  14. 14. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours LAN • • • • Usually privately owned A network for a single office, building, or campus a few Km Common LAN topologies: bus, ring, star An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-14
  15. 15. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours MAN • Designed to extend to an entire city • Cable TV network, a company’s connected LANs • Owned by a private or a public company 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-15
  16. 16. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours WAN • Long distance transmission, e.g., a country, a continent, the world • Enterprise network: A WAN that is owned and used by one company 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-16
  17. 17. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Internetwork • Internetwork (internet) : two or more networks are connected by internetworking devices • Internetworking devices: router, gateway, etc. • The Internet: a specific worldwide network 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-17
  18. 18. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING • Credit Hours Internetwork WANs and two LANs Example A heterogeneous network : four 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 1-18
  19. 19. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Network Vs Internet Internet Network of network is called Internet 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 19
  20. 20. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING • • • • • • • • Credit Hours Internet programming language E-mail Internet SMS(short message service) Social networking sites Websites Blog - Share your life's stories, videos and photos VOIP - Voice over Internet Protocol Podcast - type of digital media consisting of an episodic series of audio, video, PDF • Rss(Really simple Syndication) its security bulletins, advisories, magazine related alerts for IT professionals. 1/26/2014 TechNet provides RSS feeds for features, and other security- Balaganesh -Lincoln University 20
  21. 21. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours The Internet • Internet is a network of interconnected computers that is now global • Internet born in 1969 - called ARPANET • 1969 ARPANET was connection of computers at UCLA, Stanford, UCSB, Univ. of Utah 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 21
  22. 22. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network • In 1969, the U.S. Defence Department funded a project to develop a network, which can withstand the bombing. Basically the idea was to develop a very secure network which can work even after a nuclear attack. This project was known as ARPANET. 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 22
  23. 23. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Internet Connections Various technologies available to connect a home computer to the Internet Phone modem converts computer data into an analog audio signal for transfer over a telephone line, and then a modem at the destination converts it back again into data Digital subscriber line (DSL) uses regular copper phone lines to transfer digital data to and from the phone company’s central office Cable modem uses the same line that your cable TV signals come in on to transfer the data back and forth 23 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University
  24. 24. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University Credit Hours 24
  25. 25. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Internet Connections Broadband A connection in which transfer speeds are faster than 768 kilobits per second – DSL connections and cable modems are broadband connections – The speed for downloads (getting data from the Internet to your home computer) may not be the same as uploads (sending data from your home computer to the Internet) 25 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University
  26. 26. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Data • Analog data – Voice – Images • Digital data – Text – Digitized voice or images 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 26
  27. 27. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Modem 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 27
  28. 28. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Analog Signaling amplitude (volts) 1 cycle • represented by sine waves phase difference time (sec) frequency (hertz) = cycles per second 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 28
  29. 29. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Three Components of Data Communication Credit Hours • Data – Analog: Continuous value data (sound, light, temperature) – Digital: Discrete value (text, integers, symbols) • Signal – Analog: Continuously varying electromagnetic wave – Digital: Series of voltage pulses (square wave) • Transmission – Analog: Works the same for analog or digital signals – Digital: Used only with digital signals 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 29
  30. 30. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Modem • Anlog • Digital • Modulation – Digital to analog conversion • Demodulation – Analog to Digital Conversion Modulation and demodulation is called Modem
  31. 31. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Modem Internet Connections • Dial-up connection via modem (56K) • Cable modems – Network card and cable modem required – Always-on and 25 times faster than dial-up 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University
  32. 32. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING • Credit Hours Faster Internet Connections ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) – 64K or 128K – Always-on and expensive • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) – Up to 125 times faster than dialup • DSS (Digital Satellite Service) – 500K 1/26/2014 Need proximity to a telephone switching station Balaganesh -Lincoln University
  33. 33. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours ISP (Internet Service Provider) If you want to connect to the Internet, you need to subscribe via an Internet Service Provider. The ISP gives you a connection to the Internet either via your telephone line or via a special digital high speed line. An example of a popular ISP is AOL (America On-Line). 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 33
  34. 34. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Internet Service Provider (ISP) • Provides internet access to businesses, • • • • • 1/26/2014 organizations and individuals Provides telecommunications equipment User ID and password required Connects you to backbone E-mail account monthly fee Should have local access telephone numbers Balaganesh -Lincoln University
  35. 35. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours SERVICES OF INTERNET • • • • WWW FTP Telnet E-mail 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 35
  36. 36. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours What is the difference between the World Wide Web (WWW) and the Internet? WWW is the acronym for the World Wide Web. It is also commonly known as ‘The Web’. The WWW is hypertext based information retrieval tool • The World Wide Web (WWW) is just a small part of the Internet as a whole. • The Internet, relates to all the hardware and software involved, and as well as including the WWW, also includes FTP (File Transfer Protocol – more about this later), email and newsgroups. • The WWW is basically the text and pictures which you can view using your web browser, such as Microsoft 1/26/2014 36 Internet Explorer, orBalaganesh -Lincoln University Netscape Navigator.
  37. 37. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING • • • • • 1/26/2014 World Wide Web Basics Files interconnected via hypertext Web pages make up a web site Home Page Links or hyperlinks Web servers Balaganesh -Lincoln University Credit Hours
  38. 38. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours FTP (File Transfer Protocol) File Transfer Protocol, is an Internet utility software used to upload and download files. It gives access to directories or folders on remote computers and allows software, data and text files to be transferred between different kinds of computers. • FTP is just a way of transferring data from one place to another over the Internet. If is often used for downloading large files from a web site. You do not really need to know anything about how it works, in most cases you willclick on a link within a web page, and your web browser (such as Microsoft Internet Explorer) will take care of the FTP transfer for you, all you have to decide is where to store the file which you wish to 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 38 download.
  39. 39. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours The basic objectives of FTP are • to give flexibility and promote sharing of computer programs, files and data • to transfer data reliably and more efficiently over network • to encourage implicit or indirect use of remote computers using Internet • to shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 39
  40. 40. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Telnet (Remote Computing) • Telnet (Remote Computing) Telnet or remote computing is telecommunication utility software, which uses available telecommunication facility and allows you to become a user on a remote computer. Once you gain access to the remote computer, you can use it for the intended purpose. The TELNET works in a very step by step procedure. The commands typed on the client computer are sent to the local Internet Service Provider (ISP), and then from the ISP to the remote computer that you have gained access. Most of the ISP provides facility to TELENET into your own account from another city and check your e-mail while you are traveling or away on business 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 40
  41. 41. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours E-Mail (Electronic Mail) E-mail or Electronic mail is a paperless method of sending messages, notes or letters from one person to another or even many people at the same time via Internet. E-mail is very fast compared to the normal post. E-mail messages usually take only few seconds to arrive at their destination Features of E-mail: • One-to-one or one-to-many communications • Instant communications • Physical presence of recipient is not required • Most inexpensive mail services, 24-hours a day and seven days a week • Encourages informal communications University 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln 41
  42. 42. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Voice Messaging Voice Messaging It is a new communication approach which is similar to electronic mail except that it is audio message rather than text messages that are processed. A sender speaks into a telephone rather than typing, giving the name of the recipient and the message. That sender's voice signal is then digitalised and stored. The system can then either deliver the message at a specified time in future or it can be retrieved from a database by the recipient. 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 42
  43. 43. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours E-Commerce Electronic commerce or e-commerce as it is popularly known refers to the paperless exchange of business information using Electronic Data Interchange, Electronic mail, Electronic Bulletin Boards, Electronic Fund Transfer and other network based technologies. Electronic Commerce (EC) not only automates manual process and paper transactions, but it also helps organisations to move into a fully electronic environment and change the way they usually operate. 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 43
  44. 44. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Internet Important Terms • • • • • • • HTTP URL Hyperlink Browser Cookies Internet cache SECURITY 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 44
  45. 45. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. This is the language your web browser uses to request pages & graphics from the web server. You can see that your web browser is using the HTTP protocol when it is shown at the start of a web address such as http://www.yahoo.com 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 45
  46. 46. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours URL (Uniform Resource Locator) • The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is just another name for a web address. • The URL consists of the name of the protocol (usually HTTP or FTP) followed by the address of the computer you want to connect to, e.g. a URL of “ftp://ftp.cdrom.com” would instruct your web browser to use the FTP protocol to connect to the computer called ftp.cdrom.com. 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 46
  47. 47. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING • URLWorld Credit Hours Wide Web Basics – No spaces and Case sensitive – HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) – .htm or .html file extension http://www.cnn.com/showbiz/movies.htm Web protocol 1/26/2014 standard Web Folder server name name Balaganesh -Lincoln University Document name and filename extension
  48. 48. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Network Addresses Hostname A name made up of words separated by dots that uniquely identifies a computer on the Internet IP address An address made up of four one-byte numeric values separated by dots that uniquely identifies a computer on the Internet Is there a correspondence between the parts of a hostname and an IP address? 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 48
  49. 49. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Host number Domain Name System The part of the IP address that specifies a particular host (machine) on the network Yes, but what is it? Domain name The part of a hostname that specifies a specific organization or group Top-level domain (TLD) The last section of a domain name that specifies the type of organization or its country of origin 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 49
  50. 50. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Domain Name System matisse.csc.villanova.edu Computer name Domain name 1/26/2014 TLD Balaganesh -Lincoln University 50
  51. 51. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Domain Name System Figure 15.10 Top-level domains, including some relatively new ones 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 51
  52. 52. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Domain Namethan the United States System Organizations based in countries other use a top-level domain that corresponds to their two-letter country codes Do you email someone in another country? Figure 15.11 Some of the top-level domain names based on country codes 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 52
  53. 53. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Domain Name System Domain name system (DNS) A distributed system for managing hostname resolution Domain name server A computer that attempts to translate a hostname into an IP address Should the tables containing hostname/IP mappings be sorted or unsorted? Why? 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 53
  54. 54. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Domain Name Addressing • Domain names can include any number of parts separated by periods, however most domain names currently in use have only three or four parts. • Domain names follow hierarchical model that you can follow from top to bottom if you read the name from the right to the left. • For example, the domain name gsb.uchicago.edu is the computer connected to the Internet at the Graduate School of Business (gsb), which is an academic unit of the University of Chicago (uchicago), which is an educational institution (edu). • No other computer on the Internet has the same domain name. 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 54
  55. 55. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Uniform Resource Locators Credit Hours • The IP address and the domain name each identify a particular computer on the Internet. • However, they do not indicate where a Web page’s HTML document resides on that computer. • To identify a Web pages exact location, Web browsers rely on Uniform Resource Locator (URL). • URL is a four-part addressing scheme that tells the Web browser:  What transfer protocol to use for transporting the file  The domain name of the computer on which the file resides  The pathname of the folder or directory on the computer on which the file resides  The name of the file 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 55
  56. 56. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Structure of a Uniform Resource Locators pathname protocol http://www.chicagosymphony.org/civicconcerts/index.htm Domain name filename http => Hypertext Transfer Protocol 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 56
  57. 57. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Hyperlink A hyperlink is a piece of text (or a graphic) on a Web page, which when clicked on will automatically: - Take you to a different part of the same page - Take you to a different page within the Web site 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 57
  58. 58. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours What is a web browser? Web browsing applications include ‘Internet Explorer’ (from Microsoft) and ‘Netscape Navigator/Communicator’. In both cases there are many different versions, and you will find that the later versions offer much more versatility as well as a better range of built-in features. The web browser allows you to view web pages 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 58
  59. 59. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours • What are cookies? • Some web sites can store hidden information about you on your hard disk using cookies. This information is stored in small text file. Cookies can be useful, for instance, a site may store your preferences about a web site, so that when you re-visit the site your preferences can be accessed automatically. Cookies are used by some web sites to identify you; this saves you having to “log in” to the web site each time you visit. 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 59
  60. 60. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours What is an Internet cache? Each time you display a web site within your web browser, a copy of the information (both text and pictures) is saved on your hard disk. The reason for this is that the next time you want to re-visit the site, the information is quickly loaded from the copy on your hard disk, rather than slowly from the actual Internet site. • As pictures are stored in the cache, if you are visiting a site which has many separate web pages, with say a company logo on each page, then all subsequent pages from that site will load a little faster as the logo graphics will load from the cache, not via the Internet 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 60
  61. 61. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS • What is a digital certificate? • A digital certificate is used to encrypt information for secure transmission across the Internet. A digital certificate can be used to create a digital signature for an email, the signature guarantees the identity of sender, and it also ensures that the message cannot be tampered with in transit. A digital certificate can be purchased from a certificate authority such as www.verisign.com who will verify your identity. Digital certificates are used by Internet based shopping web sites to encrypt your credit card details so they cannot be intercepted as they travel the Internet. You can view the digital certificate for a secure web site by double clicking on the padlock in the web browser status bar, e.g. https://www.paypal.com 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 61
  62. 62. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours • What is encryption? • Encryption is a means of 'scrambling' an email message. It is used to make a message more secure, so that only the intended recipient of the message will be able to read the message. There are many means of enabling this encryption, both via hardware and software. A famous encryption program is called PGP(Pretty Good Privacy) 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 62
  63. 63. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours • What is a firewall? • A fire wall consists of software and hardware protection against invasion via the Internet. In most larger companies any connection to the Internet automatically goes through a firewall which would have been installed and customised by the companies technical IT team. In most cases you will be unaware of the firewall existence. 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 63
  64. 64. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Internet vs Interanet • Intranet is an internal private computer network or connection of one or more computer networks, whose use and access is restricted to an organization and its employees or members.. Such an intranet, mostly operates through a website, run by a local server, acting as a resource sharing medium. You could call it a scaled-down private Internet. • Internet is a network of more than billion computers spread worldwide! It uses an ever improving set of Internet protocols (HTTP, FTP, SMTP, etc.) to transfer data. Unlike the intranet, the Internet and the information sharing service called the 'World Wide 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 64 Web',
  65. 65. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Modem Internet Connections • Dial-up connection via modem (56K) • Cable modems – Network card and cable modem required – Always-on and 25 times faster than dial-up 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University
  66. 66. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING • Credit Hours Faster Internet Connections ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) – 64K or 128K – Always-on and expensive • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) – Up to 125 times faster than dialup • DSS (Digital Satellite Service) – 500K 1/26/2014 Need proximity to a telephone switching station Balaganesh -Lincoln University
  67. 67. Subject Name Code FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER PRINCIPLE & PROGRAMMING Credit Hours Internet vs Interanet • Intranet is an internal private computer network or connection of one or more computer networks, whose use and access is restricted to an organization and its employees or members.. Such an intranet, mostly operates through a website, run by a local server, acting as a resource sharing medium. You could call it a scaled-down private Internet. • Internet is a network of more than billion computers spread worldwide! It uses an ever improving set of Internet protocols (HTTP, FTP, SMTP, etc.) to transfer data. Unlike the intranet, the Internet and the information sharing service called the 'World Wide 1/26/2014 Balaganesh -Lincoln University 67 Web',
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