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# Review For Physical Science Exam #1

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• Definition of physical changes.
• Physical changes are characterized by the following:
• Chemical Changes are characterized by the following:
• Definition of chemical change.
• ### Review For Physical Science Exam #1

1. 1. Review for Physical Science Exam Grade 8
2. 3. Types of Measurements 1. Length a. The distance from one point to another point. b. Base unit is the meter (m). c. Tool is the metric ruler. 2. Volume a. The amount of space a substance occupies. b. Base unit is the liter (L). c. Tools: metric ruler for regular solids or graduated cylinder for liquids.
3. 4. 3. Mass a. The amount of matter in a substance. b. Base unit - kilogram (kg). c. Tool is the balance. 4. Weight a. A measure of gravitational force on an object. b. Unit is the newton (N). c. Tool is the scale.
4. 5. 5. Time a. How long an event takes to occur. b. Unit is the second (s). c. Tool is the clock (stopwatch). 6. Temperature a. The amount of kinetic energy a substance has. b. SI unit is the Kelvin (K). c. Tool is the thermometer.
5. 6. 7. Density a. How compacted the matter is in a substance. b. Units can be g/mL, g/cm3, kg/m3. c. Density is a derived unit (it is made up of other types of measurement). d. D = m / v e. Objects float if their density is less than the density of the fluid they are in.
6. 7. 7. Density a. How compacted the matter is in a substance. b. Units can be g/mL, g/cm3, kg/m3. c. Density is a derived unit (it is made up of other types of measurement). d. D = m / v e. Objects float if their density is less than the density of the fluid they are in.
7. 8. Scientific Experimentation controlled experiment -Only one variable should be changed Manipulated (independent) – changed by the experimenter. Responding (dependent) – the effect.
8. 9. Matter Matter = any material substance with Mass & Volume
9. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
10. 11. <ul><ul><li>The Organization of Matter </li></ul></ul>Matter Mixtures Pure Substances Heterogeneous Homogeneous Compounds Elements
11. 12. Matter comes in 3 phases Solid Liquid Gas
12. 13. Solid Definite Shape Definite Volume
13. 14. Liquid Indefinite Shape – takes the shape of the container Definite Volume
14. 15. Gas Indefinite Shape – takes the shape of the container Indefinite Volume – can expand and be compressed
15. 16. Plasma <ul><li>Plasma : a high energy gaseous state of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very unstable . </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are moving extremely fast, free energy </li></ul><ul><li>Most abundant phase of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Only present under extremely hot/energetic situations </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sun </li></ul>
16. 17. <ul><li>Plasma : a high energy gaseous state of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very unstable . </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are moving extremely fast, free energy </li></ul><ul><li>Most abundant phase of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Only present under extremely hot/energetic situations </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sun </li></ul>Plasma
17. 18. CHANGES IN STATE <ul><li>Melting: Solid to liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling: Liquid to gas </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation: Solid to gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The above three require input of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condensation: Gas to liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing: Liquid to solid </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition: Gas to solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The above three release energy </li></ul></ul>
18. 19. Law vs. Theory <ul><li>S: Develop a law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law: Summarizes the outcome of several experiments that occur repeatedly and consistently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The spoiled food served at lunch makes people sick with a stomachache. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Develop a theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory: Explanation for why a law exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: It is the bacteria in the spoiled food that makes people ill. </li></ul></ul>
19. 20. ELEMENTS <ul><li>contain only one type of atom </li></ul><ul><li>building blocks of matter </li></ul><ul><li>115 known elements today, 90 which occur naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Found on periodic table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first letter is always capitalized, the second letter is always lower case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorine is F, not f </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cobalt is Co, not CO (which is carbon monoxide) </li></ul></ul></ul>
20. 21. Atom the smallest particle making up elements
21. 22. Drawing an Atom of Carbon minus Atomic # = # of n 0 = # of p + and # of e - Carbon has 6 p + and 6 e - Carbon has 6 n 0 C 12.011 6 Atomic Mass Atomic #
22. 23. Drawing an Atom of Carbon 6 p + 6 n 0 e - e - e - e - e - e -
23. 24. Compounds Compounds - 2 or more elements chemically combined to form a new substance with new properties Properties – The way a chemical substance looks and behaves
24. 25. Properties of Matter
25. 26. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Characterize the physical state and physical behavior of a substance </li></ul><ul><li>Each substance has unique physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur appears as a yellow powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boiling point of water is 100 o C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide is odorless </li></ul></ul>
26. 27. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Describe ways pure substances behave when interacting with other pure substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron reacts with oxygen to form rust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platinum does not react with oxygen at room temperature. </li></ul></ul>
27. 28. What is a physical change? <ul><li>substance changes state but does not change its chemical composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(it has the same melting point, boiling point, chemical composition, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>water freezing into ice </li></ul><ul><li>cutting a piece of wood into smaller pieces </li></ul>
28. 29. <ul><li>Melting point </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling point </li></ul><ul><li>Vapor pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>State of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility </li></ul><ul><li>Adsorption to a surface </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul>Characteristics of Physical Changes
29. 30. <ul><li>Reaction with acids </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction with bases </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction with other elements </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposition into simpler substances </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion </li></ul>Characteristics of Chemical Changes
30. 31. What are chemical changes? <ul><li>when a substance changes into something new. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This occurs due to heating, chemical reaction, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can tell a chemical change has occurred if the density, melting point or freezing point of the original substance changes. Many common signs of a chemical change can be seen (bubbles forming, mass changed, etc). </li></ul></ul>
31. 32. <ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures and Pure Substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mixture has unlike parts and a composition that varies from sample to sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A heterogeneous mixture has physically distinct parts with different properties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A homogeneous mixture is the same throughout the sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure substances are substances with a fixed composition </li></ul></ul>
32. 33. <ul><ul><li>A physical change is a change that does not alter the identity of the matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A chemical change is a change that does alter the identity of the matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A compound is a pure substance that can be decomposed by a chemical change into simpler substances with a fixed mass ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An element is a pure substance which cannot be broken down into anything simpler by either physical or chemical means. </li></ul></ul>
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