ECON 2017 Money, Banking                and the Canadian Financial System           Reading: Siklos: Chapter 3          Th...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries                Overview   and Markets           • What Do Financial ...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets              The Function of Financial Institutions              •...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets         The Functions of Intermediation                           ...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets                         • Ease liquidity constraints              ...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets                         • Reduce asymmetric information problem   ...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets                           Adverse Selection                       ...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets              The Function of Financial Institutions               ...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries   and Markets                       • Banks are particularly adept a...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial                      Function of Financial Markets  Intermediaries   and Markets    ...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries               Types of Financial Institutions   and Markets         ...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries   and Markets           • Insurance Companies and Pension Funds     ...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries   and Markets            • Investment Dealers and Investment Funds  ...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries           The “Four-Pillars”   and Markets       • Chartered banks: ...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries   and Markets      • Regulation played a crucial role in producing t...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries   and Markets      Conflict in Regulation:      • Canada’s financial...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial           Types of Financial Markets  Intermediaries   and Markets         • Type of...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial         • Complexity  Intermediaries                          – Securitization: desc...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets                  Breakdown of Assets, 2004                        ...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets             Relative Importance of Financial                      ...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries       The Future of Banking   and Markets           • Non-bank firms...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets             Primary Assets and Liabilities of Financial Intermedia...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets      Relative Size of Financial Intermediaries Regulated by OSFI  ...
Regulatory Agencies Financial Intermediaries and Markets              LECTURE 3: Role of of the Canadian Financial System ...
LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets       Source: Mishkin, Frederic S. and Apostolos Serletis, The Eco...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial                   Regulation of Financial  Intermediaries   and Markets             ...
LECTURE 3:      Role of     Financial  Intermediaries           Key Points   and Markets              • Intermediation is ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

The Role of Financial Intermediaries and financial Market (By Badhon)

27,915

Published on

0 Comments
15 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
27,915
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
573
Comments
0
Likes
15
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Role of Financial Intermediaries and financial Market (By Badhon)

  1. 1. ECON 2017 Money, Banking and the Canadian Financial System Reading: Siklos: Chapter 3 The Role of Financial Intermediaries and Financial Markets© Natalya Brown 2008
  2. 2. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries Overview and Markets • What Do Financial Institutions Do? • Functions of Intermediaries • Financial Institutions and Market Types – The “four pillars” – The role of technology & government regulation • How Important is the Financial System?© Natalya Brown 2008
  3. 3. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets The Function of Financial Institutions • Financial intermediaries channel funds between borrowers and lenders. Intermediation ⇒ transforming assets – the function of transforming assets or liabilities into other assets or liabilities • Liabilities – deposits • Assets – loans – this is the principal activity of most financial institutions. – intermediation improves social welfare by channeling resources to their most effective use.© Natalya Brown 2008
  4. 4. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets The Functions of Intermediation • Facilitate the acquisition/payment of goods &services via lower transactions costs – Chequing services provided by banks improve economic efficiency. • Facilitate the creation of a “portfolio” – A portfolio is a collection of financial assets – The financial system provides economies of scale & scope • Economies of Scope: cost savings that stem from engaging in complementary activities. • Economies of Scale: obtained when the unit cost of an operation decreases as more of it is done.© Natalya Brown 2008
  5. 5. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets • Ease liquidity constraints – Reallocate consumption/savings patterns • Often the liquidity required to make certain purchases is not in line with the immediate flow of income available to individuals. – The ability to influence the allocation of consumption and investment is probably the most important function of intermediation. • Provide security – Intermediation provides a host of services that reduce or shift risk. – Financial institutions can also influence the riskiness of financial transactions [contracts and insurance].© Natalya Brown 2008
  6. 6. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets • Reduce asymmetric information problem – Moral hazard • the chance that an individual may have an incentive to act in a way such as to put that individual at greater risk; the individual perceives as beneficial actions that are deemed undesirable by another. – Adverse selection • decision making that results from the incentive for some people to engage in a transaction that is undesirable to everyone else – Banks have a comparative advantage in offering specialized services that help to reduce this problem. – Banks can also take advantage of this asymmetric information problem, with dire consequences.© Natalya Brown 2008
  7. 7. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets Adverse Selection 1. Before transaction occurs 2. Potential borrowers most likely to produce adverse outcomes are ones most likely to seek loans and be selected Moral Hazard 1. After transaction occurs 2. Hazard that borrower has incentives to engage in undesirable (immoral) activities making it more likely that won’t pay loan back Financial intermediaries reduce adverse selection and moral hazard problems, enabling them to make profits© Natalya Brown 2008
  8. 8. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets The Function of Financial Institutions • Brokerage⇒ an “agency” function – Brokers are agents who bring would-be buyers and sellers together so transactions can be made. Intermediation provides value-added but there are potential “externalities”. One intermediary’s actions can have consequences for the entire system.© Natalya Brown 2008
  9. 9. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets • Banks are particularly adept at intermediation because they can perform the necessary functions more cheaply than most institutions. • Technological change and deregulation have narrowed the comparative advantage of banks.© Natalya Brown 2008
  10. 10. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Function of Financial Markets Intermediaries and Markets 1. Allows transfers of funds from person or business without investment opportunities to one who has them 2. Improves economic efficiency Source: Mishkin, Frederic S. and Apostolos Serletis, The Economics of Money, Banking and Financial Markets, 2nd Canadian Edition, Pearson Addison Wesley, 2004© Natalya Brown 2008
  11. 11. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries Types of Financial Institutions and Markets • Deposit-taking (a.k.a. depository institutions) accept and manage deposits and make loans. These institutions are divided into banks and other deposit- taking institutions (near-banks). Other deposit-taking institutions: – Trust companies – also provide administrative services for estates and trusts (fiduciaries). – Credit unions or caisses populaires – these are member owned so that depositors are also shareholders. – Mortgage loan companies – also permit investors to invest in a portfolio of assets primarily real estate.© Natalya Brown 2008
  12. 12. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets • Insurance Companies and Pension Funds – Insurance companies provide the means of channeling savings to provide for unforeseen expenses by pooling the risks of their clientele. – There are also institutions that specialize in the management of pension plans and funds. Government legislation plays are large role in dictating how these pensions are administered. • Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSPs) are individuals’ tax-sheltered funds administered by the individuals themselves or by a deposit-taking institution or investment dealer on their behalf. • Registered Retirement Plans (RRPs) are the pooled retirement savings of a group of employees administered by their employer or labour union.© Natalya Brown 2008
  13. 13. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets • Investment Dealers and Investment Funds – The plethora of investment funds (a.k.a. mutual funds) pool funds for investment in a wide range of activities and instruments without providing the other functions of a typical bank – Investment dealers primarily underwrite corporate and government securities. • Government financial institutions – Deposit-taking role – Channeling funds from the public to private sector – Protecting private funds by providing deposit insurance (CDIC). • Other Intermediaries – Sales, finance, and consumer loan companies.© Natalya Brown 2008
  14. 14. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries The “Four-Pillars” and Markets • Chartered banks: personal, commercial loans and deposits • Trust companies and credit unions: fiduciary responsibilities, personal loans and deposits • Insurance companies: underwriting insurance contracts. – Further subdivided into Life Insurers and Property and Casualty Insurers • Investment dealers: underwriting and brokering securities.© Natalya Brown 2008
  15. 15. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets • Regulation played a crucial role in producing the four separate pillars. Companies in one category could not engage in the activities of another and cross-ownership was prohibited for the most part. • Thanks to deregulation prompted in large part by innovations in financial instruments, rapid development in computer technology and the increased perception of volatility, the distinction between the four pillars has crumbled. • Rising international competition has also played a significant role. • Provincial governments continue to relax restrictions on the services that near banks can provide.© Natalya Brown 2008
  16. 16. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets Conflict in Regulation: • Canada’s financial institutions are governed by a wide spectrum of legislation due in part to the sharing of power between the federal government and the provinces. Federal vs. Provincial • The federal government has sole jurisdiction over banking. • All chartered banks and other federally regulated institutions fall under the federal Bank Act. • Most credit unions are supervised by the provinces. • Canada’s principal financial regulators are the Bank of Canada, the Department of Finance, the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation and the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions.© Natalya Brown 2008
  17. 17. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Types of Financial Markets Intermediaries and Markets • Type of transactions – Direct vs. Indirect transactions • Primary vs Secondary Market – A primary market is the one for newly issued financial instruments – A secondary market is the one for previously issued financial instruments. • Duration – Term to maturity – length of time until the loan must be repaid. • Short term – matures in a year or less • Medium term – matures in one to five years • Long term – matures in more than five years – money market vs capital market • Money Market – trading of short term instruments© Natalya Brown 2008 • Capital Markets – trading of long term instruments
  18. 18. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial • Complexity Intermediaries – Securitization: describes the phenomenon whereby and Markets assets that are normally not liquid, like mortgages, are made liquid by pooling them and reselling the combined amount as short term assets. • Sectoral Classifications • Size – Retail: transactions of less than $100,000 – Wholesale: transactions of more than $100,000 • Organization – open auction, private, public© Natalya Brown 2008
  19. 19. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets Breakdown of Assets, 2004 Non-Financial Assets 42.2% 57.8% Financial Assets© Natalya Brown 2008
  20. 20. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets Relative Importance of Financial Sector, 2004 Non-Financial Sector 40.98% Financial Sector 59.02%© Natalya Brown 2008
  21. 21. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries The Future of Banking and Markets • Non-bank firms are increasingly offering financial services • Are banks better at spreading risks? • The threat & opportunities from technology • Banks: One-stop shopping for all financial services© Natalya Brown 2008
  22. 22. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets Primary Assets and Liabilities of Financial Intermediaries Source: Mishkin, Frederic S. and Apostolos Serletis, The Economics of Money, Banking and Financial Markets, 2nd Canadian Edition, 22 Pearson Addison Wesley, 2004© Natalya Brown 2008
  23. 23. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets Relative Size of Financial Intermediaries Regulated by OSFI From: Mishkin, Frederic S. and Apostolos Serletis, The Economics of Money, Banking and Financial Markets, 2nd Canadian Edition, Pearson Addison Wesley, 2004© Natalya Brown 2008
  24. 24. Regulatory Agencies Financial Intermediaries and Markets LECTURE 3: Role of of the Canadian Financial System 24 Source: Mishkin, Frederic S. and Apostolos Serletis, The Economics of Money, Banking and Financial© Natalya Brown 2008 Markets, 2nd Canadian Edition, Pearson Addison Wesley, 2004
  25. 25. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries and Markets Source: Mishkin, Frederic S. and Apostolos Serletis, The Economics of Money, Banking and Financial Markets, 2nd Canadian Edition, Pearson Addison Wesley, 2004 25© Natalya Brown 2008
  26. 26. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Regulation of Financial Intermediaries and Markets Markets Two Main Reasons for Regulation 1.Increase information to investors A. Decreases adverse selection and moral hazard problems B. Securities commissions force corporations to disclose information 2.Ensuring the soundness of financial intermediaries A. Prevents financial panics B. Chartering, reporting requirements, restrictions on assets and activities, deposit insurance, and anti-competitive measures© Natalya Brown 2008
  27. 27. LECTURE 3: Role of Financial Intermediaries Key Points and Markets • Intermediation is a central concept • Financial institutions can be classified by type, size, function • Financial markets can be classified by size, term, organization, type of assets issued • Banks are the most adept at the intermediation function • Financial systems should strive for efficiency© Natalya Brown 2008
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×