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Biomes <ul><li>Rainforests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical & Temperal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Biomes <ul><li>Grassland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savannas & Temperate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Chapar...
What Biome is this? http://www.ghirardelli.com/products/cocoa_unsweetened.aspx http://www.chocolatebakeryblog.com/ http://...
Rainforest
Rain Forest <ul><li>Two Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rainforest </...
Tropical Rain Forest <ul><li>Located near equator (between tropic of cancer & tropic of capricorn) </li></ul><ul><li>Found...
Tropical Rain Forest Climate <ul><li>Uniformally warm, wet weather year-round </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rainfall is 125-660...
Tropical Rainforest Climatograph
CLIMATOGRAM
 
Tropical Rain Forest Environment <ul><li>A majority of the precipitation the rain forest receives is mainly from water giv...
 
Tropical Rain Forest Flora <ul><li>Canopy is multilayered and continuous  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows little light penetr...
Tropical Rain Forest Fauna <ul><li>Large animals like the  gorillas and cougars  are the ground dwellers of the rain fores...
Temperate rain forest
Temperate Rain Forest Photo source: http://web.unbc.ca/~wetbelt/nz-rainforests.htm Tropic of Cancer (23.5 N) Tropic of Cap...
Coastal temperate Rainforest Conditions <ul><li>moist air from Pacific Ocean drops rain from 140 to 167 inches--12 to 14 f...
Temperate Rain Forest Climate <ul><li>Cooler than tropical rainforests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate: 0-20°C </li></ul><...
Temperate Rain Forest Environment <ul><li>Similar to tropical rain forest, tree roots are shallow </li></ul><ul><li>Does n...
Temperate Rain Forest Flora <ul><li>Big coniferous trees  dominate this habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>include the  Douglas...
Temperate rain forest moss
Temperate Rain Forest Fauna <ul><li>Mammals such as  deer, bears, coyotes </li></ul><ul><li>A diversity of  slugs  due to ...
Temperate Rainforest  Trophic Pyramid
Canopy of Forest Canopy receives lots of light, but blocks the light from areas  Below.
understory
Tropical nurse log Epiphyte –  one plant that grows on another; non-parasitic relationship; nutrients obtained from dust, ...
Nurse log lower left T.R.F. Nutrient-rich soil because a lot of dead organic matter on the ground is slowly decayed by fun...
Other facts about tropical rainforests <ul><li>Produce about 40% of the Earth’s oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>More than half th...
Canopy
Tropical Rainforest <ul><li>A few thousand years ago, rainforests covered approximately 14% of the Earth’s land surface.  ...
Some place to preserve
WHERE TO NEXT??? <ul><li>My name comes from a Finnish word meaning “treeless plain” </li></ul><ul><li>I am the closest ter...
Tundra
Tundra <ul><li>Named from the Finnish word  tunturia , meaning treeless plain. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of tundra: alpi...
Tundra <ul><li>Alpine: Located on mountains throughout the world at high altitudes where trees cannot grow (above treeline...
Arctic Tundra Locations <ul><li>55-70 degrees North latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic National Wildlife refuge, Alaska and...
Arctic Tundra Climate…Brrrrr! <ul><li>Extremely Cold, desert-like conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Average winter temperature ...
Arctic Tundra Climatograph
Arctic Tundra Environment <ul><li>Growing season is approximately 50-60 days .  </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is formed slowly.  ...
Arctic Tundra Flora <ul><li>Wide variety of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow root systems </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are ada...
Arctic Tundra Flora <ul><li>Contains a few species of  dwarf shrubs, a few grass species, moss (ex. Reindeer Moss), liverw...
Arctic Tundra Fauna <ul><li>Animals are well-adapted to the cold climate </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity in the tundra...
Arctic Tundra Fauna <ul><li>Reptiles and amphibians are essentially absent due to the cold temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li...
Alpine Tundra Typically located at an altitude higher than 10,000 feet
Alpine Tundra Climate <ul><li>Cold Climate due to high altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Cold, snowy windy  – comparable to winte...
Alpine Tundra Environment <ul><li>Main seasons are winter & summer </li></ul><ul><li>Growing seasons is 180 days </li></ul...
Alpine Tundra Flora <ul><li>Located at high altitudes above treeline  </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 200 species of plants  ...
Alpine Tundra Fauna <ul><li>Animals are well-adapted to the cold climate </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity in the tundra...
Characteristics of  The Arctic & Alpine Tundra   <ul><li>Extremely cold climate  </li></ul><ul><li>Low biotic diversity  <...
Arctic Tundra <ul><li>The arctic covers about 20% of the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctica does not have true t...
 
 
And now on to …. <ul><li>Lots of people live where I am </li></ul><ul><li>I have four distinct seasons </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Temperate deciduous forest
Temperate Deciduous Forest <ul><li>“ deciduous”  means falling off at maturity or tending to fall off; typically used to r...
Temperate Deciduous Forest Locations <ul><li>Found in eastern North America, northeastern Asia, and western and central Eu...
Temperate Deciduous Forest Climate <ul><li>Temperature varies from -30 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius.  </li></ul><...
Deciduous Forest Climatograph
Temperate Deciduous Forest Environment <ul><li>Soil is fertile and rich with decayed leaf litter.  Soil is brown with a th...
Deciduous Forest Flora <ul><li>broad-leaved trees like maple, beech, oak, and hickory.  </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves are lost ...
Deciduous Forest Fauna <ul><li>Many types  of herbivores and carnivores, some reptiles and amphibians.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Deciduous Forest <ul><li>Once occupied much of eastern half of the U.S, central Europe, Korea, and China, but extensively ...
Temperate deciduous forest
 
And now we travel to …. <ul><li>The plants and animals that live where I am must be able to survive in cold weather </li><...
Boreal Coniferous Forest   ( Temperate Boreal Forest )
Boreal Coniferous Forest <ul><li>Also known as  taiga   or  temperate boreal forest </li></ul><ul><li>taiga comes from the...
Boreal Coniferous Forest Location <ul><li>Located mainly between the 45 th  and 57 th  North latitudes – south of the tund...
Boreal Coniferous Forest Climate <ul><li>Precipitation is greater than the tundra ; primarily in form of  snow , 40-100 cm...
Boreal Coniferous Forest Environment <ul><li>Seasons include  short, moist, somewhat warm summers , and  long, cold, dry w...
Boreal Forest Flora <ul><li>Needle-leaf evergreen tree species such as  white spruce, balsam fir, and many species of pine...
Boreal Forest Fauna <ul><li>Animals common to the forest are  moose, bear, deer, wolf, chipmunks and bats.  </li></ul><ul>...
Boreal Forest <ul><li>Extensive logging is threatening boreal forests </li></ul><ul><li>Largest of the terrestrial land ty...
Who am I? <ul><li>There are two types of me – one that is tropical, and one that is temperate </li></ul><ul><li>I am very ...
Grassland Photo Source: http://www.eco-pros.com/grasslands.htm
Grassland <ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savannas (tropical grassland) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate grass...
Savanna Grasslands Locations Savannas  found in Africa, Australia, South America and India
Savannas Grassland Climate <ul><li>Found in  warm or hot  climates  </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall concentrated in 6-8 month p...
Savannas Grassland Environment <ul><li>Porous soil with rapid water drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Thin layer of humus provide...
Savannas Flora <ul><li>Flora consists of  different grasses and  forbs  (small broad-leaved plants that grow with grasses)...
Savannas Fauna <ul><li>Might include  giraffes, zebras, kangaroos, buffaloes, mice, snakes, lions, and elephants . </li></...
Savanna Grasslands <ul><li>Seasonal fires in Savannas play a key role  in its biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not de...
Temperate Grasslands Locations <ul><li>Temperate grasslands  located in central North America (prairies – have tall grasse...
Temperate Grassland Climate <ul><li>Temperatures vary more  summer to winter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot summers (as high as...
Temperate Grasslands Environment <ul><li>Tall grass prairie soil is rich in organics and dark. </li></ul><ul><li>Black che...
Temperate Grassland Flora <ul><li>Dominant vegetation is different species of  grasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some flowerin...
Temperate Grasslands Fauna <ul><li>Dominated by smaller burrowing herbivores  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prairie dogs, jack rab...
Temperate Grasslands <ul><li>Drought and fire  prevent large forests from growing. </li></ul><ul><li>In temperate grasslan...
 
 
Where am I? <ul><li>I can be very hot by day, but I can also get cold at night </li></ul><ul><li>My major locations are: <...
Desert <ul><li>Deserts cover about 1/5 th  of the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Four major types of deserts </li></ul>...
Desert Locations <ul><li>Major hot and dry deserts are located between 25 and 40 degrees North and South latitude in the i...
Desert Climate  <ul><li>Occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm/yr (20 in/yr) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>precipitation is limit...
Desert Climatograph
Hot, Dry Desert Environment <ul><li>soil is  limited in organic nutrients  and salts are concentrated by high evaporation ...
Desert Flora <ul><li>Water storing succulents like cactus  and short-lived annuals.  </li></ul><ul><li>some drought resist...
 
Desert Fauna <ul><li>Few large mammals  due to intense heat and lack of water </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals tend to be  noctur...
Desert Biome video
Other Types of Desert  <ul><li>Semi-arid : found in Utah, Montana, Greenland, Russia, Europe, and northern Asia </li></ul>...
What Biome is this? http://en.wikivisual.com/index.php/Ficus http://cleantechnica.com/2008/10/29/scientists-say-olive-ston...
Chaparral <ul><li>Name is derived from Spanish word  Chaparro , which means  small and dwarf evergreen oak </li></ul>
Chaparral Locations <ul><li>Located in narrow zone between 32 and 40 degrees latitude North and South on the  west coasts ...
Chaparral Climate <ul><li>Mediterranean type climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dry summers and wet winters </li></ul></ul><ul>...
 
Chaparral Environment <ul><li>Dry climate slows leaf decomposition in the soil. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result,  the pl...
Chaparral Flora <ul><li>Due to the dry conditions, plants of the chaparral develop small hard evergreen leaves that will h...
Chaparral Fauna <ul><li>Adapted to environment – do not need a lot of water to survive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nocturnal & s...
Characteristics of Chaparral <ul><li>One chaparral is  located in wine country  in California </li></ul><ul><li>Fires occu...
California Chaparral
 
Where am I now? <ul><li>I am BIG! </li></ul><ul><li>Like the rainforest, I too take in a lot of carbon dioxide and produce...
Marine Biome <ul><li>Oceans  cover more than 71%  of the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Include  oceans, coral reefs, a...
Marine
Marine Climate <ul><li>Climate does not affect this biome.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmer as you get closer to the equator;...
Marine Environment <ul><li>Evaporation of seawater provides rainwater  for the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Marine algae provid...
Marine Flora & Fauna <ul><li>The shores are populated by  algae, clams, shells, and oysters </li></ul><ul><li>Contain  pla...
Commensalism in Marine
Marine Types <ul><li>Reef </li></ul><ul><ul><li>widely distributed in warm shallow waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can b...
Marine Biome
The Final Destination… <ul><li>There are three types of me as well! </li></ul><ul><li>I contain very little salt </li></ul>
Freshwater Biome <ul><li>Freshwater is defined as having a  low salt concentration , usually less than one percent. </li><...
Freshwater Biome <ul><li>Ponds & lakes  are  holes where water collects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>range in size from a few squ...
Freshwater Ponds & Lakes Streams & Rivers Wetlands Photo Source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/freshwater.php
Freshwater Climate <ul><li>Ponds & Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures  vary seasonally .  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Freshwater Flora & Fauna <ul><li>Ponds & Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly diverse community:  algae , rooted & floating ...
 
Freshwater Biome <ul><li>90% of the world’s ice is found in the Antarctic </li></ul><ul><li>2-3% of water on earth is fres...
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Freshman biome presentation rev

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  • nurse log - a large decomposing tree trunk that has fallen, usually in a forest; the decaying wood provides moisture and nutrients for a variety of insects and plants
  • Transcript of "Freshman biome presentation rev"

    1. 1. Biomes <ul><li>Rainforests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical & Temperal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic & Alpine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperate Deciduous Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Boreal Coniferous Forest </li></ul>
    2. 2. Biomes <ul><li>Grassland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savannas & Temperate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Chaparral </li></ul><ul><li>Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater </li></ul>
    3. 3. What Biome is this? http://www.ghirardelli.com/products/cocoa_unsweetened.aspx http://www.chocolatebakeryblog.com/ http://corporateknightsforum.com/index.php/CKtemplates/CKcomments/4/ http://www.ikon-gallery.co.uk/online_shop/other/item/rubber_band_ball/
    4. 4. Rainforest
    5. 5. Rain Forest <ul><li>Two Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difference is in the location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate: farther from equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical: close to equator </li></ul></ul>Photo source: http://www.destination360.com/asia/malaysia/borneo-rainforest Borneo Rain Forest Borneo, Malaysia
    6. 6. Tropical Rain Forest <ul><li>Located near equator (between tropic of cancer & tropic of capricorn) </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Central and South America, southeast Asia, </li></ul><ul><li>West Africa and the islands. </li></ul>Equator Tropic of Cancer (23.5 N) Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 S) Amazon Rainforest
    7. 7. Tropical Rain Forest Climate <ul><li>Uniformally warm, wet weather year-round </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rainfall is 125-660 cm (50-260 inches) which is evenly distributed throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>Both temperature and humidity are relatively high throughout the year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely hotter than 34 degrees Celsius (93 degrees Fahrenheit) or cooler than 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average humidity is between 77-88% </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Tropical Rainforest Climatograph
    9. 9. CLIMATOGRAM
    10. 11. Tropical Rain Forest Environment <ul><li>A majority of the precipitation the rain forest receives is mainly from water given off by the leaves of the canopy. </li></ul><ul><li>Tree roots are often shallow, forming a thick mat on the surface of the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>The nutrients of the rain forest are tied up within living materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat and humidity encourage decomposition by ants, termites, fungi and other decomposers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic materials are broken down so quickly that humus (organic matter that has reached a point of stability) is never formed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The rapid decomposition, extreme chemical weathering and leaching (due to high rainfall) leave the soil acidic and nutrient poor </li></ul>
    11. 13. Tropical Rain Forest Flora <ul><li>Canopy is multilayered and continuous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows little light penetration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highly diverse : 1 km 2 may contain 100 different tree species. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are 25-35 m tall </li></ul><ul><li>Plants such as orchids, vines (lianas), ferns, mosses, and palms are present in tropical forests. </li></ul>Photo Source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/forests.php#tropical
    12. 14. Tropical Rain Forest Fauna <ul><li>Large animals like the gorillas and cougars are the ground dwellers of the rain forest. </li></ul><ul><li>Most rain forest organisms live up in the trees rather than on floors the forest. </li></ul><ul><li>Butterflies and all the other insects are by far the most numerous organisms in the rain forest. </li></ul>
    13. 15. Temperate rain forest
    14. 16. Temperate Rain Forest Photo source: http://web.unbc.ca/~wetbelt/nz-rainforests.htm Tropic of Cancer (23.5 N) Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 S) Olympic Rainforest <ul><li>Located away from equator (outside of tropic of cancer & tropic of capricorn) </li></ul><ul><li>found on western edge of north and south America </li></ul>
    15. 17. Coastal temperate Rainforest Conditions <ul><li>moist air from Pacific Ocean drops rain from 140 to 167 inches--12 to 14 feet--every year. </li></ul><ul><li>The mountains to the east protect the coastal areas from severe weather extremes. </li></ul><ul><li>Called “ocean born forests” </li></ul><ul><li>Less diverse than tropical rainforest due to cool winters </li></ul>
    16. 18. Temperate Rain Forest Climate <ul><li>Cooler than tropical rainforests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate: 0-20°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal temperature variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature rarely drops below freezing or above 80°F. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperate rainforest precipitation comes in form of snow or rain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild, frost-free winters, high precipitation (over 1500 mm per year) evenly distributed throughout the year </li></ul></ul>
    17. 19. Temperate Rain Forest Environment <ul><li>Similar to tropical rain forest, tree roots are shallow </li></ul><ul><li>Does not exhibit a rapid cycling of nutrients like the tropical rainforest.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the colder conditions and the acidity released by decomposing coniferous needles on the forest floor, decomposition is much slower.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More of the nutrients are found in the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the tropical forest most of the nutrients are held in the plants and animals themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nearly every bit of space is taken up with a living plant. Some plants even live on others (called epiphyte). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphyte: plants that do not come into contact with the earth, but also are not parasites. They are partly responsible for giving the rain forest its &quot;jungly&quot; appearance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosses, lichens and ferns cover just about anything else. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thick and protective vegetation provides habitats for the animals. </li></ul>Photo Source: http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/temprain.htm
    18. 20. Temperate Rain Forest Flora <ul><li>Big coniferous trees dominate this habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>include the Douglas fir and Western red cedar, Mountain hemlock, Western hemlock, Sitka spruce, Lodgepole pine, big leaf maple, red alder, vine maple, and black cottonwood. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A number of deciduous trees are found here, particularly in warmer spots.  </li></ul><ul><li>Mosses and lichens are very common </li></ul>Big Leaf Maple Photo Source: http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/temprain.htm
    19. 21. Temperate rain forest moss
    20. 22. Temperate Rain Forest Fauna <ul><li>Mammals such as deer, bears, coyotes </li></ul><ul><li>A diversity of slugs due to the high humidity.  </li></ul><ul><li>Birds: Clark's Nutcracker and the Blue Grouse is a northwest endemic.  </li></ul>
    21. 23. Temperate Rainforest Trophic Pyramid
    22. 24. Canopy of Forest Canopy receives lots of light, but blocks the light from areas Below.
    23. 25. understory
    24. 26. Tropical nurse log Epiphyte – one plant that grows on another; non-parasitic relationship; nutrients obtained from dust, water, and air.
    25. 27. Nurse log lower left T.R.F. Nutrient-rich soil because a lot of dead organic matter on the ground is slowly decayed by fungi, insects and bacteria. Possibly more biomass (Plant material, vegetation, or agricultural waste) in this biome than in any other.
    26. 28. Other facts about tropical rainforests <ul><li>Produce about 40% of the Earth’s oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>More than half the world’s plant and animal species is estimated to live there </li></ul><ul><li>About ¼ of all medicines we use come from rainforest plants (ex. Curare, an anesthetic) </li></ul>
    27. 29. Canopy
    28. 30. Tropical Rainforest <ul><li>A few thousand years ago, rainforests covered approximately 14% of the Earth’s land surface. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now lose approximately 93,000 square miles per year! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>40% of the tropical rainforests in Latin America and Southeast Asia have already been lost </li></ul><ul><li>Now cover less than six percent of Earth’s land surface (possible as low as 2%) </li></ul>
    29. 31. Some place to preserve
    30. 32. WHERE TO NEXT??? <ul><li>My name comes from a Finnish word meaning “treeless plain” </li></ul><ul><li>I am the closest terrestrial biome to the North Pole, and I am also at high altitudes </li></ul><ul><li>I am the youngest and coldest biome </li></ul>
    31. 33. Tundra
    32. 34. Tundra <ul><li>Named from the Finnish word tunturia , meaning treeless plain. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of tundra: alpine and arctic </li></ul><ul><li>Coldest and youngest of all biomes (formed about 10,000 years ago). </li></ul>
    33. 35. Tundra <ul><li>Alpine: Located on mountains throughout the world at high altitudes where trees cannot grow (above treeline) </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic: Northern hemisphere encircling the north pole & south to coniferous forest </li></ul>
    34. 36. Arctic Tundra Locations <ul><li>55-70 degrees North latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic National Wildlife refuge, Alaska and Manitoba, Canada </li></ul>
    35. 37. Arctic Tundra Climate…Brrrrr! <ul><li>Extremely Cold, desert-like conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Average winter temperature = -34°C (-30 F) </li></ul><ul><li>Average summer temperature 3-12°C (37-54F) </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall may vary in different regions of the arctic. </li></ul><ul><li>Yearly precipitation, including melting snow , is 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 inches). </li></ul><ul><li>Very Windy! 30-60 mph </li></ul>Photo Source: http://biology.usgs.gov/ecosystems/global_change/climate_tundra.html
    36. 38. Arctic Tundra Climatograph
    37. 39. Arctic Tundra Environment <ul><li>Growing season is approximately 50-60 days . </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is formed slowly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A layer of permanently frozen subsoil called permafrost exists , (about 1 m below the surface) consisting mostly of gravel and finer material . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tundra is one of the major carbon dioxide sinks in the world. Plants take in carbon dioxide, then die but don’t decompose because of the permafrost. Carbon dioxide remains trapped in the permafrost! </li></ul>
    38. 40. Arctic Tundra Flora <ul><li>Wide variety of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow root systems </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are adapted to sweeping winds and disturbances of the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are short and group together to resist the cold temperatures and are protected by the snow during the winter. </li></ul>Photo Source: http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra_plant_page.htm Arctic Moss
    39. 41. Arctic Tundra Flora <ul><li>Contains a few species of dwarf shrubs, a few grass species, moss (ex. Reindeer Moss), liverworts & grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Examples shown are Arctic poppies and Reindeer Moss </li></ul>tradewindsphoto.ca swisseduc.ch
    40. 42. Arctic Tundra Fauna <ul><li>Animals are well-adapted to the cold climate </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity in the tundra is relatively small </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores are caribou, musk ox, arctic hare </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores include the arctic fox, snow owl and polar bear . </li></ul>Arctic Fox
    41. 43. Arctic Tundra Fauna <ul><li>Reptiles and amphibians are essentially absent due to the cold temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Large population oscillations because of constant immigration & emigration </li></ul>arcticanimallearningzone.com coldtundra.blogspot.com
    42. 44. Alpine Tundra Typically located at an altitude higher than 10,000 feet
    43. 45. Alpine Tundra Climate <ul><li>Cold Climate due to high altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Cold, snowy windy – comparable to winter weather in New England </li></ul><ul><li>Summer: -12 to 10°C </li></ul><ul><li>Winter: below freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Average precipitation is low at 30cm/year </li></ul><ul><li>Night time temperature usually below freezing </li></ul>Photo Source: http://biology.usgs.gov/ecosystems/global_change/climate_tundra.html
    44. 46. Alpine Tundra Environment <ul><li>Main seasons are winter & summer </li></ul><ul><li>Growing seasons is 180 days </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is well drained . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain runs off rather than collecting in the soil, making the ground very dry. </li></ul></ul>http://gallery.maiman.net/v/terragen/arctic.png.html
    45. 47. Alpine Tundra Flora <ul><li>Located at high altitudes above treeline </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 200 species of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Tussock grasses, dwarf trees, small-leafed shrubs, and heaths </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are short </li></ul>Photo Source: http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/alpine_plant_page.htm
    46. 48. Alpine Tundra Fauna <ul><li>Animals are well-adapted to the cold climate </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity in the tundra is relatively small </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals include marmots, sheep, elk, & mountain goats </li></ul>Llama http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/alpine_animal_page.htm
    47. 49. Characteristics of The Arctic & Alpine Tundra <ul><li>Extremely cold climate </li></ul><ul><li>Low biotic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Simple vegetation structure </li></ul><ul><li>Short season of growth and reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material </li></ul>
    48. 50. Arctic Tundra <ul><li>The arctic covers about 20% of the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctica does not have true tundra because it is always covered with snow and ice </li></ul><ul><li>Video on adaptation </li></ul>
    49. 53. And now on to …. <ul><li>Lots of people live where I am </li></ul><ul><li>I have four distinct seasons </li></ul><ul><li>My name means “shedding leaves annually” </li></ul>
    50. 54. Temperate deciduous forest
    51. 55. Temperate Deciduous Forest <ul><li>“ deciduous” means falling off at maturity or tending to fall off; typically used to refer to trees or plants that shed their leaves after growing season </li></ul><ul><li>High human population density </li></ul>
    52. 56. Temperate Deciduous Forest Locations <ul><li>Found in eastern North America, northeastern Asia, and western and central Europe (lower middle latitudes in the Northern hemisphere) </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly located in middle latitudes of northern hemisphere (30°-60°N) </li></ul>
    53. 57. Temperate Deciduous Forest Climate <ul><li>Temperature varies from -30 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius. </li></ul><ul><li>Average annual temperature of 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation is distributed evenly throughout the year and ranges from 75-150 cm (30-60 inches) per year. </li></ul>Photo Source: http://mac122.icu.ac.jp/gen-ed/biomes.html
    54. 58. Deciduous Forest Climatograph
    55. 59. Temperate Deciduous Forest Environment <ul><li>Soil is fertile and rich with decayed leaf litter. Soil is brown with a thin litter layer due to rapid decomposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing season is 140-200 days with 4-6 months frost free </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly defined seasons, with a distinct winter </li></ul>
    56. 60. Deciduous Forest Flora <ul><li>broad-leaved trees like maple, beech, oak, and hickory. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves are lost annually. </li></ul>Photo Source: http://www-markinfo.slu.se/eng/vegeta/trslag/lovs1.html
    57. 61. Deciduous Forest Fauna <ul><li>Many types of herbivores and carnivores, some reptiles and amphibians. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes rabbits, squirrels, skunks, deer, fox, and black bear. </li></ul>Photo Source: http://www.schools.utah.gov/curr/science/core/4th/4thsciber/enviro/html/decid.htm
    58. 62. Deciduous Forest <ul><li>Once occupied much of eastern half of the U.S, central Europe, Korea, and China, but extensively affected by human activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Many lost due to farms and towns. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most altered biomes on the planet </li></ul><ul><li>High human population density </li></ul>
    59. 63. Temperate deciduous forest
    60. 65. And now we travel to …. <ul><li>The plants and animals that live where I am must be able to survive in cold weather </li></ul><ul><li>I am the largest terrestrial biome!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Moose and bear call me home </li></ul>
    61. 66. Boreal Coniferous Forest ( Temperate Boreal Forest )
    62. 67. Boreal Coniferous Forest <ul><li>Also known as taiga or temperate boreal forest </li></ul><ul><li>taiga comes from the Russian word for “forest” </li></ul><ul><li>“Coniferous forest” gets its name because the main vegetation type are conifers , such as pine trees </li></ul>Photo source: http://www.naturalhistoryonthenet.com/Continents/north_america.htm
    63. 68. Boreal Coniferous Forest Location <ul><li>Located mainly between the 45 th and 57 th North latitudes – south of the tundra & north of temperate grasslands & temperate deciduous forest </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Eurasia, North America, Siberia, Scandinavia, Alaska, and Canada </li></ul>
    64. 69. Boreal Coniferous Forest Climate <ul><li>Precipitation is greater than the tundra ; primarily in form of snow , 40-100 cm annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures are cool to cold </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperature is below freezing for six months of year. </li></ul>
    65. 70. Boreal Coniferous Forest Environment <ul><li>Seasons include short, moist, somewhat warm summers , and long, cold, dry winters </li></ul><ul><li>Growing season is only 130 days </li></ul><ul><li>The boreal forest soils have a deep litter layer and slow decomposition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The soils are acidic and mineral deficient because water moves rapidly through the soil. </li></ul></ul>
    66. 71. Boreal Forest Flora <ul><li>Needle-leaf evergreen tree species such as white spruce, balsam fir, and many species of pine. </li></ul><ul><li>All must be cold-tolerant. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer vegetation varieties than temperate forests </li></ul>
    67. 72. Boreal Forest Fauna <ul><li>Animals common to the forest are moose, bear, deer, wolf, chipmunks and bats. </li></ul><ul><li>Reptiles are rare due to the cold temperatures. </li></ul>
    68. 73. Boreal Forest <ul><li>Extensive logging is threatening boreal forests </li></ul><ul><li>Largest of the terrestrial land types </li></ul>
    69. 74. Who am I? <ul><li>There are two types of me – one that is tropical, and one that is temperate </li></ul><ul><li>I am very fertile and nutrient-rich </li></ul><ul><li>You can see for miles where I am!! </li></ul><ul><li>I am home to many grazing animals </li></ul>
    70. 75. Grassland Photo Source: http://www.eco-pros.com/grasslands.htm
    71. 76. Grassland <ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savannas (tropical grassland) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate grassland </li></ul></ul>
    72. 77. Savanna Grasslands Locations Savannas found in Africa, Australia, South America and India
    73. 78. Savannas Grassland Climate <ul><li>Found in warm or hot climates </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall concentrated in 6-8 month period (summer); followed by long periods of drought when fires can occur (winter). </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rainfall of 50-127 cm per year. </li></ul>http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna.htm
    74. 79. Savannas Grassland Environment <ul><li>Porous soil with rapid water drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Thin layer of humus provides nutrients for vegetation </li></ul>
    75. 80. Savannas Flora <ul><li>Flora consists of different grasses and forbs (small broad-leaved plants that grow with grasses) </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous trees and shrubs scattered about open landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Drought-resistant individual trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves shed in the dry season to reduce water loss from the plant. </li></ul>Photo Source: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/525656/47/Vegetation-profile-of-a-savanna
    76. 81. Savannas Fauna <ul><li>Might include giraffes, zebras, kangaroos, buffaloes, mice, snakes, lions, and elephants . </li></ul><ul><li>Support the richest diversity of grazing mammals in the world (ex. Serengeti Plains of Tanzania) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental concerns include poaching, overgrazing, and clearing land for crops . </li></ul>Photo Source: http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/16biomes.htm
    77. 82. Savanna Grasslands <ul><li>Seasonal fires in Savannas play a key role in its biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not devastate the community; only insects with short life spans are killed </li></ul></ul>
    78. 83. Temperate Grasslands Locations <ul><li>Temperate grasslands located in central North America (prairies – have tall grasses), Europe and Asia (steppes – short grasses), and South America (Pampas). </li></ul>Equator Prairies (TG) Pampas Steppes (TG)
    79. 84. Temperate Grassland Climate <ul><li>Temperatures vary more summer to winter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot summers (as high as 38°C (100F), cold winters (as low as -40°C (-40°F) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precipitation is erratic ; enough to support grasses but not many trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Less rainfall than in savannas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual average is 51-90 cm (20-35 inches). </li></ul></ul>
    80. 85. Temperate Grasslands Environment <ul><li>Tall grass prairie soil is rich in organics and dark. </li></ul><ul><li>Black chernozemic soils are common and such soil is among the richest in nutrients. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soils are among the most fertile in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient-rich from growth and decay of deep, branched grass roots </li></ul></ul>Steppes
    81. 86. Temperate Grassland Flora <ul><li>Dominant vegetation is different species of grasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some flowering herbs & many kinds of legumes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trees and large shrubs are absent </li></ul><ul><li>tall grasses found where it is more humid and wet </li></ul><ul><li>short grasses are found in areas where it is dry, with hotter summers and colder winters. </li></ul>
    82. 87. Temperate Grasslands Fauna <ul><li>Dominated by smaller burrowing herbivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prairie dogs, jack rabbits, squirrels, gophers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger running herbivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bison, antelope, elk, zebra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carnivores such as badger, coyote, wolf, and cougar </li></ul>
    83. 88. Temperate Grasslands <ul><li>Drought and fire prevent large forests from growing. </li></ul><ul><li>In temperate grasslands, the rich soil in the prairies are now cultivated to grow grain crops . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some species of fauna on verge of destruction due to habitat destruction as more regions turned into farms or grazing land. </li></ul></ul>
    84. 91. Where am I? <ul><li>I can be very hot by day, but I can also get cold at night </li></ul><ul><li>My major locations are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chihuahuan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonaran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mojave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Basin </li></ul></ul>
    85. 92. Desert <ul><li>Deserts cover about 1/5 th of the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Four major types of deserts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hot and dry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semiarid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cold </li></ul></ul>Pictured: Sahara Desert
    86. 93. Desert Locations <ul><li>Major hot and dry deserts are located between 25 and 40 degrees North and South latitude in the interiors of continents </li></ul><ul><li>Four major deserts of North America include the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, Mojave, and Great Basin </li></ul>
    87. 94. Desert Climate <ul><li>Occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm/yr (20 in/yr) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>precipitation is limited by descending air currents. Some areas have less than 250 mm (10 in) of precipitation annually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hot, Dry Desert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>temperatures range from 20-25° Celsius (68-77° F) on average annually. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremes can go from -18° Celsius at night (-6 F), to 49° Celsius (120 F) during the day! </li></ul></ul>
    88. 95. Desert Climatograph
    89. 96. Hot, Dry Desert Environment <ul><li>soil is limited in organic nutrients and salts are concentrated by high evaporation </li></ul>Photo Source: http://www.hickerphoto.com/desert-environment-8879-pictures.htm
    90. 97. Desert Flora <ul><li>Water storing succulents like cactus and short-lived annuals. </li></ul><ul><li>some drought resistant shrubs. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be empty of vegetation if the precipitation is very low. </li></ul>Photo Source: http://ponderosascenery.homestead.com/files/davis.html
    91. 99. Desert Fauna <ul><li>Few large mammals due to intense heat and lack of water </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals tend to be nocturnal to avoid high temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Rich lizard and snake fauna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high temperatures promote success of cold blooded life forms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fauna limited to small nocturnal carnivores, insects, reptiles, and birds . </li></ul>Photo Source: http://www.atacamaphoto.com/atacama-fauna/desert-animals27.htm
    92. 100. Desert Biome video
    93. 101. Other Types of Desert <ul><li>Semi-arid : found in Utah, Montana, Greenland, Russia, Europe, and northern Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately long and dry summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>winters bring low amounts of rainfall like the hot deserts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coastal : found in Chile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool winters followed by moderately long, warm summers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold : found in Antarctic and Greenland </li></ul>
    94. 102. What Biome is this? http://en.wikivisual.com/index.php/Ficus http://cleantechnica.com/2008/10/29/scientists-say-olive-stones-can-be-used-as-fuel/ http://poesia-design.blogspot.com/2008/08/style-with-tiles.html http://www.meijer.com/ http://www.bensorensen.com/druidsgarden/sage.html
    95. 103. Chaparral <ul><li>Name is derived from Spanish word Chaparro , which means small and dwarf evergreen oak </li></ul>
    96. 104. Chaparral Locations <ul><li>Located in narrow zone between 32 and 40 degrees latitude North and South on the west coasts of continents </li></ul>
    97. 105. Chaparral Climate <ul><li>Mediterranean type climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dry summers and wet winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>subtropical temperatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ranges from 30-100°F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precipitation is light , ranging from 300 to 750 mm (12-30 in) annually. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most rain falls within a 2-4 month period, mainly in the winter </li></ul></ul>
    98. 107. Chaparral Environment <ul><li>Dry climate slows leaf decomposition in the soil. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, the plants do not have nutrients available for uptake to make new leaves when the wet season begins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To adapt to such conditions, the plants do not drop their leaves. </li></ul></ul>
    99. 108. Chaparral Flora <ul><li>Due to the dry conditions, plants of the chaparral develop small hard evergreen leaves that will hold moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Common flora includes eucalyptus, acacia, olive, shrub and live oak . </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of shrubs ! </li></ul>http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/communities/chaparral
    100. 109. Chaparral Fauna <ul><li>Adapted to environment – do not need a lot of water to survive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nocturnal & small </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rattlesnake, red fox, scorpions, chipmunks, wallabys & roadrunners </li></ul>http://www.desertusa.com/mag98/sep/papr/road.html Roadrunner
    101. 110. Characteristics of Chaparral <ul><li>One chaparral is located in wine country in California </li></ul><ul><li>Fires occur naturally every 30-150 years </li></ul>
    102. 111. California Chaparral
    103. 113. Where am I now? <ul><li>I am BIG! </li></ul><ul><li>Like the rainforest, I too take in a lot of carbon dioxide and produce oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of me: estuaries, oceans, coral reefs </li></ul>
    104. 114. Marine Biome <ul><li>Oceans cover more than 71% of the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Include oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries. </li></ul>
    105. 115. Marine
    106. 116. Marine Climate <ul><li>Climate does not affect this biome. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmer as you get closer to the equator; colder as you get closer to the poles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The marine affects the terrestrial climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The marines affect the coastal areas due to wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depending upon the temperature of the water, the winds usually match that temperature. </li></ul></ul>
    107. 117. Marine Environment <ul><li>Evaporation of seawater provides rainwater for the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Marine algae provide much of the world’s oxygen supply and take in a huge amount of carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Oceans are the largest of all ecosystems within the biome. </li></ul>
    108. 118. Marine Flora & Fauna <ul><li>The shores are populated by algae, clams, shells, and oysters </li></ul><ul><li>Contain plankton , large and small marine animals </li></ul>Mussels, worms, spidercrab Sea fan & brain coral Atlantic amberjack Photo Source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/marine.php
    109. 119. Commensalism in Marine
    110. 120. Marine Types <ul><li>Reef </li></ul><ul><ul><li>widely distributed in warm shallow waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be found as barriers along continents fringing islands, and atolls. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur when fresh water flows into the sea (as in Long Island Sound) </li></ul></ul>Photo Source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/marine.php
    111. 121. Marine Biome
    112. 122. The Final Destination… <ul><li>There are three types of me as well! </li></ul><ul><li>I contain very little salt </li></ul>
    113. 123. Freshwater Biome <ul><li>Freshwater is defined as having a low salt concentration , usually less than one percent. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ponds and lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>streams and rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wetlands </li></ul></ul>
    114. 124. Freshwater Biome <ul><li>Ponds & lakes are holes where water collects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>range in size from a few square meters to thousands of kilometers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some ponds are seasonal (sessile pools) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Streams & rivers are bodies of flowing water moving in one direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be found everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wetlands are areas of standing water that support aquatic plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes marshes, bogs, and swamps. </li></ul></ul>
    115. 125. Freshwater Ponds & Lakes Streams & Rivers Wetlands Photo Source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/freshwater.php
    116. 126. Freshwater Climate <ul><li>Ponds & Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures vary seasonally . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer: Warmer near top (from 22° C) than the bottom (from 4° C) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter: Cooler at top (0° C-ice) than bottom (4° C). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spring & fall seasons: More uniform temperature due to wind (about 4° C) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Streams & Rivers: Temperature is cooler at the source than it is at the mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands: Moist & humid conditions </li></ul>
    117. 127. Freshwater Flora & Fauna <ul><li>Ponds & Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly diverse community: algae , rooted & floating plants, clams, insects, crustaceans, fish, amphibians, planktons . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Streams & Rivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More diverse at source than middle & mouth: includes fish such as trout , algae, aquatic green plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wetlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most diverse ecosystem within biome: include pond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack , and black spruce. </li></ul></ul>
    118. 129. Freshwater Biome <ul><li>90% of the world’s ice is found in the Antarctic </li></ul><ul><li>2-3% of water on earth is freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of the freshwater is found in polar ice caps and glaciers </li></ul>
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