INTRODUCTIONMicrosoft Excel is a commercial spreadsheet application written anddistributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. It featurescalculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming languagecalled Visual Basic for Applications. It has been a very widely appliedspreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it hasalmost completely replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard forspreadsheets. Excel forms part of Microsoft Office. The current versions are2010 for Microsoft Windows and 2011 for Mac OS X.BASIC OPERATIONSPREADSHEETMicrosoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheet, using a grid ofcells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize datamanipulations like arithmetic operations. It has a battery of supplied functions toanswer statistical, engineering and financial needs. In addition, it can display data asline graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited three-dimensionalgraphical display. It allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on variousfactors from different perspectives (using pivot tables and the scenario manager. Andit has a programming aspect, Visual Basic for Applications, allowing the user toemploy a wide variety of numerical methods, for example, for solving differentialequations of mathematical physics and then reporting the results back to thespreadsheet. Finally, it has a variety of interactive features allowing user interfacesthat can completely hide the spreadsheet from the user, so the spreadsheet presentsitself as a so-called application, or decision support system (DSS), via a custom-designed user interface, for example, a stock analyzer, or in general, as a design toolthat asks the user questions and provides answers and reports. In a more elaboraterealization, an Excel application can automatically poll external databases andmeasuring instruments using an update schedule, analyze the results, makea Word report or Power Point slide show, and e-mail these presentations on a regularbasis to a list of participants.
Use of a user-defined function sq(x) in Microsoft Excel. The named variables x & y areidentified in the Name Manager. The function sq is introduced using the VisualBasic editor supplied with Excel.Subroutine in Excel calculates the square of named column variable x read from thespreadsheet, and writes it into the named column variable y.Graph made using Microsoft ExcelMicrosoft allows for a number of optional command-line switches to control themanner in which Excel starts.VBA programming
Main article: Visual basic for applicationsThe Windows version of Excel supports programming through MicrosoftsVisual Basic forApplications (VBA), which is a dialect of Visual Basic. Programming with VBA allows spreadsheetmanipulation that is awkward or impossible with standard spreadsheet techniques. Programmers maywrite code directly using the Visual Basic Editor (VBE), which includes a window for writing code,debugging code, and code module organization environment. The user can implement numericalmethods as well as automating tasks such as formatting or data organization in VBAand guide thecalculation using any desired intermediate results reported back to the spreadsheet.VBA was removed from Mac Excel 2008, as the developers did not believe that a timely releasewould allow porting the VBA engine natively to Mac OS X. VBA was restored in the next version, MacExcel 2011.A common and easy way to generate VBA code is by using the MacroRecorder.The MacroRecorder records actions of the user and generates VBA code in the form of a macro. These actionscan then be repeated automatically by running the macro. The macros can also be linked to differenttrigger types like keyboard shortcuts, a command button or a graphic. The actions in the macro canbe executed from these trigger types or from the generic toolbar options. The VBA code of the macrocan also be edited in the VBE. Certain features such as loop functions and screen prompts by theirown properties, and some graphical display items, cannot be recorded, but must be entered into theVBA module directly by the programmer. Advanced users can employ user prompts to create aninteractive program, or react to events such as sheets being loaded or changed.Users should be aware that using Macro Recorded code may not be compatible from one version ofExcel to another. Some code that is used in Excel 2010 can not be used in Excel 2003. Making aMacro that changes the cell colors and making changes to other aspects of cells may not bebackward compatible.VBA code interacts with the spreadsheet through the Excel Object Model,a vocabulary identifyingspreadsheet objects, and a set of supplied functions ormethods that enable reading and writing to thespreadsheet and interaction with its users (for example, through custom toolbars or commandbars andmessage boxes). User-created VBA subroutines execute these actions and operate likemacros generated using the macro recorder, but are more flexible and efficient.ChartsExcel supports charts, graphs or histograms generated from specified groups of cells. The generatedgraphic component can either be embedded within the current sheet, or added as a separate object.These displays are dynamically updated if the content of cells change. For example, suppose that theimportant design requirements are displayed visually; then, in response to a users change in trialvalues for parameters, the curves describing the design change shape, and their points of intersectionshift, assisting the selection of the best design.VersionsMicrosoft Windows 1987 Excel 2.0 for Windows 1990 Excel 3.0 1992 Excel 4.0
1993 Excel 5.0 (Office 4.2 & 4.3, also a 32-bit version for Windows NT only onthe x86, PowerPC, Alpha, and MIPS architectures) 1995 Excel for Windows 95 (version 7.0) included in Office 95 1997 Excel 97 (version 8.0) included in Office 97 (for x86 and Alpha). This version of Excelincludes a flight simulator as an Easter Egg. 1999 Excel 2000 (version 9.0) included in Office 2000 2001 Excel 2002 (version 10) included in Office XP 2003 Office Excel 2003 (version 11) included in Office 2003 2007 Office Excel 2007 (version 12) included in Office 2007 2010 Excel 2010 (version 14) included in Office 2010Excel SpreadsheetFilenameextension.xls, (.xlsx, .xlsm, .xlsb -Excel 2007)Internet mediatypeapplication/vnd.ms-excelUniform TypeIdentifiercom.microsoft.excel.xlsDeveloped by MicrosoftType of format SpreadsheetFEATURESMicrosoft Office Excel 2007 is a powerful and widely used tool that helps people analyze information to makemore informed decisions. Using Office Excel 2007 and Excel Services, you can share and manage your analysisand insight with coworkers, customers, and partners with greater confidence.Here are the top 10 ways in which Office Excel 2007 can help you create spreadsheets and analyze, share, andmanage information more effectively.Office Excel 2007 features the Microsoft Office Fluentuser interface to help you find powerful tools whenyou need them.Find the tools you want when you need them using the
results-oriented Office Fluent user interface in Office Excel2007. Based on the job you need to accomplish, whetherit’s creating a table or writing a formula, Office Excel 2007presents the appropriate commands when you need them.Import, organize, and explore massive data sets withinsignificantly expanded spreadsheets.Work with massive amounts of data in Office Excel 2007,which supports spreadsheets that can be up to 1 millionrows by 16,000 columns. In addition to the bigger grid,Office Excel 2007 supports multicore processor platformsfor faster calculation of formula-intense spreadsheets.Use the completely redesigned charting engine inOffice Excel 2007 to communicate your analysis inprofessional-looking charts.Build professional-looking charts faster with fewer clicksusing charting tools in the Office Fluent user interface.Apply rich visual enhancements to your charts such as 3-Deffects, soft shadowing, and transparency. Create andinteract with charts the same way, regardless of theapplication you are using, because the charting engine inOffice Excel 2007 is consistent in Microsoft Office Word2007 and Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007.Enjoy improved and powerful support for working withtables.Create, format, expand, filter, and refer to tables withinformulas because Office Excel 2007 has greatly improvedsupport for tables. When you’re viewing data contained ina large table, Office Excel 2007 keeps table headings inview while you scroll.Create and work with interactive PivotTable views withease.PivotTable views enable you to quickly reorient your datato help you answer multiple questions. Find the answersyou need faster and create and use PivotTable viewsmore easily by dragging fields where you want them to bedisplayed.“See” important trends and find exceptions in yourdata.Apply conditional formatting to your information moreeasily to discover patterns and highlight trends in yourdata. New schemes include color gradients, heat maps,data bars, and performance indicator icons.Use Office Excel 2007 and Excel Services to helpshare spreadsheets more securely with others.Excel Services, a feature of Microsoft Office SharePointServer 2007, dynamically renders a spreadsheet as HTMLso others can access the information using a Webbrowser. Because of the high degree of fidelity with theOffice Excel 2007 client, Excel Services users can
navigate, sort, filter, input parameters, and interact with theinformation, all within their Web browser.Help ensure you and your organization work with themost current business information.Prevent the spread of multiple or outdated copies of aspreadsheet throughout your organization by using OfficeExcel 2007 and Office SharePoint Server 2007. Controlwhich users can view and modify spreadsheets on theserver using permission-based access.Reduce the size of spreadsheets and improvedamaged file recovery at the same time.The new, compressed Microsoft Office Excel XML Formatoffers a dramatic reduction in file size, while itsarchitecture offers an improvement in data recovery fordamaged files. This new format provides a tremendoussavings to storage and bandwidth requirements, andreduces the burden on IT personnel.Extend your business intelligence investmentsbecause Office Excel 2007 provides full support forMicrosoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services.Take advantage of the flexibility and the new cubefunctions in Office Excel 2007 to build a custom reportfrom an OLAP database. You can also connect to externalsources of data more easily using the Data ConnectionLibrary.