Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
47295417 chit-way-lae-lae
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

47295417 chit-way-lae-lae

6,984

Published on

1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
6,984
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
65
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. cspfa0hvnfvnfxGef;ausmf tdyf,mrSEdl;awmh wpftdrfvHk;wdwfqdwfNidrfoufvsuf&Sdonf/ olonf tdyf,mrSEdl;Edl;Ncif;a&csdK;vdkufvsifaumif;rnf[kawG;um tusÐudkcRwf? obufwpfxnfudk ykcHk;ay: wifítdyfcef;xJrSxGufcJhavonf/a&csdK;cef;odkhoGm;&ef rD;zdkaqmifxJrSNzwftxGufwGif xGef;ausmf rD;zdkaqmifxJodkh a0humBunfhvdkufaomfvnf;rnfolhudkrQrawGh&/ at;at;aq;aq;yif a&csdk;cef; okdh0ifum a&udkwpf0BuD;csdK;vdkufonf/a&csdK;NyD;aemuf xGef;ausmf onf olhtdyfcef;xJodkhNyef0ifum t0wftpm;vJvdkufonf/ NyD;awmh olDtdrfudka&mufwkdif;vkyfaeusNzpfonfh xrif;pm;cef;qDodkhxGufvmcJhonf/ rnfolhudkrQrawGh&ayr,fh oltwGuf pm;p&mwpfckckawmhpDpOfxm;NrJNzpfonf/ol xrif;pm;cef;twGif;odkhvSrf;t0ifvdkufwGif xrif;pm; pm;yJGab;wGif&yfaeaom vSvSrGef u xGef;ausmf0ifvm&mzufodkh vSnfhBunfhum olhudkNyHk;Nyvdkufonf/ NyD;awmh olrrsufESmav;onfwpfzufokdhNyefvSnfhumoGm;avonf/xGef;ausmf udkaemufausmay;um &yfaeaom vSvSrGef aemufausmNyiftvSonf eHuftdyf,mrSEld;pvef;qef;umaeaom olhaoG;om;rsm;udk oGufvufpGmvIyf&Sm;aponf/ xGef;ausmf onf olraemufzuf(4)(5)aytuGmodkh ta&mufwGif a&ShqufroGm;awmhbJ vSvSrGef aemufausmtvSudkom pl;pl;epfepfai;umBunfhaeavonf/ausmvnfavmuf&Sdvdrfhrnf[kxif&aom qHyifav;rsm;udk vSvSrGef onf t&if;rSqHnSyfNzifh pkumpnf;xm;avonf/xdkhaBumifh azG;umEkaeaom *kwfydk;avonf qHEG,fpav;rsm;Nzifh rcsifhr&JNzpfp&maumif;avmufatmifvSaeavonf/xdkhNyifvnf; olr0wfxm;aom eufNyma&mif tusÐvufNywf wpfzufwpfcsuf&Sd vufayguftem;pav;rsm;qDrSolrykcHk;om;ESpfzufonf 0if;0gum NynfhNynfhazgif;azgif;av;Nzpfaeonf/ ykcHk;pGef;qDrSonftdtdazgif;azgif;av;Nzpfum oG,fqif;oGm;aomolr 0if;0gaomvufarmif;om;rsm;ay: wGifvdrf;xm;aomoeyfcg; tpif;av;awGrSm wpf0ufwpfysufay: vGifaeonf/wpfxGmrQavmufom&SdvdrfhrnfNzpfaom vSvSrGef cg;ao;ao;av;onf EJGhaESmif;íaeNyD; tNym&ifha&mifatmifcHay:wGif t0gESifhtpdrf;Eka&miftyGifhpufav;rsm;yHkaz: xom;aomxrDav;atmufrS azgif;wif;íaeaomolrwifyg;om;BuD;rsm;rSm vHk;wpfvSyvGef;avonf/ xGef;ausmf onf cyfNrSif;NrSif;av;oufysif;csvdkufavonf/ol&yfumBunfhaeonfudk vSvSrGef onfrodyJaernfr[kwf? okdhaomf rodcsifa,mifaqmifumaeNcif;Nzpfrnf[kxGef;ausmf awG;vkdufonf/xGef;ausmf onf vSvSrGef aemufzufqDodkh aNcvSrf;ESpfvSrf;cefhtomvSrf;vdkufonf/ vSvSrGef qDrSysHhvTifhvmaomarT;&ehHrsm;onf olb0ifudk qJGvIyfouJodkh&Sdaeavonf/ xGef;ausmf onf vSvSrGef aemufzufodkh ydkrdkumwdk;uyfvdkufavonf/ xdkhaBumifh xGef;ausmf qD;pyfESifh wif;um;aeaom vSvSrGef zifom;BuD;wdkhrSmwpfckESifhwpfck xdvkrcef; eD;uyfoGm;acsavNyD/NyLwif;aygufrS wkd;a0ShNzwfoef;vmaom avNynfavat;av;onf xrif;pm;cef;qDodkhNzwfoef;í0ifa&mufvmonf/vSvSrGef Eknufum0if;aeaom *kwfom;av;ay: rS wGefhwGefhacGacGav;Nzpfaeaom qHEG,frsm;onfb,fnm,drf;xdk;ívl;vdrfhumoGm;Buonf/xGef;ausmf vufESpfzufonf aNrmufumwufvmNyD; tdazgif;umaeaom vSvSrGef ykcHk;pGef;ESpfzufudk r&Jw&J ESifhaoG;wkd;prf;ovdk zGzGav;qkyfudkifvdkufavonf/ xdktcsdefav;rSmyif vSvSrGef onf olrcg;av;udk tenf;i,fnTwfvdkufNyD; a&Shpm;yJGay: rSaumfzDu&m;udk vSrf;,lvdkufaomtcgwGif olr vkH;vHk;wpfwpf zifom;BuD;rsm;onfxGef;ausmf aygif&if;*GqHkudkNzwfueJzduyfrdavonf/NyD;aemuf aumfzDu&m; vufwGif;okdha&mufonfESifh olrcg;udkNyefqefhvkduf&m vSvSrGef wifom;BuD;rsm;ESifh
  • 2. xGef;ausmf aygif&if;okdhonf cPrQuif;uGmawmhrvdkNzpfoGm;aomfvnf; xGef;ausmf cg;utomaumhumvdkufoGm;oNzifh apmapmuvdkyif zduyfaeonfhtaetxm;twdkif; rysufr,Gif;&Sdaeavonf/vSvSrGef onf vufxJwGifudkifxm;aom aumfzDu&m;xJ&Sd aumfzDrsm;udk pm;yJGay: wGif&Sdaom aumfzDyef;uefxJodkhxnfhvdkufonf/ u&m; udkukdifxm;aom vSvSrGef vufrsm;onfwkef,ifvsuf/ xGef;ausmf ESmacgif;aygufrS&I;ueJ&I;ueJ xGufvmaom avrsm; onf vSvSrGef *kwfom;EkEkav;ay: odkh vmí xdaeBuonf/ NyD;awmhoHacsmif;wpfacsmif;uJhodkh rmawmifaeNyDNzpfaom aygifBum;rS olhvD;wefBuD; u ykqdk;wGif;rSaeNyD;vHk;wpfumazgif;BuGaeaom vSvSrGef zifom;BuD;rsm;udk zduyfxdaeNyDNzpfonf/udkxGef;ausmf ... aumfzDaomufawmhav ..vSvSrGef onf toHudkxdef;NyD;aNymaomfvnf; cyfwdk;wdk;av;aNymvdkufaom olrtoHav;tqHk;wGifvIyfcgíaeonf/ xdkokdhaNym&if; vSvSrGef onf olrudk,fudk NzwfueJvSnfhvdkuf&m xGef;ausmf&ifcGiftwGif;odkhvHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; a&muf&SdoGm;avonf/ olhudkol owdrxm;rdvdkufpOfrSmyif xGef;ausmf onfvSvSrGef yg;azgif;azgif;av;udk &TwfueJaeatmiferf;vdkufonf/tdk .. udkxGef;ausmf ..vSvSrGef onf wkefvIyfpGma&&Gwfvdkuf&if; olr udk,fvHk;av;udk vl;vl;vGefhvGefh wdk;xGufvdkufaomtcg xGef;ausmfvufESpfzufuvnf; olrudkvTwfay;vdkufrdavonf/ xGef;ausmf &ifcGiftwGif;rS vGwfaNrmufoGm;onfESifhNrD;aumifaygufrav;ozG,f taNy;wpfydkif;NzifhxGufoGm;aom vSvSrGef wkefcg íoGm;Buaomwifom;qdkifBuD;awGudk rsufpduRwfusrwwf Bunfh&if; xGef;ausmf onf ukvm;xdkifwGif0ifxdkifum oufNyif;tcgcgcsaerdawmhonf/vSvSrGef onf touf(22)SESpfrQom&Sdao;onf/ NyD;awmh xGef;ausmf q&mOD;armifBuD; kwd,ZeD;vnf;Nzpfonf/ OD;armifBuD; yxrZeD; a:aiGodef; rSmvGefcJhaom (3)ESpfcefhuyifuG,fvGefoGm;cJhNyDNzpfonf/ OD;armifBuD; onf opfukefonf olaX;BuD;wpfa,mufNzpfNyD;touf(55)ESpfcefh&SdNyDNzpfonf/ a:aiGodef; ESifh arG;zGg;cJhaom orD;wpfa,muf? om;wpfa,muf &SdNyD; orDBuD;Nzpfolcifcifpdef onf touf(33) ESpfcefh&Sd tysdKBuD;NzpfNyD;? ausmif;q&mr tvkyf vkyfumzcifNzpfoltdrfwGiftwlaeavonf/ om;Nzpfol cifaZmf onf touf(29) ESpfcefh&Sd tdrfaxmifonf NzpfNyD;tdrfcJGumaeonf/xGef;ausmf onf vGefcJhaom (10)ESpfcefhu OD;armifBuD; opfpufwGif opfpufpma&; 0ifvkyfcJh&mrS ,cktcgqdkvQifOD;armifBuD; ukd,fpm;vS,ftNzpfokdh a&muf&Sdvmonf txd,HkBunfudk;pm; wm0efay;tyfNcif; cHae&NyDNzpfonf/aNym&rnfqdkvQif xGef;ausmf tvkyf0ifNyD; odyfrBumrDwGif OD;armifBuD; pD;yGg;wufcJhNcif;Nzpfonf/ xGef;ausmf onfyg;&nfeyf&nfvnf;&Sd? pm&if;Z,m;vnf;Edlif? qufqHa&;vnf;aumif;oNzifh OD;armifBuD; tzdkhrSmum;ukd,fyGg;wpfa,muf&ouJodkhNzpfum wpfa,muftm;rSonf ESpfa,muftm;Nzpfvsuf olvkyfief;rsm;ydkrdkoGufvufatmifNrifvmcJhNcif;Nzpfonf/,cktcsdefqdkvQif vkyfief;BuD;wpfckvHk;udk xGef;ausmf uyif OD;pD;vkyfudkifaeNyDNzpfonf/ vlysdKvlvGwfvnf;NzpfNyefawmhawmifilopfpufxJwGifomysOfaxmiftdrf tao;wpfvHk;aqmufum aexdkifcJhonf/ ,ck awmifil rSopfrsm;udk&efukefodkh vmydkh&if; OD;armifBuD; tdrfwGifwnf;aeNcif;Nzpfonf/vGefcJhaom (2) ESpfausmfcefhu tvHk&SdopfpufwGif pma&;rwpfOD;vdktyfvsuf&SdoNzifh xGef;ausmf onfolESifhoduRrf;aom vSvSrGef ESifhpum;pyfrd&mrS olruvJ tvkyfvdkcsifonfqdkoNzifh OD;armifBuD; opfpufwGiftvkyfoGif;ay;cJhNcif;Nzpfonf/ xdkhaemufwGifawmh OD;armifBuD; onf vSvSrGef ESifh taeeD;pyfum wpfyifvJrlwpfyifxl qdkonfhpum;twdkif; vSvSrGef udkvufxyfum,lchJNcif;Nzpfonf/ om;ESifh orD;Nzpfoluvnf;uefhuGufNcif;tvsif;r&SdbJ vSvSrGef udkBunfNzLpGmyifvufcHcJhonf/xGef;ausmf onf OD;armifBuD; tvkyfudpörsm;udk opöm&Sd&Sd BudK;yef;umaqmif&GufcJhonfudkodonfhtwGufOD;armifBuD; uvnf; xGef;ausmf udkaNrSufpm;um rdom;pk0if wpfOD;uJodkhyif vufcHqufqHcJhonf/tdrfa&ShwGifxdk;&yfvdkufaom um;oHaBumifh tawG;e,fcsJhaeaom xGef;ausmf onf olxdkifaeaom
  • 3. qufwDukvm;xkdifrSxum tdrfa&ShwHcg;aygufqDodkhoGm;um oHbm*smwHcg;udkzGifhvdkufavonf/ OD;armifBuD;onfum;xJrSxGufvmaomtcgwGif xGef;ausmf taemufem;wGif b,ftcsdefua&mufaeonfrodaom vSvSrGefonf xGef;ausmf tm;Nzwfausmfvsuf OD;armifBuD; vufwGif;rS tdwfudkoGm;,lvkdufavonf/ xdktcdkufrSmyifOD;OD;ausmf [laomuav;toHav;udkBum;vdkufoNzifh vSrf;Bunfhvdkuf&m cifaZmf(4)ESpforD; rsdK;rsdK;aZmfudkawGhvdkuf&oNzifh uav;rxHavQmufoGm;vdkufavonf/ rsdK;rsdK;aZmf onf um;ay: rSckefqif;vdkufonf/orD; uwpfa,mufwnf;vmwmvm; ..arar vnf;ygw,f .. OD;OD;ausmf &Jh ..uav; pum;aBumifh xGef;ausmf vSrf;BunfhvdkufpOfrSmyif cifaZmf ZeD; olZm onf ypönf;awGwpfyHkwpfyifNzifhum;ay: rSqif;vmavonf/udkxGef;ausmf a& .. 0dkif;ul,lay;ygOD; ..xGef;ausmf onf olZmayGhvmaom ypönf;xkwfrsm;udkvSrf;um,lvdkufonf/OD;OD;ausmfrsdK;rsdK;aZmf ac: oHaBumifh olrzufokdh vSnfhBunfhvdkufaomaBumifh xGef;ausmf vufrsm;onfypönf;rsm;udkvSrf;ayGhydkuf,lvdkuf&if; olZm &ifom;ESpfrTmudkvnf; rawmfwqyif ususeeBuD;qkyfudkifrdavonf/bmvJ .. orD;&Jh ..orD;udk uefawmfBuD; vdkufydkh&r,faemf ..at;yg .. orD;&Jh ..xGef;ausmf u olZm qDrS ypönf;rsm;udk ydkifydkifEldifEldif ayGhvdkufNyD;aemuf olZm rsufESmudkvSrf;BunhfumtuJcwfvdkufavonf/ olZm rsufESmav;onf ododomomudkyif yef;Eka&mif oef;aeavonf/ xdkhaBumifh olrtm&kHaNymif;oGm;ap&ef xGef;ausmf uudkcifaZmf a&m rygzl;vm; olZm ..rygvmbl; udkxGef;ausmf .. ta&mif;t0,feJh rEÅav;zufudkc&D;xGufoGm;wm (15) &ufavmuf&SdaeNyD/tdrfrSmvnf;om;trd ESpfa,mufwnf;ysif;aewkef; azazuvnf;Daeha&mufvmwmeJh tawmfyJqdkNyD;vdkufvmBuwm ...olwdkhtdrfa&Shcef;odkhvSrf;ít0ifrSmyifarmifxGef;ausmfcifAsmrif;&efukef aecJhvdkufOD;uGm .. igreufzef&xm;eJh awmifil oGm;vkdufOD;r,f? [dkurdwfaqGawGaqGrsdK;awGvnf;rawGh&wmBumNyD? aemufNyD;bk&m;wefaqmif; aqmufNyD;vªzdkh&nf&G,fxm;wmBumNyD/igwpfywfq,f&ufavmufawmhBumr,feJhwlw,f/ rif;vnf; em;em;aeae DrSmaecJhOD;uG,f/ ig vSvSrGefudkawmhxm;cJhr,f .. grS tvHkopfpufrSm rif;taz: &rSm .. NAHK;ueJqdkawmh rif;vJol&Sdaeawmh ydkNyD;tqifaNyoGm;wmayghuG,f ..[kwfuJhaNymNyD;onfESifh OD;armifBuD; onftdrftwGif;zufodkh vSvSrGef ESifhtwl0ifoGm;avonf/n(10)em&D rxdk;rDuyiftdrfoltdrfom;toD;oD;onf rdrdwdkhtdyfcef;twGif;odkh0ifoGm;BuNyDNzpfonf/wpftdrfvHk;onf wNznf;Nznf;NidrfoGm;NyD; ydwfxm;aomNyLwif;aygufwHcg;&Sd rSefcsyfrsm;udkavwdk;onfhtoHrsm;rSvGJNyD;wdwfqdwfumaeavonf/ ywf0ef;usif&Sd obmo0w&m;ESifhqefhusifNyD; vIyf&Sm;aeaom vlom;ESpfOD;uawmhtdyfcef;us,fBuD;twGif;&Sd OD;armifBuD; ESifh vSvSrGefwdkhNzpfBuonf/ reufapmapm c&D;xGuf&rnfNzpfoNzifh OD;armifBuD;onf ZeD;acsmacsmi,fi,fav; Nzifh cspf&nfvl;vsuf &du©m,laeonf/OD;armifBuD; ESifh vSvSrGef wkdh ESpfOD;pvHk;udk,fay: wGif t0wftpm;[lorQ bmrQruyfBuay? ukwifay:wGifyufvufNzpfaeaom vSvSrGef NzLNzLazG;azG; udk,fvHk;wD;BuD;ay: okdh OD;armifBuD; ndKndKwkwfwkwfudk,fvHk;BuD;uarSmufíxm;NyD; aNcaxmufrsm;um; atmufuarTh,mudk tm;,lum zifBuD;aNrSmufumESdrfhumNzifh
  • 4. tm;yg;w&yifvdk;aeonf/bGwf .. NAGwf .. yvGwf .. yvyf .. NyGwf .. &I; tm; ..[if; [if; .. tudkBuD;&,f .. DxufydkNyD;aqmifhay;ygOD; ..ryDroaNymvdkufaom vSvSrGef pum;tqHk;wGif OD;armifBuD;ucyfoGufoGufyifaqmifhumvdk;ay;vdkufonf/auseyftm;&NzpfoGm;&aom vSvSrGef udk,fvHk;NzLNzLav;u aumhueJaumhueJ wufoGm;onf/(10)csufavmufaqmifhNyD;oGm;aomtcgwGif OD;armifBuD; aqmifhcsufrsm;rS tm;rygawmhbJ wNznf;Nznf;t&Sdefavsmhvmonf/ OD;armifBuD; NyD;cgeD;NyDqdkonfudk vSvSrGef wpfa,mufem;vnfvdkufonf/ odkhaomolrtzdkhrSmum; tckrS t&Sdefaumif;NyD; t&omwufaeqJNzpfonf/tif; [if; .. t t udk BuD .. xdef;xm; OD; ... us us r enf;enf; vdkao;w,f ..tif; tdkh [m; ... awmifhxm;OD; ..bGwf .. yvpfwpfwpf ... azgif; kwf .. tdk .. pGd yvGwf ...tdk .. tudkBuD; &,f .. tdk tdk .. [Gef ;OD;armifBuD; vD;wefBuD; onf olrapmufacgif;av;xJwGif wqwfqwf waigufaigufNzpfum okwf&nfrsm;udkaighaighueJyef;xkwfvdkufNyDNzpfonf/ vSvSrGef rSdwfxm;aomrsufcrf;pyfrsm;wGifrsuf&nfav;rsm;pdrfhumxGufvmBuonf/ okdhaomf tay: rS OD;armifBuD; tzdkhrl xdkrsuf&nfrsm;udkrNrifEldifbJw&I;&I;w&SJ&SJ Nzifh zg;zdkBuD;uJodkh zkwfvIdufzkwfvIduf BudK;pm;um touf&Iae&avonf/ vSvSrGef uawmholrudk,fvHk;av;ay: wGif arSmufcsxm;NyD; rSdef;aeaom OD;armifBuD; udk,fvHk;BuD;tm;wif;BuyfpGmzufay;xm;&if; olr vufz0g;EkEkav;u OD;armifBuD; ausmNyifBuD;ay: wGif a&Ghumvsm;umNzifhyGwfoyfay;aeavonf/OD;armifBuD; onfcPrQ vSvSrGef udk,fvHk;av;udkzufum Zdrf,laeNyD;aemuf aysmhacGoGm;NyDNzpfaomolvD;wefBuD;udk qJGxkwfum olrab;zufodkh yufvufvSefumvSJcsvdkufavonf/ xdkhaemuf aNc&if;zuf&Sdolykqdk;ESifhtusÐudk qJGí0wfvdkufNyD;aemuf arTh,may: odkhNyefvSJumxdk;tdyfavawmhonf/ xdktcsdefwGif vSvSrGef rSmolr rsufvHk;ESpfvHk;udkydwfíxm;NyD; olrvufacsmif;rsm;udk aumhcsnf? auG;csnf? qefhcsnfNzifhqefhwiefhiefhNzpfumaeavonf/OD;armifBuD; ESifh olrwdkh onfvdkumrpyf,SufBuonfhtcgwdkif;vdkvdkyif vSvSrGefonf vrf;wpf0ufwGifyif wdkhvdkhwef;vef;NzifhusefcJhum umrqE´rNynfh0bJ usef&pfcJh&onfursm;NyDNzpfonf/ [dk;nm;umpuawmh eJeJawmfao;onf[kqdkao;onf/ OD;armifBuD; onf orD;xufyifi,faom ZeD;acsmacsmav; udkrTefxGefaeaom umrt&SdefNzifh wpfcsDruvdk;cJhonf/ rdef;rESifhNywfaewmuvJ xdktcsdefu(2)ESpfausmfBumNyDqdkawmhOD;armifBuD; rsm;uNynfhNzdK;NyD;opfvGifaeonf/ Dawmhvnf; OD;armifBuD;pdwfoGm;wdkif;udk,fygcJhonf/ vSvSrGeftaeESihfvnf; OD;armifBuD; uwpfcsDNyD;oGm;aomvnf; olrtaeESifhumrNyD;ao;acs/ odkhaomf OD;armifBuD; kwd,tcsDvdk;aomtcgwGif olrqE´wdkh txGwftxdyfa&mufum NyD;cJh&onf/ onfvdk umvrsm;uawmhodyfNyD;Bum&SnfrcHcJhyg? (2) v avmufrrQomNzpfonf/ onfhaemufydkif;wGifawmh OD;armifBuD; onfwpfywfvQifwpfcgavmufomvdk;Eldifawmhonf/Dawmh touf(22)ESpfom&Sdao;aom i,f&G,fEkysdKum aoG;om;qlNzdK;aom vSvSrGef onfolrqE´rNynfh0cJh&onfhumra0emudk usdwfrSdwfrsdKodyfum cHpm;aecJh&onf/ ckvnf; OD;armifBuD; onf wacgacgNzifholrab;wGiftdyfarmusaeNyDNzpfonf/ vSvSrGef onf ukwifay: rSvl;vJxum ukwifaNc&if;&Sd olrxrDudkaumufpGyfNyD;awmh&ifvQm;vkdufonf/ NyD;awmh olrudk,fudk oefhpif&ef aemufzufodkhxGufvmcJhonf/vm&if;ESifh xGef;ausmf tdyfcef;udk ausmfoGm;NyD;rS wzef NyefvSnfhum tdyfcef;wHcg;udktomwGef;vdkufonf/txJu *sufcsxm;onfudkodvdkuf&oNzifh NyefvSnfhum txGufwGifawmh xGef;ausmf a[mufoHrsm;u olrudkusDp,faeovdkvdk/__________________________________________________OD;armifBuD; onfreufapmapm&xm;Nzifh awmifilodkh c&D;xGufom;cJhNyDNzpfonf/
  • 5. xGef;ausmf onf wpfaeukefyif tvkHopfpufwGif vSvSrGef ESifhtwl&SdaeNyD; vkyfief;aqmifwmrsm;udkulnDumaeavonf/ gayrJh xGef;ausmf pdwfuawmhraNymif;? olpdwfrsm;um; vSvSrGef xHwGifom&Sdaeonf/pdwfxifvdkhyJvm;awmhrod? Daeh olh ukd vSvSrGef qufqHyHkonf ydkrdkyGifhvif;um &Jwif;aeovdkvdk/ xGef;ausmfawG;aerdonfrSm raehuxrif;pm;cef;xJwGif vSvSrGef udktyDtNyif udkifNyD; erf;cJhaomfvnf; vSvSrGef onftausmuftuef Niif;qefcJhNcif;r&SdoNzifh vkyfvQif&Eldifonf[k/ odkhaomf xGef;ausmf tawG;tm&Hkrsm;u oifhawmfNcif;&Sdf r&Sd udk pOf;pm;um awGa0aepOf ...tudk xGef;ausmf ..[if ..xGef;ausmf onf t&Snfay(20)cefhpD&Sd opfcJGom;ykHBum;wGif cJGom;qdkfrsm;udk tBurf;tzsif;wGufaepOfwGif ac:oHBum;oNzifh vSnfhtBunfhwGif olhaemufem;wGif NyHK;NyHK;av;&yfaeaom vSvSrGef udkawGhvdkuf&onf/apmapmuwif olrtaBumif;udkpOf;pm;aewkef;&Sdao; tckcsufcsif;qdkufqdkufNrdKufNrdKufolha&Shodkh vSvSrGefa&mufvmacsNyD/ xGef;ausmf onfab;wpf0dkufudk rsufpda0hBunfhvdkufawmh wpfNcm;rnfolhudkrQrawGh&/ xdkhtNyifNrifhrm;vSaom opfcJGom;yHkBuD;u olwdkhESpfOD;tm;vTrf;NcHKay;xm;ovdkawmifNzpfaeao; onf/xGef;ausmf onf bmudkrSpOf;pm;raeawmhyg? ..vSvSrGef udk,fvHk;av;udk qwfueJolh&ifcGiftwGif;odkha&mufatmifqJGoGif;vdkufNyD;aemuf olrrsufESmtEShHtirf;r&erf;avawmhonf/ vSvSrGef uvnf; rsufvTmav;cs&if; olrrsufESmav;udktvdkufoifharmhay;xm;avonf/ xGef;ausmf onf rsufESmrSonf wpfqifhwufum vHk;vkH;zl;um tmaeaomvSvSrGef EIwfcrf;av;udk qJGpkyfNyD;erf;avawmhonf/vSvSrGef udk,fvHk;av;onf wpfcsufrQwGefUwufoGm;NyD;aemuf xGef;ausmf udk,fvHk;BuD;tm;wif;BuyfpGmayGhzufvdkufonf/ wpfcPtwGif;rSmyif vSvSrGef wkefhNyefaomterf;rsm;u xGef;ausmfEIwfcrf;rsm;qDodkh usa&mufvmonf/ wpfaNz;aNz;ESifh olwdkhESpfOD;vHk;cE¨mudk,ftwGif;&Sd aoG;om;rsm;onfw&Sdef;&Sdef; wzdef;zdef;Nzpfum xBuGvmaeNyDNzpfonf/ twefBumonhf terf;oHo&mtqHk;0,f xGef;ausmf onfpkyferf;aeaom olhEIwfcrf;rsm;udk cGgvdkufNyD;aemuf aemufodkhaNcwpfvSrf;qkwfvdkufavonf/ vSvSrGef onfem;vnf&cufpGmNzifh olrvufrsm;udk xGef;ausmf udk,fay: rSz,fcGgvdkuf&onf/ xdkhaemuf xGef;ausmfnmzufzufonf vSvSrGef aygif&if;qDodkh vSrf;vdkufaomtcgwGifrS vSvSrGef onf uaomuarsmrsufvTmcsvdkufNyD; auseyfNyHK;av;wpfyGifh olrrsufESmay: wGif ay: vmavonf/xGef;ausmf onf olhvufz0g;Nzifh vSvSrGef apmufzkwfudkxduyfvdkufonf/ vSvSrGef cg;onfqwfueJwGefhoGm;&m apmufzkwf ESifhvufz0g;onf ,cktcg yDyDNyifNyifBuD;udkxduyfrdawmhonf/ xrDtay:rSudkif&onfNzpfaomfvnf; tvGefwpf&mrSyif El;nHhumtdazgif;aeaom apmufywfBuD;aBumifh vSvSrGefpdwfygaeNyDqdkonfudk xGef;ausmf odvdkufonf/ xGef;ausmfonf olhvufNzifh zGzGav; qkyfvdkufe,fvdkufuvday;aeawmhonf/ vSvSrGef udk,fvHk;av; onf wvIyfvIyfNzpfoGm;&oNzifh xGef;ausmf onfolb,fvufNzifh vSvSrGef ycHk;av;tm;NiifompGmzufNyD;xdef;ay;vkdufonf/xGef;ausmf vufrsm;onf olrapmufzkwftm; qkwfe,fzspfnSpf&kHomruolraygifESpfvHk;Bum;okdhvufzsm;xdk;oGif;um a&Shwdk;aemufiif yGwfay;aeNyDNzpfonf/ vSvSrGef aygifESpfvHk; onfwNznf;Nznf; [ onfxuf [ vmaeNyD; olrtzkwfudk ododomomyif xGef;ausmfvufqDodkhzduyfay;xm;onf/ vSvSrGef onf [if; ueJ oufNyif;udk wdk;wdk;av;csvdkufNyD;aemuftudk xGef;ausmf .. vlawGNrifukefOD;r,faemf ..[kwkd;wkd;av;owday;vdkufonf/ xdkhaemuf vSvSrGef ab;bDtm;twefBumatmif tuJcwfvdkufNyD; xGef;ausmfudk,fudkvSrf;umzufvdkufNyD; olrar;aphav;udk xGef;ausmf yckH;xufwGifarS;um rsufvHk;rsm;udk pkHrSdwfNyD;pdwfvIyf&Sm;pGmNzifh apmifhaeavonf/ xGef;ausmf onf vSvSrGef xrDav;udk wNznf;Nznf;csif;rwifvm&mNzLazG;tkaeaom ovHk;om;? aNzmifhpif;uspfvpfaom aygifwH wdkhrSm 0if;0if;yy ay: xGufvmavonf/ xGef;ausmfonf vSvSrGef xrDudk cg;odkha&mufonftxd vSefwifvdkufavonf/ xdktcgwGif yifwDteDa&mifav; onfNzLaomtom;ESifh[yfvsuf um;pGifhwif;tdaom wifom;wdkhudkrvHkwvHkomzkH;Edlifavonf/
  • 6. xGef;ausmf vufwdkhonfvsifNrefpGmyif vSvSrGef zifom;BuD;rsm;udk yifwDay: rSaeumyGwfe,fqkyfudkifay;awmhonf/ zifom;wdkhESifhwdkuf&kdufxdawGhcGifhr&aomaBumifh xGef;ausmf onf vSvSrGefyifwDrsm;udktwGif;odkhvdyfvdkufavonf/ xdktcg wGif vSvSrGef t,faeomzifom;wdkhrSm0if;0if;aNymifaNymifESifhxGufvmavonf/ xGef;ausmf onf wif;um;um tdpufvSaom vSvSrGef zifwHk;BuD;rsm;udkt&omcHum Nznf;nSif;pGmyif yGwfawmhonf/ olawmifrwfaeNyDNzpfaom iyJ onfvnf; vSvSrGef tzkwftay:em;udk yifwDay: rSaxmufrdaeNyDNzpfonf/ ykqdk;ESifhyifwD cHaeaomfvnf; tm;aumif;armif;oefNzpfaom iyJ onfaighueJ aighueJ twif;&kef;aeav&m vSvSrGef tzdkhtBudKufawGlae&avonf/xGefausmf onf olvufrsm;udk wifom;qDay: rS ta&Shzufapmufzkwf&Sd&modkhvSrf;vdkufonf/ ta&ShzufwGifvnf;yifwDudk twGif;okdhvdyfvdkufNyefonf/ xGef;ausmf onf yifwDvdyfxm;oNzifh ray:h way: Nzpfaeaom vSvSrGefapmufzkwf udk vufcv,fNzifh tomuvdavonf/ vSvSrGef l;rsm;onf rcdkifcsifawmh? vludk r&G&Gatmifvkyfaeom xGef;ausmf tyGwftoyf tacsmhtNrIrsm;aBumifh tzkwfrSmvnf; pdkpGwfpGwfNzpfvmacsNyD/ tckcsdefolr tvdkvm; tawmifhwqHk;rSm xGef;ausmf axmifrwfum wkwf&Snfaeaom vD;? olr tzkwftay: zuf udkylaEG;pGmNzifh zdaxmufxm;aom wvIyfvIyfNzpfaeaom vD;? odkhaomf rdef;rom;vnf;NzpfonfhtNyif xGef;ausmf ESifhtvkyf&Sifvdk jzpfae&onfrdkU yg;pyfuxkwfrajymomyJ pdwfxJrSom tm;rvdktm;r& jzpfaerd&awmhonf/ ..gayrJhvnf; xGef;ausmf onf olrapmufzkwfudk vufESifh uvdaeoNzifh txdkuftavsmufawmh tmomaNyovdkNzpfaeonf/ xdkhaBumifh xGef;ausmf udk zdumrSDvdkuf&if; xGef;ausmf vuf vGwfvGwfvyfvyf vIyf&Sm;Eldif&efolraygifrsm;udk uGumum;ay;vdkufonf/xGef;ausmf vufcv,fonf olrtacgif;xJodkhNznfnif;pGm0ifvmavonf/ xGef;ausmf onf olhvufudkxkwfcsnf oGif;csnfNzifh vIyfay;vdkufaomtcgwGif t&nfBunfwdkhonf pkdpdpdNzifh xGef;ausmf vufcv,fwGifuyfygvmonf/ xGef;ausmf onf olvufrESifh apmufaphudk&Smavonf/ bkxaeaom tikwfav;udk awGhaomtcgolvufrESifhvufnId;Bum;wGif xm;um Nznf;nSif;pGmyGwfacsay;vdkufonf/ vSvSrGef onf wqwfqwfESifhwkefaeNyD;olrEIwfrSvnf; roJruJG wD;wdk;a&&GwfoHrsm;xGufay;aeonf/ olrvufwpfzuf onf olr ESifhxGef;ausmftBum;wGif&Sdaom axmifrwfaeaom vD;BuD;qDodkhvSrf;vdkufavonf/ xGef;ausmf onf olrEl;nHhvSaomtawGhudk ykqdk;cHaeaomfvnf; aumif;pGmcHpm;vdkuf&onf/ vSvSrGef tzdkhvnf; vD;BuD;ylaEG;aeaom"gwf udkykqdk;ay:rStkyfudkifxm;&aomfvnf; odaeonfhtNyif olrvufESifhqkyfudkifvdkufaomtcgwGif aihgueJ aighueJawmifumae&m olrpdwftpHkudkydkrdkBuGapavonf/ ESpfa,mufom; tNcm;wpfa,muft*FgudktNcm;wpfa,mufuqGay;&if;t&Sdefawmfawmf&vmaeBuNyD/ ESpfa,mufpvHk;touf&IoHrsm;onf w&I;&I;NzifhNyif;xefvmBuonf/ xGef;ausmf onf olhvufrsm;udk vSvSrGefqDrS cPz,fum olhvHkcsnfudkuGif;vHk;uRwfcRwfcs&eftwGuf cg;yHkpudkNznf&eftvkyf ..q&mxGef; ... q&mxGef; ..cyfus,fus,fatmfac: oHwpfcku opfcJGom;rsm;tykHwpfzufrSxGufay:vmonf/ xdkhaBumifh xGef;ausmf onfvkHcsnfudkNyefNyif0wfvdkufNyD; axmifrwfaeaom olh iyJ udkvnf; NidrfusoGm;ap&ef twif;yifvufNzifhcsdK;ESdrfae&onf/ vSvSrGef onfvnf; vdyfaeaom olryifwDudkNyefNyif&efyif tcsdefr&awmhoNzifhcg;txdvefwufaeaom olrxrDudk tvsiftNrefyifqJGcsvdkufonf/ olronf uwkHu,ifNzpfumrsufvHk;tNyK;om;ESifhNzpfaeavonf/ xGef;ausmf onf toHcyfwdk;wdk;Nzifhtudk t&if xGufawGhvdkufr,f .. DrSmyJaecJhNyD; t&dyftcsnfBunfhNyD;rS xGufvmcJhaemf ...xGef;ausmf onf opfykHBum;rS xGufvdkufaomtcgwGif opfpufrStvkyform;av;udkawGhvdkuf&onf/q&m .. opf0,fr,fhvlawGa&mufaew,f ..at; at; [kwfNyD .. oGm;BuwmayghuGm ..[kaNym&if; 0,folqDodkh xGef;ausmfxGufcJhawmhonf/__________________________________________________
  • 7. xGef;ausmf ESifh vSvSrGef wdkh uHqdk;onf[kyif aNym&rnf/ xdkaehusrSmyif 0,folrsm;vSonf/ xdkhaBumifh xGef;ausmfa&m vSvSrGef a&m udk,fpDudk,fpD tvkyf&IyfaeBuonf/naeydkif; tvkyfodrf;cgeD;wGif opfpufodkh e,frSvmaom opfukefo,frsm; a&mufvmBuonf/ &if;ESD;aeaomvkyfief;&Sifrsm;NzpfaeoNzifh xGef;ausmf npmvdkufauR;zdkhNzpfvmNyefonf/ odk.Nzpfí qdkifodrf;NyD;aemuf vSvSrGef onftdrfodkhNyefum xGef;ausmf onf ukefo,frsm;ESifh twl pm;aomufqdkif wpfckwGif aomufpm;umNzifh {nfhcHcJhonf/,ck xGef;ausmf tdrfodkhNyefa&mufawmh n(10)em&DausmfaeNyD/ wpftdrfvHk;arSmifrnf;aeaomfvnf;{nfhcef;rD;vif;aeonfudkawGhvdkuf&oNzifh wpfa,mufa,mufawmh olhtm;apmifhaeonfudkodvdkuf&onf/tNzpfEdkifqHk;uawmh vSvSrGef yif/ xGef;ausmf onf oHbm*smwHcg; wGif cwfxm;aomaomhcavmufudk udkcyfNznf;Nznf;yif bm*smwHcg;ESifh&kdufvsuf ola&mufNyDNzpfaBumif; {nfhcef;wGif;&Sdapmifhaeoltm;odapvdkufonf/csufcsif;qdkovdkyif vmNyD vmNyD [k cyftkyftkyfNyefaNzvdkufaomtoHudk Bum;vdkuf&onf/wHcg;qDodkhaomhvmzGif;ay;olrSm vSvSrGef r[kwfbJ OD;armifBuD; orD;tBuD;qHk; tysdKBuD;q&mrrcifpdefNzpfaeavonf/ xGef;ausmf onf tenf;i,f thHtm;oifhoGm;onf/ odkhaomf xGef;ausmf onfrnfodkhrQraNymbJ wHcg;abmifudkudkifum tdrfwGif;odkh vSrf;0ifvdkufonf/ odkhaomfvnf; aomufxm;onfht&SdefaBumifhabmifudkudkifxm;aomfvnf; xGef;ausmf udk,fBuD;onf ,drf;um,dkifumNzpfaeonf/tdk .. tdk ..cifcifpdef onf olrrsufpda&ShwGif ,drf;xdk;aeaom xGef;ausmf udkrnfodkhvkyfay;&rnfrodoNzifh cyftkyftkyfatmfumBunfhaeonf/ wcPrSmyif cifcifpdef vufonf xGef;ausmf vufarmif;udk qkyfudkif&if;tenf;i,fxdef;ay;vdkufonf/ xGef;ausmf qDrS cyfoif;oif;ysHhvTifhvmaom t&ufeHhaBumifh cifcifpdefESmacgif;&IHvdkufrdonf/ xGef;ausmf onf twGif;wHcg;abmifudkudkifum &yfaeqJ/ tdrfcef;twGif;okdhqufumavsmufoGm;rnfh[efrNy/ xdkhaBumifh cifcifpdef onf wHcg;udkydwfum aomhrsm;udkaocsmpGmcwfavonf/xdkhaemuf xGef;ausmf udkwJGNyD; {nfhcef;bufodkhavsmufvmcJhonf/ xdkokdhoGm;&if; xGef;ausmf udk,fonfvJusawmhrwwf ,dkifueJNzpfoGm;&m cifcifpdef onf xGef;ausmf udk,fudk twif;yifqJGxm;&onf/ xdktcgxGef;ausmf udk,fonf cifcifpdefzufodkh tvdkufoifhNyefygvmNyD; xGef;ausmf vufwpfzufonf cifcifpdef cg;av;udkqJG,lumzufvdkufavonf/ cifcifpdef udk,fvHk;av;onf qwf ueJ wkefoGm;avonf/r ..r pdef .. aqm aqm &D;aemf ..tif; .. tif; ..NrefNref tdyfcef;wGif;odkh a&mufvsifNyD;a&m [k oabmydkufum cifcifpdef onf xGef;ausmfudk,fBuD;udkatmifhtnf;umwJGNyD; olhtdyfcef;&Sd&mzufodkh cyfoGufoGufvSrf;avonf/ xGef;ausmf tdyfcef;wHcg;udkzGifhNyD;aemuf tdyfcef;rD;cvkwfudk cifcifpdefvufESifhprf;aepOfrSmyif oefvSaom wHcg;ywÅmaBumifhtdyfcef;wHcg;onfNyefydwfoGm;avonf/ rl;omrl;aeaomfvnf; oaumifhom; xGef;ausmf vufrsm;onfcsufcsif;qdkovdkyif wHcg;tm;*sufxkd;vdkufonf/ cifcifpdefum; xdktNzpftysufrsm;udk rodao;/ tarSmifxJwGiftdyfcef;rD;cvkwfudkom vufNzifhprf;um&SmaeqJ/ cvkwf udk&SmawGhNyD; rD;zGifhNyD;aomtcgwGif cifcifpdefvufwdkhonf xGef;ausmf xHodkhNyefa&mufvmNyD; wzefNyefwJGum a&ShrvSrf;rurf;wGif&SdaomukwifqDodkhydkhay;avonf/ukwifab;udkuyfrdaomtcg xGef;ausmf onf ukwifay: odkhvSJcsvdkufavonf/ odkhaomf xGef;ausmf vufonfcifcifpdef cg;udkzufxm;NrJNzpfaomaBumifh cifcifpdef udk,fvHk;av;onfvnf; xGef;ausmf udk,fay:odkharSmufíusvmavonf/[if .. tdk .. b,fvdk ...rSefygonf/ xGef;ausmf onf tcsdefqJGraeawmhyJ cifcifpdef EIwfcrf;tpHkudk qJG,lumpkyferf;vdkufawmh tysdKBuD;cifcifpdef &ifxJwGifwkefcgoGm;&avonf/ NyD;awmhrS &kef;ukef&ef owd0ifvmNyD; &kef;aomfvnf; oefrmvSaomxGef;ausmf vufrsm;Bum;0,f pyg;BuD;aNrG &pfywfNcif;udkcH&aom om;aumifuJhodkh &kef;írvGwfEdlifawmhacs/
  • 8. xdkhNyif olru &kef;avav ykqdk;wGif;rS xGef;ausmf ylaEG;um axmifrwfaeaom vD;wefBuD;onf olr qD;pyfESifh apmufzkwftHk wpfckvHk;tESHhudk ydkNyD;xdawGhavav Nzpfaeonf/ wpfcgrS rBuHKzl;aom tawGhaBumifh cifcifpdefonf def;wvdef;wdef; ewfzrf;cH&ouJhodkh NzpfoGm;NyD; &ifxJwGif EHk;csdum wNznf;Nznf;csif;NidrfusoGm;avonf/rdef;rusrf;ausaom xGef;atmif odvdkufNyD/ xdkhaBumifh cifcifpdef udk,fudkcsKyfaESmifxm;aom olhvufrsm;udkcifcifpdef wifqHkBuD;&Sd&modkha&Thum Nznf;Nznf;wzHk tenf;i,f tm;pdkufumwpfrsdK;Nzifh qkyfumvnf;aumif;?e,fumvnf;aumif;? zspfumnSpfumNzifhvnf;aumif; cifcifpdef zifom;BuD;rsm;udk okH;oyfudkifwG,f&if;umrcvkwfudkpzGifhaeNyDNzpfonf/cifcifpdef touf&IoHrsm;onfvnf; Nyif;xefvmaeNyD/ xGef;ausmf onf cifcifpdefudk,fvHk;av;udkyufvufvSefum tdyf,may: odkhvSJcsvdkufavonf/ wpfNydKufeufwnf;vdkyif olrxrDudkqJGvSefumwifvdkufonf/armif armifxGef; .. rvkyf&bl; .. tdk .. [m .. [ifh [ifh ..cifcifpdef xrDvefwufoGm;pOfrSmyif xGef;ausmf vufu olrapmufywftHkav;udk qkyfudkifvdkufavonf/xlxlxyfxyfNzpfaeaom tarT;awGatmufrSm&Sdvifhupm; olrapmufzkwf onf azgif;um; um El;nhHaeonf/xGef;ausmf vufnId;zsm;av;u apmufzkwftuJGaBumif;xJodkh tzsm;av;rQomxdk;oGif;vkdufNyD;apmufaph&Sdrnf[kxif&aom ae&mem;odkh rSef;qNyD; vufnId;udk aumfwifvdkufavonf/tarh .. [ifh .. uRwf uRwf ..cifcifpdef wpfudk,fvHk; wqwfqwfwkefcgoGm;&avonf/ rwkef cHEdlif&dk;vm;? &omzl; qdkonfrSmrdef;rwdkhumrwHcg;udkzGifh&ef txG#ftacgiftcsKyf yifr[kwfavm/ xGef;ausmf qufNyD;uvdavaomtcgwGifapmuf&nfrsm;onf wNznf;Nznf;csif; tacgif;0wGif pdkpGwfumvmaeonf/ cifcifpdef &omzl; onfywÅNrm;aoG;a&mifNzifh ,ckqdkvQif ododomomBuD;udkyif plxGufumvmaeonf/ raeEdlifawmhaom xGef;ausmf onfxdk aigufawmufav;Nzpfaeaom tpdudk olyg;pyfNzifhiHkum tomt,mpkyfoGif;vdkufaoonf/&I; &Svl; &Svl; ... tdk tdk ... tm; ..cifcifpdef wpfa,mufNzwfNzwfvl;um rsufvHk;xJwGifrD;yGifhoGm;avonf/ q&mryDyD t&SuftaBumufBuD;rm;vSay&mxGef;ausmf vkyf&yfonf olrpdwful;ESifhawmifawG;rBunfhcJhzl;acs/xdkhaBumifhvnf; twif;yifukef;&kH;xumarmifxGef; .. i&JawGBuD;ukefyghr,fuG,f .. awmfNyD awmfNyDtck&yf ..tysdKBuD;u taBumuftuefaNymvmaomtcgwGif xGef;ausmf onfyg;pyfem;odkha&mufvmNyDNzpfaom 0ufom;wkH;BuD;rpm;vdkuf&yJ vGwfoGm;rnfpdk;oNzifh ol;yg;pyfudk olrapmufzkwfqDrScGgNyD;aemuf cifcifpdef udk ukwifay:odkhaNz;nSif;pGmNyefwGef;NyD;vSJvdkufavonf/ NyD;aemuf pdkpGwfaeNyDNzpfaom cifcifpdef tacgif;twGif;odkholvD;BuD;udkaNz;nSif;pGmNzifh pfNrKyf,Hk oGif;vdkufavonf/ ylaEG;NyD;rmawmifaeaom xGef;ausmf vD;BuD;xdyfrScarmufyHkpHatmfvHNyJpfBuD;onf t&nfBunfrsm;Nzifh pdkpGwfum El;nHhacsmarThaeaom cifcifpdef &Jyawmif;cwfaeomapmufywfEIwfcrf;om;rsm;udk Nznf;nSif;pGmyGwfwdkufNyD;0ifoGm;avonf/tif .. &SD; uRwf uRwf .. tGef; ..cifcifpdef t&rf;udk iHhvifhaerdNyDNzpfonf/ olaygifESpfacsmif;udk wwfEdliforQum;um aemufxyf0ifvmrnfhylaEG;aomtacsmif;udkapmifharQmfaerdonf/ cufaeonfum; xGef;ausmf/ olpfNrKyf,HkoGif;xm;aomvD;udkqufrxnfhyJ Dtwdkif;yifpdrfxm;onf/ NyD;awmholhvufawGu cifcifpdef tusÐus,foD;rsm;udk ZdrfqJGumNznf;Nznf;csif;NzKwfaeavonf/ atmufrSaeNyD; awmfawmfcHpm;ae&NyDNzpfaom cifcifpdef onf pdwfr&SnfEdlifpGmNzifh0kdif;ulnDNyD;cRwfay;aeavonf/ zGHhxGm;qlNzdK;avaom cifcifpdef EdkhBuD;ESpfvHk;onfNzLazG;0if;ypGmxGufvmNyDNzpfonf/ vD;pfudk pdrfxm;&if;yif xGef;ausmf onf cifcifpdef EdkhBuD;ESpfvHk;udkqkwfe,fum EdkhoD;acgif;rsm;ygrusef ol vufr ESifh vufnId;Bum;wGifvdSrfhacsumay;aeavonf/
  • 9. vD;wefBuD;udkum;xyfoGif;Ncif;r&SdyJ waighaighNzpfoGm;atmif qwfueJqwfueJawmifay;vdkufonf/ cifcifpdefapmufacgif;wGif;rS t&nfBunfwdkhum; a&wHcGefpD;ouJhodkh woGifoGifxGufusvmavonf/cifcifpdef um;tawmfav;udkyif cHpm;&cufaeacsNyD/ xdkhaBumifhvnf; atmufrSaeum w[if;[if; wtif;tif;vkyfum toHaetoHxm;Nzifh vkyf&eftcsufay;onf/ okdhaomf xGef;ausmf urodcsifa,mifaqmifumEdkhBuD;rsm;ESifhomeyrf;vHk;aeonf/ rnfodkhrQ awmifhrcHEdlifawmhonfhtqHk;rawmharmifxGef; .. tif; [if; [if ; .. rr udk xyfNyD;rESdyfpufcsifygeJhawmh ... vkyfp&m&Sdwm vkyfawmhavuG,f ..xkduJhodkh cifcifpdef onf ryD0g;w0g; EIwfrSzGifhqdkumawmif;qkdygaomfvnf; r&/ xGef;ausmf onfcPrQBumonftxd aeNrJtwdkif;qufvkyfae&m cifcifpdef onf ausmav;aumhwufvmvdkuf?cg;av;aumhwufvmvdkufNzifh t&rf;a[mhaeNyDNzpfonf/ olr pif;aomaygifESpfacsmif;rSmvnf; tNidrfraeEdlifawmhyJpkvdkufum;vdkufNzifh xGef;ausmf vdk;csufudk apmifharQmfumaeayNyD/Aspf .. ywpf ywpf .. pGwf zGyf .. trav; av; [if; [if; [if; .. bkef ; ..xGef;ausmf onf usefaeaomvD;wefBuD;udk wpfcgwnf;aqmifhum tqHk;xdoGif;csvdkufavonf/ atmufrSaeaomcifcifpdef udk,fvHk;av;onf xGef;ausmf vpf ESifh olr om;tdrft0 wdkh wkdufrdavaomtcgwGif olr zifom;BuD;rsm; onf tdyf,may: rS wpfawmifcefhBuGoGm;NyD;aemuf bkef; ueJ arTh,may: odkhNyefusoGm;Ncif;Nzpfonf/apmufacgif; xJwGifusOfNyD;pdrfhwufvmonfrSmvnf; yk&Gufqdwf wpfaomif;cefh olrtzkwftwGif;odkhw&G&GpDwef;NyD;Nzwfoef;oGm;onfhES,f cHpm;ae&onf/xkdhaemufwGifawmh xGef;ausmf onf olr aygifESpfacsmif;pkvdkufNyD; olnmzufycHk;ay: odkhtvdkufoifhwifvdkufavonf/ xkdtcg cifcifpdef aNcaxmufESpfacsmif;onf yl;oGm;NyD; olraygifrsm;udkvnf;aphovdkNzpfoGm;onf/ xdkhaBumifh cifcifpdef apmufzkwfEIwfcrf;rsm;onfvnf; aphoGm;NyD; twGif; tNyifapmufywfEIwfcrf;om;rsm; onf xGef;ausmf vD;wefBuD; udk&pfywfiHkxm;ovdkNzpfoGm;avonf/ xGef;ausmf onftysdK;BuDrr wif;usyfpD;ydkifaom apmufzkwfnSpftm;aBumifh ar;aBumBuD;rsm;axmifvmumtHudkBudwfxm;&avonf/ZGd .. pGyf .. zkef; .. tdk tGef; ..Avpf .. Asd .. yvyf .. zkef; .. tm;yvpf .. yvpf .. &SD; tm; [m; .. zkef;xGef;ausmf onf olhyckH;ay: wifxm;aom cifcifpdef aygifrsm;udk vufEpfzufNzifh wif;BuyfpGm zufvsufcg;tm;udkoHk;um cifcifpdef Buyfaomfvnf; t&nfBunfrsm;aBumifh ydk;om;uJhodkh El;nHhacsmarThaeaom apmufzkwftwGif;odkh vdk;aqmifhawmhonf/ apmufzkyf EIwfcrf;om;rsm;onf aphxm;aomaBumifh ol vD;vHk;ywfvnfudknSpfxm;ovdkNzpfaeaomaBumifh xGef;ausmf rSm tifrwefrSxl;uJvSaom umr*kPf tm&kHudk cHpm;ae&onf/ xdkhaBumifholhcg;tm;udk oHk;umtm;yg;aqmifhavaomtcgwGif ol qD;pyf ESifh aphxm;aomcifcifpdef aygifESpfacsmif;wdkh&kdufrdoHrSm wzkef;zkef;Nrnf aeNyD;? tdkifxGufvmaom t&nfBunf rsm;aBumifh vD;0if vD;xGuf vkyfavwdkif;xGufvmaom wZGdZdG? wAdsAsd toHrsm; onf ESpfa,mufvHk; pdwfudkydkxefapavonf/ xdkodkh xGef;ausmf qD;pyfonf cifcifpdef aphxm;aom aygif&if;wdkh xd&kdufrdaomtcgwGif NzLazG;um qlNzdL;rdkharmufaeaom cifcifpdef EkdhESpfvHk;onfvnf; wqwfqwfwkefum cifcifpdef ar;aph &Sd&modkh tdueJtdueJ qefwufoGm;Buavonf/ xdkuJhodkhEdkh ESpfvHk; wwkefwkefNzpfaeonfudkNrif&aom xGef;ausmf onf ydkrdk ESmuefvmum cifcifpdef EdkhBuD;ESpfvHk;udkolvufz0g; ESpfcktwGif;okdh rufarmpGm pkHudkifNyD;aemuf BuHK;umBuHK;um vdk;avawmhonf/xGef;ausmf onf aES;&mrSNref? Nref&mrSNyif;? Nyif;&mrS av;zsOf;wJhGwGhJ ponfNzifh pnf;csufrsm;udktoGiftrsdK;rsdK;aNymif;NyD;vdk;avaomtcg cifcifpdef acgif;rsm;onf csmcsmvnfum rl;arhawmhrwwf umr*kPftm&kHzrf;pm;Ncif;udkcH&avonf/ olrtouf&IoHrsm;um; Nyif;xefyHkrSm wpfrdkifc&D;udk rem;wrf;w&Burf;aNy;vmaomoluJhodkhyif/ xGef;ausmf vdk;yHkvdk;enf;rSmaumif;vGef;vSoNzifh olrtzkwftwGif;rSt&nfBunfwdkhonf w&a[myifxyfrHumxGufvmavonf/ xdkhaBumifhyif xGef;ausmf vD;t0iftxGufpdwfvmonfESifhtrQ t*Fvdyfvdk (Slurping Sond ) rsm;onf tcef;xJwGif yJhwifxyfumaeawmhonf/
  • 10. cifcifpdef onf olrzifudk wwfEdliforQavxJodkhaNrSmufxm;NyD; xGef;ausmf rD;yGifhrwwfvdk;aqmfcsufrsm;udktm;yg;w&cH,lae&if; rnfodkhNzpfvmonfrod? olrudk,fxJrS wpfpHkwpf&m onf tNyifodkhxGufcsifaeonf/tm;yg;w&aqmifhaeaom xGef;ausmf vD;wefBuD; onf azgifum;wif;vmNyD; umraoG;rsm; OD;aESmuftwGif;odkhvBurf; pD;0ifonfhtwGuf rsuf&nfrsm;xGufrwwfcHpm;ae&aomPfudk rcHEdlifawmhaomaBumifhwpfukd,fvHk;&Sdtm;rsm;udknSpfum tHudkzspfzspfrnfatmifBudwf&if; 15 csufrQaqmifhNyD;aomtcgwGiftrav; av ; .. armif armif armif xGef; .. tkd [if [if ... tGef tGef tdk tdk tm ; ..[k cifcifpdef onf wpfukd,fvHk;wGefhvdrfvmNyD; olr apmufzkwf EIwfcrf; twGif;ESifhtNyifeH&Hrsm;yg &IHumyGumNzifhvufrsm;onfvnf; tdyf,mcif;udk uspfuspfygatmifqkyf&if; olrqD;pyf udk xGef;ausmf qD;pyf&Sd&modkhzduyfvdkufNyD; aumhumaumhumNzifh NyD;qHk;Ncif;odkha&mufoGm;avonf/ olr apmufzkwf eH&Hrsm;onf&IHumyGumNzifh xGef;ausmf vD;wefywfvnfwpfavsmufudk nSpfaeaomtcgwGif xGef;ausmf onfvnf; cifcifpdefaygifrsm;udk vufESpfzufNzifhodkif;zuf&if; ol cg;udkaumhum ylaEG;yspfaxG;aom okwf&nfylrsm;udk cifcifpdef apmufzkwftwGif;odkh waighaighNzifh yef;xkwfaeawmhonf/__________________________________________________naeopfpufydwfawmh xGef;ausmf opfukefo,frsm;ESihfnpmauR;&efygoGm;oNzifh vSvSrGefwpfa,mufwnf;tdrfodkhNyefoGm;cJhonf/ wpfnaevHk; xGef;ausmf udkarQmfvifhaeaomfvnf; n(9) em&Dxdk;onftxdxGef;ausmf Nyefrvmao;oNzifh tdyf,may: odkhwufvSJaevdkufonf/ tdrfa&ShwGifrawmh rrpdef onf xHk;pHtwdkif;yifausmif;om;rsm;avhusifhcef;pmtkyfrsm;udk trSwfzsuf&if; tvkyf&Iyfaeonf/vSvSrGef onf tdyf,may: wGifvSJae&if; aehcif;zufutNzpftysufrsm;udk NyefaNymif;umpOf;pm;aerdonf/ aehcif;uolraehpOfarQmfvifhawmifhwaecJh&aom qE´rsm;Nynfh0cgeD;rS taNctaet& ysufNym;oGm;cJh&onfudkolrpdwfxJwGif ,ckxufxd wEkHEHk ESifh rcsihfr&JNzpfvsufyif&Sdaeao;onf/xGef;ausmf vdifwefBuD;onf wu,fhudkpHcsdefrDvSonf/ [dkwpfaeh eHufydkif; xrif;pm;cef;xJwGif olrudk xGef;ausmfuaemufzufrSaeí zufvdkufpOfu(olruvnf; rdrd&& zduyfay;vdkufpOf) xdawGhvdkuf&aom xGef;ausmf vdifwef?wpfzef aehvnfuopfpufxJwGif olr vufNzifh rdrd&& yGwfoyfay;cJhaom iyJacsmif;BuD;onfenf;enf;aemaemBuD;r[kwf/ olr pdwfxif (7)vufravmufawmh&Sdrnf/ rmvdkufonfrSmvnf;oHacsmif;tvm;rSwf&onf/ wpfu,fhudkrufavmufwJh [mBuD;ygvm;/ vSvSrGef wpfa,muf awG;avavpdwfydkvIyf&Sm;avav/ oufysif;armrsm;udk csvdkuf&onfrSmvnf; cPcP/ pdwfvIyf&Sm;vmonfESifhtrQ olrapmufywftwGif;wGif &Gpd&Gpd NzpfvmNyD; tpGrf;ukef cHcsifpdwfwdkhay: vmonfrSmvnf; b,fvdkrS xdef;vdkhr&atmifyif/Dvdk vD;wefrsdK; ESifh BuHKcsifprf;vGef;vSygbd/ a[m cs&NyefNyDoufysif;arm aemufwpfcsuf/tdyf,may: wGifvSJae&mrS vSvSrGef onf xumukwifay: rSqif;vdkufNyD; olrt0wftpm;rsm;tm;vHk;udkcRwfvdkufonf/NyD;awmh tdyfcef;wHcg;twGif;zufrS xkd;xm;aom *vefhudk NzKwfum tdyf,may: wGifNyefvSJvdkufNyD;xGef;ausmf wpfa,muf Dwpfnawmh olrtcef;odkhvmrnf[k taotcsmwGufvdkufum tem;&Sdapmifudk ukd,fay:wGifvTrf;vdkufNyD; pdwfcsvufcs tdyfNypfvdkufavonf/xxxxxxxxxxxnu cifcifpdefwpfa,muf xGef;ausmf tcef;rSNyefxGufvmawmh reuf(2)em&D yifxdk;NyD;aeNyD/ xGef;ausmf onfcifcifpdef udknu(3)csDwdwdqJGNypfvdkufonf/ qufwdkufvdk;Ncif;r[kwfyJ em;umtaotcsmEI;ESyfumvdk;Ncif;Nzpfonf/ cifcifpdef NyefoGm;NyD;rBumrDrSmyif xGef;ausmf vnf;armyef;umtdyfaysmfoGm;avonf/reuf xGef;ausmf Edl;vmawmh(9) em&Dawmifxdk;awmhrnf/ a&csdK;&eftwGuf aemufaz;odkhxGufvmaomtcgwGifrD;zkdacsmifxJwGif tvkyf&Iyfaeaom olZm udkawGhvdkufonf/ xGef;ausmf udkawGhvdkufaomtcg olZmuNyHK;NyumEIwfqufvdkufonf/
  • 11. rsdK;rsdK; a&m olZmrrpdef ausmif;qDygoGm;w,f udkxGef;ausmfaBomf udkxGef;ausmf .. vSvSrGef urSmoGm;w,f .. opfpufudk oGm;ESifhNyDwJh .. udkxGef;ausmf at;at;aq;aq;rSomvdkufvmcJhygwJh..[kwfuJh ..udkxGef;ausmf a&csdK;NyD;&if reufpmpm;zdkh olZm toifhNyifxm;vdkufr,faemf ..aus;Zl;ygyJ olZm a&xGef;ausmf a&csdK;cef;xJa&mufonftxd wpfrsdK;av;vSum pJGaqmifrI&SdvSaom olZm&kyfoGifav;udkNrifa,mifaerdonf/ cgao;&ifcsDum wifum; aeyHkav;udk upJGrufp&maumif;vSonf/ t&yfNrifhNrifhNyD; NzLazG;aomtom;t&nfaBumifh qJGaqmifrItm;u ydkNyD;&Sdvmonf/ DreufwGifawmh oeyfcg;a&BuJudkyg;uGufusm;av;uGufxm;avawmh rdkhrdkhazgif;aeaom yg;NyifESpfzufudk BuLBuLarT;csifp&m aumif;vGef;ygbd/xGef;ausmf onf olZm tvStyrsm;udkawG;um pdwfrsm;BuGvmNyD; olZmh tay: wGifwyfrufpdwfwdkh ydkrdkvmcJhonf/a&csdK;NyD;aemuf t0wftpm;vJum xrif;pm;cef;xJodkh xGef;ausmf 0ifvmaomtcg olZm udkrawGh&awmhacs/xGef;ausmf onf olZm toifhNyifxm;ay;aom Buufom;[if; ESifhyvmwm udk aumfzDESifh arQmNyD;pm;vdkufonfrSmukefoavmufyif&Sdawmhrnf? ,ckxufxd olZmh t&dyfta,mifudkrNrif&ao;/ xGef;ausmf onfpm;aomufNyD;aomtcg yef;uefcGufa,mufrsm; udk rD;zkdacsmif&Sd abpif ay: odkhwifxm;ay;cJhonf/ NyD;aemuf{nfhcef;zufodkhxGuftvm olZm wdkh om;trd twGufay;xm;aom tcef;a&Shodkh a&mufaomtcg wHcg;onftenf;i,f[aeoNzifh bm&,fr[kwfyJ tdyfcef;qDodkh aNcvSrf;vdkufrdonf/ [aeaom wHcg;Bum;rStdyfcef;xJodkhvSrf;BunfhvdkufaomtcgwGif Nrifvdkuf&aom NrifuGif;aBumifh xGef;ausmf rSm&ifxJwGifdef;ueJNzpfoGm;&avonf/olZm onf ukwifay: wGifyufvufvSefíaeNyD; olrcE¨mukd,f atmufydkif;wGif t0wfr&SdbJ NzLazG;aomaygifwHESpfacsmif;udk l;qpfae&mrSaeNyD; auG;umaxmifxm;onf/ NyD;awmh olrvufwpfzufuaygifESpfvHk;Bum;wGifxnhfum vufnId;udk olr tacgif;twGif;odkhxdk;umoGif;xm;NyD; xkwfcsnfoGif;csnfNzifhvkyfumaeonf/olZm a,musFm;Nzpfol ausmufyJGpm; cifarmif c&D;xGufoGm;onfrSm (2)ywfausmfoGm;NyDNzpfonf/ tdyf,mESifha0;aeonfrSm twefBumoGm;NyDNzpfoNzifh olZm wpfa,muf umrqE´rsm; xdef;r&atmif NzpfaeyHk&onf/grSr[kwf&ifawmh [kdwpfaehu olZm &ifESpfrTmudk rawmfwq qkyfe,frdovdkNzpfoGm;onf udktpNyKum olZmonf,ckvdkvkyfum olhudkrsm;NrIqG,faewmvm; [k xGef;ausmf pOf;pm;aerdonf/b,fvdkyJNzpfNzpf olZm udk&atmifcspfawmhrnf [k pdwfydkif;Nzwfvsuf tdyfcef;twGif;okdh xGef;ausmfvSrf;um0ifvdkufonf/ wpftdrfvHk;wGif ESpfa,mufxJ&SdoNzifh xGef;ausmf onf tdyfcef;wHcg;udk *sufrxdk;awmhyJaph&kHomaphxm;cJhonf/ xGef;ausmf ukwifab;odkha&mufvmonftxd olZm rodao;/ olrrsufvHk;ESpfvHk;udkrSdwfumvufnId;Nzifhapmufacguf;twGif; cyfoGufoGuf xkwfcsnfoGif;csnfNzifh tvkyf&IyfaeqJ/wpfxyfwnf;om 0wfxm;aom olr &ifaphtusÐ onf tay: ESdyfoD; ESpfvHk;cefhNyKwfxGufaeoNzihf0if;rGwfumaeaom olr paeESpfckdif onf wpf0ufwpfysuf NyLwpfumxGufaeonf/ vufnId;NzifhxkwfcsnfoGif;csnf vkyfaeaom olr &wema&TBuKwf rSm tawmfyifazgif;um;umaeNyD/ xdkhtNyif tarT;trSifwpfyifrS r&SdoNzifh tqDw0if;0if; qdkouJhodkh 0if;tdumaeonf/NyD;awmh xl;xl;Ncm;Ncm; pJGrufp&maumif;aewmuawmh tuJGaBumif;av;twGif;rS wpfvufr av;ykHwpfyHkcefhtNyifzufodkh aigufawmufav;xGufaeaom olr ywåNrm;aoG;a&mifoef;aeaom &omzl; ac: eDwm&Japmufaphav;yifNzpfonf/ xGef;ausmf onf OD;pGm ol tusÐudkcRwfvdkufonf/ NyD;rS olykqdk;udkcRwfcsvdkufaomtcgwGif oliyJacsmif; onf waighaighNzifh tpmpm;&awmhrnfudk odaeonfhtvm;aysmf&TifNrL;xl;pGm axmifrwfaeavonf/ xdkhaemufwGif olZm &Sd&m ukwifay: odkhvSrf;wufvdkufaomtcgtdk .. udkxGef;ausmf ..
  • 12. vefhoGm;oNzifh olZm onf xxdkifrnfhyHkNzifhvl;vJumxvdkufygao;omnf/ gayrJhvnf; xGef;ausmf onfolrudk,fvHk;av;udkzufum ol udk,fvHk;BuD;Nzifh zdcsvdkufavonf/ NyD;aemuf olr &ifaphtusÐwGifwyfvsufusefaeaom ESdyfaphrsm;udk wpfcsufwnf;qJGum NzKwfcsvdkufavonf/ olZmtusÐ&ifywfvnf; tyGifh? xGef;ausmf tirf;r&Nzpfaeaom rsufESmBuD;uvnf; olr paeESpfcdkifqDodkhtusyifudk udkxGef;ausmf .. rawmfygzl;&Sif .. r r vkyfygeJh ... tif;olZm onf toHav;wkefwkef,if,ifNzifh Niif;qefygaomfvnf; olr udk,fvHk;av;um; vIyfvDvIyfvJhNzifh olr EdkhtHkBuD;rsm;udk yifhumwifay;aeonf/ xGef;ausmf onf yxrwpfvHk;udk iHkumpdkhonf/ wpfvHk;NyD;awmhaemufwpfvHk;udk qufumpdkhay;Nyefonf/ e*dkuyif cyfaxmifaxmifav;Nzpfaeaom olZm EdkhoD;av;rsm;onfrdkhum aumhcRefwufvmoNzifh ydkNyD;rufarmp&maumif;vmaomaBumifh xGef;ausmf onf olZmNzLazG;azgif;tdaeaom EdkhtkHom;av;rsm;udk ywfywfvnf tESHh EIwfcrf;NzifhzdqJGvdkuf vQmzsm;av;Nzifhxdk;vdkuf,ufay;vdkufNzifh ol cspfNcif;trIudkwNznf;Nznf;vIyf&Sm;aeavonf/aNymír&oNzifhvm; odkhr[kwf raNymcsifavmufatmif umrpdwfrsm;zHk;vTrf;vmaomaBumifhyifvm;rodyg? olZmEIwfzsm;qDrS Niif;y,foHrsm;qufvufrxGufvmawmhyJ rsufvHk;rsm;onf pif;umusoGm;avonf/EdkhtHk;av;ESpfckudk ae&mtEHSherf;NyD;oGm;aomtcgwGif xGef;ausmf onf olZm eHapmif;wpfavsmuftm;olhEIwfcrf;rsm;Nzifh zdvdkuf qJGvdkufESifh qufumerf;ay;aeNyefonf/ olZm um; ig;z,fNyefvl;ouJhodkh wwGefhwGefhNzifhrnfodkhrQtNidrfraeEdlifawmhacs/ xdkhtwlyif xGef;ausmf cE¨mudk,fwGif;wGifvnf; &r®ufaoG;rsm;Nzifh AavmifqlumvmaeNyDNzpfonf/ xdkhaBumifh xGef;ausmf onf cg;qefhum tdyf,may: wGifxumxdkifvdkufonf/ NyD;aemuf olZm &wema&TBuKwf tm; tuJcyfovdkBunhfvdkufaomtcgwGif awmfawmfBuD;udkazgif;rdkhaeonfudkawGh&NyD; t0wGifvnf;cspfa&ShaNy;t&nfrsm; vnf; [D;av;ckdaeonf/xdkodkh xGef;ausmf pdkufBunfhaepOfrSmyif olZm onf olr&ifywfwpfckvHk; [mvm[if;vif;Nzpfaeaomfvnf;zHk;uG,f&efrBudK;pm;onfhtNyif olr tusÐudkcRwfNypfvdkufNyD;aemuf xGef;ausmfudkausmay;umwpfapmif;av;Nzpfatmif vkyfvdkufonf/ xdktcgwGif olZm zif;om;tdtdBuD;rsm; onfazgif;wpfum rdkharmufoGm;BuNyD; xGef;ausmf udkrsufpNypfaeoa,mifa,mif/ Dvdk zdwfac: aeaomzifom;BuD;rsm;aBumifh xGef;ausmf &ifxJwGif zsif; ueJNzpfoGm;&NyD; csufcsif;qdkovdkyif xGef;ausmf onfzifom;tdtdBuD;rsm;qDodkh ol ESmacgif;udkESpfum ae&mtEShHerf;&Iduf&if; olhvufrsm;Nzifhvnf; tirf;r&yifyGwfoyfqkyfe,fum udkifwG,fzspfnSpfavawmhonf/NyD;awmh xGef;ausmf onf olZm tay: zufaNcaxmufudk r,lvdkufNyD; l;udkauG;apum olZmykcHk;qDodkhwGef;umwifvdkufonf/ NyD;aemuf ukwifay: wGif qefhxm;aom olZm aygifudkcGuml;axmufumxdkifvdkufonf/ wpfqufwnf;qdkovdkyif plrdkhrdkhav;Nzpfaeaom olr tuJGaBumif;ESpfcktBum;&SdEIwfcrf;om; ESpfckxJodkh olvdifwefBuD;udk w&pfcsif;ESJhumoGif;avawmhonf/ xdkodkhoGif;&if;wpfqHk;xd0ifoGm;aomtcg ukwifay: wGif qefhxm;aom olZm aNcaxmufudk l;acgufauG;rSudkifum olZm ycHk;qDodkhxyfrHumwGef;wifay;vdkufNyefonf/ xdktcg olZm wifom;BuD;rsm; onfydkrdkumBuGwufvmNyD; xGef;ausmfonf aqmifhaBumifhxdkifum ae&mNyef,lvdkufonf/ zg;pD;ig;pD;qdkonfrSm DvdkyHkpHrsdK;udk ac:yHk&avonf/tb,fhaBumifhqdkaomf olZm onf xGef;ausmf atmufzufwGif aygifESpfacsmif;udk olrycHk;rsm;qDodkha&mufatmifwGef;wifNcif;cHxm;&oNzifh zifom;BuD;rsm;onf tdyf,may: rSBuGwufvsuf olr &wema&TBuKwf vrf;aBumif;rSmtpGrf;ukef yGifhtmvsuf&Sdonf/ tay: wGif&Sdaom xGef;ausmf onf aqmifhaBumifhxdkifvsuf olZmaygif&if;ESpfzufudk olhaygifrsm;Nzifhzdvsuf aNratmufpdkufxdk; enf;Nzifh ol iyJBuD;Nzifh zdumzdumxdk;oGif;avawmhESpfa,mufpvHk; rBuHKzl;atmifxl;uJvSonfh t&omudk wif;NynfhusyfNynhfcHpm;&avonf/xGef;ausmf tm;Nyif;vSaom aqmifhcsufrsm;aBumifh olZm wifom;rsm; ESifh aygifwHESpfacsmif;wpfavsmuf&Sdtom;pdkifrsm;onf tdueJ tdueJ wkefcgoGm;Buavonf/ xdkodkh aqmifhvdk;ae&if; ESifh xGef;ausmf vufwpfzuf uolr rdkharmufumBuGwufaeaom &iftpHkudkvSrf;um qJGudkif qkyfe,fay;&if; aygifwHt&if;twGif;om;rsm; ESifhwifom;tdtdBuD;rsm;udkvnf; qkyfe,fvdkuf tomt,myGwfoyfay;vdkufNzifh rtm;&atmif tvkyf&Iyfaeavonf/olZm tzdkht&om&SdvdkufonfrSm wpfudk,fvHk;yif tDqdrfhaeatmifaumif;vSayonf/ olr ESvHk;onfvnf;
  • 13. ckefvdkufonfrSm &ifywfwpfckvHk;yGifhxGufrwwfawmhyif/ xGef;ausmf tzdkhrSmvnf; olrwifom;BuD;rsm;ESifhEdkhtHkBuD;rsm;udk pdwfwdkif;us udkifwG,foHk;oyfcGifh&aeoNzifh umraoG;rsm;wpfudk,fvHk;odkh t&Sdeft[kefrNywfpD;vsufaqmifhcsufrsm;rSmvnf; ydkrdkeuf&Idif;tm;ygvmavonf/ xdkodkht&Sdeft[kefrNywfaqmifhae&mrS xGef;ausmf &kwfw&uf&yfwefhvdkufaomtcg olZm rSm em;rvnfEdlifatmifNzpfoGm;&onf/olZm .. cg;udkvdrfNyD;b,fzufudk apmif;vdkufygvm; ..xGef;ausmfaNymonfhtwdkif; olZm onf olrudk,fukd b,fzufodkhapmif;vdkufaomtcg xGef;ausmf uvnf;tvdkufoifhyif olr nmzufaNcaxmufudk b,fzufaygifay: odkh xdef;udkifum xyfay;vdkufonf/ olZmtaetxm;onf ykpGefxkyfauG;uJhokdhNzpfoGm;acsavNyD/ xdkhaemuf xGef;ausmf onf olvdifwefBuD;udkwifom;rsm;aemufrS roGif;bJ tzkwfwnfhwnfhrS vdk;oGif;vdkufavonf/ xdktcg olZm aygifrsm;onfwpfapmif;taetxm;Nzifh xyfvsuf&SdaeaomaBumifh olr tzkwfEIwfcrf;om;rsm;onf xGef;ausmf vdifwefBuD;udk pnf;pnf;ydkifydkifNzifh &pfywfzspfnSpfay;ovdkNzpfoGm;avonf/ xGef;ausmf twGuf tvGefrSyifpnf;pdrfxl;vSovdk olZm tzdkhrSmvnf; BuD;rm;wkwfcdkifvSaom xGef;ausmf ylaEG;rmawmifhaeaomvdifwefBuD;yGwfwdkuf0ifxGufaerIudk ydkNyD;yDyDNyifNyif cHpm;&avonf/ xdkhNyif xGef;ausmfwpfcsufaqmifhvdkufavwdkif; olr &omzl;av;udk ususeeyif xdrdaav&m tvdk;cHae&aom olZm ukd,fvHk;NzLNzLazG;azG;av; wpfckvHk;rSm umraZmt[kefaBumifh yef;Eka&mifyifruawmhyJ eDNref;ae&&SmacsNyD/rBumvdkufygacs? olZm wpfa,muf olr azgif;um;aeaom wifom;BuD;rsm; a&Shaemufab;b,fnm vl;umwpfudk,fvHk; qwfueJ qwfueJ wkefvsuf NyD;qHk;Ncif;odkha&mufavonf/ olZm tzkwfEIwfcrf;rsm;onf vnf;wif;BuyfpGmNzifh xGef;ausmf vdifwefudk a&b0JpkyfcGufrsm;pkyfouJhodkh pkyf,lavaomtcg xGef;ausmf onfokwf&nfrsm;omru wpfudk,fvHk;vSnfhywfaeaom olaoG;rsm;yif olhvdifwefrSxGufoGm;bdouJhodkh cHpm;&vsufumrtxG#ftxdyfodkha&muf&SdoGm;avawmhownf;/ NyD;ygNyD

×