This presentation will provide you with the necessary tools and give you ideas on how to engage students in pronunciation practice. In addition, students will get aware of the importance of pronunciation
This session will not only give youthe answers to why, what and howto teach, regarding pronunciation;but also provide you with sometips, meaningful activities andexercises to foster the learning andteaching of English pronunciation.TODAY’S AIM
Think about yourprevious English learning experience :What percentage of your lesson time was devoted topronunciation?How would you rate the quality of your teachers’pronunciation of English (good, fair, poor)?Which techniques for teaching pronunciation did yourteachers use?What type of feedback did you receive regarding yourpronunciation?What else contributed to your English pronunciationlearning? (at and outside school)?
Look at the cartoon and discuss why Englishis considered to be a Lingua Franca
So, Why teaching pronunciation ?English is the major lingua francaglobally.More and more people need touse English for social, educational,and professional reasons in allkinds of contexts, locally andinternationally.It is essential that people who useEnglish to communicate have ahigh level of intelligibility. (Celce-Murcia et al, 1996)
What to teach:Sounds• vowels• Consonants• diphthongsStress andintonation• words• sentencesRhythmandlinking• speech• sentencessegmentalssuprasegmentals
When to teach?When students…1. confuse or distort specific soundsthat may interfere withcomprehension2. Use pronunciations that arestigmatized. E.g. tree for three3. Distort the pronunciation of wordsby stressing the wrong syllable4. Use inappropriate intonation
Younger children who are learning English seldomneed a great deal of help with pronunciation.Learners older than 12 are more likely to have troublewith specific words, sounds, intonation patterns…require focused instruction.Facts concerning pronunciation. Do you agree,Why? Why not?
Pronunciation difficultiesInterference from the first language:The sounds of the first language are imprintedvery early in the child’s development; however,most children are born with the vocalequipment to produce the sounds of anylanguage.Some pronunciation problems inEnglish:•Vowel combination sounds•Homographs (read and read)•Homophones (red and read)•Specific consonant sounds: /th/ /sh/•Word/sentence stress
How to teach pronunciation INTUITIVE-IMITATIVE: pronunciation isacquired as a result of exposure andinteraction in an environment where thetarget language is spoken. ANALYTIC-LINGUISTIC : pronunciation islearned through instruction in order toraise awarenessCorrect inputMeaningful pronunciationactivities
1. LISTENING DISCRIMINATION:listening for pronunciation, listening for meaning
Listen to the sentences and circle the correctsentence that follows the dialogue:a) How many sheep do you have?b) Do you own a ship?a) Yes,she can’t sit next to youb) No, go ahead this seat is freea) Really? Do you know how to knit?b) My clothes are so neat123
2. DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS:phonemic charts, minimal pairs, transcriptions
Basic Principle: Understanding of soundsprecedes understanding of the written word.Bird A.E ˈbərdBeard A.E ˈbirdBeer A.E ˈbirBear A.E ˈber
3. CONTROLLED PRACTICE:drills, repetition, shadow reading, readingaloud, role plays.
Intonation: Noun or VerbKnowing when and where to stress the words youuse is very important for understanding, and ispart of a good accent. A clear example is that ofthe different stress in nouns and verbs.to in’sult, an ‘insultto ob’ject, an ‘objectto per’mit, a ‘permitto pre’sent, a ‘presentto pro’duce, a ‘produceto pro’ject, a ‘projectto pro’test, a ‘protestTo re’search, a ‘researchThe stress isrepresented by anAphostrophe rightbefore the stressedsyllable
1-You need to insert a paragraph here on this newspaperinsert.2- Can you object to this object?3- I’d like to present you with this present.4- The manufacturer couldnt recall if thered been arecall.5-The religious convert wanted to convert the world.6-The political rebels wanted to rebel against the world.7- Grandma wanted to record a new record for his latestartist.8- If you perfect your intonation, your accent will beperfect.9-Due to the drought, the fields didnt produce muchproduce this year.10- Unfortunately, City Hall wouldnt permit them to get apermit.Read the following sentences aloud:
Practice these tongue - twisters in pairs1-Betty bought a bit of butterbut the bit of butter Bettybought was bitter so Bettybought a better bit of butter andthe batter was betterhttp://storynory.com/2008/07/29/betty-butter/
TEACHING PRINCIPLES:Setting realistic goalsIntegrating pronunciation to listening andspeaking skills practiceBeing student-centeredHelping learners become self-reliant
ASSESSING PRONUNCIATION4-Teacher’s feedback1-Diagnostic:Identifying learners’pronunciation needs2-On-going feedback:growingawareness on progress andfocus on improvement3-Self monitoring and peerfeedbackCelce-Murcia et al, 2001
Key points in pronunciationteaching :Perception and Production Practice ,practice, and practice Patience Relaxing atmosphere, confidencebuilding, awareness raisingFocus on communication
REFLECTIONS:Learning pronunciation requires an enormousamount of practice, especially at early stages.Pronunciation lessons work best if they involvethe students in actually speaking, rather thanin just learning facts or rules of pronunciation.Pronunciation teaching works better if thefocus is on larger chunks of speech, such aswords, phrases and sentences.
Bibliography and webographyCelce-Murcia, Brinton, Goodwin (1996) TEACHING PRONUNCIATION. AReference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.Cambridge:CUPCelce-Murcia, Marianne (2001) TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND ORFOREIGN LANGUAGE. United Kingdom:Heinle-Heinle.http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/phono.htmlhttp://www.tedpower.co.uk/minimal.html