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  • 1. HusseinRevivalism No.7 2011The Spring of photo by Ahmed al-HusseiniMartyrdom Festival:A Communication Channel Amongst Nations
  • 2. ISSN ID 63960 Iraqi JS ID 1020 Registery NO.1305 General director Muhammed H. Al-ameedy Editor-In-chief Haidar M. Al-manqoshi Editors Sabah al-Talkani Hussein Na`ama Fadhel al-Sharifi Safa`a al-sa`adi Art designer Mohsin Maash Checked by Dr. M.-R. Fakhr-Rohani Dr.Fatima Razavi Photographers Hassan Maash Kasem Al-ammidy Mobile (964) 780 1950850 Tel- +964 32 325194 +964 32 321776 E-mailenglish@imamhussain.org Websiteww.imamhussain.org/mag welcomeWe would like to expressour gratitude to thosewho contributed in ourmagazine. This magazineaspires to convey themessage of Imam al- Husseinto all the world informingpeople what they should knowand investigate about Imamal-Hussein and his blessedmovement.
  • 3. Human Rights & Universal Declaration The sacred books respect the human rights and give everybody theirrights,They worked on equality and justice among all classes. Islam refers tojustice in many Quranic verses, Allah the Almighty says, "Indeed, Allah ordersjustice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality andbad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will bereminded." (Sura al-Nahal: 1690-). He confirms this important aspect thatwas applied by the Prophet Muhammad and his noble family, the Ahlulbayt. Inthis regard, it is noteworthy to remember that "The Rights Treatise" of the 4thInfallible Imam `Ali b. al-Hussein "Zayn al-`Abidin" is both a manifesto and oneof the best proofs in this regard. Since that time, the General Assembly of the United Nations Organizationhad been issued the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December 10,1948. It was considered the heritage of the legal authorities and a result of theWest countries civilization. The experts of the socio-economic development inthe world consider that the citizens exercise of their rights to be an essentialcondition of success of the overall development plans in continuation ofdeveloping the educational system.Some Western political and media institutions have tried to focus on Islam forits violation of the human rights. They claimed that there was no equality in theIslamic law between men and women, proclaiming a lack of respect in someMuslim countries for public freedoms or the spirit of democracy, coupled witha complete absence of the Islamic media. Thus, they represent those institutions ignorance of Islam and mixingbetween theory and application. In addition, those Western institutions arenotorious for adopting double standards regarding the political ends, andabsolutely not for humanitarian purposes. For instance, they overlook that insome countries the human rights are violated flagrantly and systematically insuch a manner aiming to achieving discrimination in the population on suchgrounds as ethnic cleansing and exploiting their lands. To these must beadded their adopting racial discrimination against people on the basis of theirskin colour. The principle of non-discrimination for peoples ethnic race and skin colouris maintained in the maxim that "The black and white are equal". This is whatwas practiced in the Battle of Karbala and carried out by Imam al-Hussein.He embraced Jawn b. Huway, his coloured slave, when he fell martyr, as hedid with the rest of his companions in the same battle. This indicates that the Editor-In-ChiefProphet Muhammad and his noble progeny are establishers of the humanrights. 3 Hussein Revivalism
  • 4. contents Contents The future of Muslims on the European continent. 14The spread Islam and the future of Muslims, conflicts and implicationsin the European continent are important things, including the qualityof life in the West 40 Seville one of the Islamic monuments in Spain Seville was in the past the capital of the Andulusian Muslims in Spain, it is the third important city in Spain. It locates in southren Spain, it is on the right beach of a large valley river,573 kms away from Madrid. 38 The History of Holy Shrine of al-Askareen The religious shrines in Iraq are holy places to the visitors fromdifferent parts of the Muslim world. Samarras city one of the ancientIslamic cities, Which contains a proud features. 50 Violence against child children make the most vuInerable group to abuse and exploitation. In this context ther was a recent United Nations report on the situation of children in the world that reflects the deteriorating global level for children, and violence against them in all parts of the world. 46 Islam in JapanIslam’s relation with Japan is quite recent as compared to those withother countries around the world.
  • 5. It is generally agreed on that history has The world today needs to be informed O a life cycle that repeats itself between one and other era; however, it is generally of the concepts of Imam al-Husseins revivalism more than before. This is noted that they are different in goal. because modern ignorance has proven u Hence it is their peace-making influence that is manifested in the developments more violent and hazardous than the ancient one, for it is equipped with r noticeable in social, intellectual, and structural framing of life wherever they modern technology, and armed with lethal means. The wars, corruption, are. injustice and infringement of rights, The incident [ Which incident ?] has extremism, and militancy which create come a different way rather than the one the terrorism destroy the principles of i that preceded it by virtue of the factors that shaped it to make it a strategic and long-lasting incident. This is the precise humanity which Islam has sought to teach and convey. The Arab nations have recently d case of the revivalism achieved in the case of Imam al-Husseins movement, embodied the Islamic intellectual revivalism of Imam al-Hussein. They which rescued the spirit of the true and have recently started a revolution and e moderate Islam from the clutches of the rulers of the Umayyad dynasty, who have changed two of the most notorious dictatorship regimes in the region. n intended to misguide the religion of Islam from the mainstream of monotheism, They are doing so in seven other Arab countries to take the same route to gain Prophethood, and Imamate. The their freedom according to the human t Umayyads plot was meant to gain the control of Islam through applying concepts of the High Commissioner [WHO ??]. There are several factors i their misconceptions, all owing to their extremism, militancy, and terrorism. There are many factors that have given in these revolts to gain political rights and other basic forms of dignity, and collapse ancient walls which set up t Imam al-Husseins revivalist movement its momentum, sustenance, and by the totalitarian regimes of the men pardoned [Whom ??]. annual renewal even after 1400 years. There are other reasons for the recent y His movement was undertaken by mainly two generations of Muslims: the uprisings. They are as follows: the distressing state of humanitarian crisis companions of the Prophet Muhammad in these communities, the deteriorationaL-Hussein & and those of the 1st Infallible Imam Ali b. Abi Talib. Certainly, Imam al-Husseins of services and increasing illiteracy, unemployment, crime, and social front represented the battle for renewal problems. All these factors drive thecollapse the of the Islamic religion. Imam al-Husseins movement had peoples who do not have anything to lose to the point of no-return towardsancient certain global dimensions that resulted their rulers. in its permanence throughout the ages. The peaceful change is the watchword The revivalism was not for the benefit of of these revolts. They depend on the walls a certain social class in the territory of a belief to get rid of the injustice, tyranny, certain sector, rather it established the confiscation of the freedom of thought, basic principles of dealing with humanity opinion and decent living, as the for and in all times and places. It has revivalism of Imam al-Hussein, which Sabah al-Talkani been time that constantly provides it with has become a beacon of freedom, Sabahaltalkani@yahoo.com the elements of continuity and renewal, never to be extinguished until the Day of surrounded by the safe precinct to guard Judgment. it against damage or deviation. 5 Hussein Revivalism
  • 6. ReportIt is a must to provethat Islam respectsothers’ viewpointsas well as peacefuland logicaldialogue on thebasis of reasonableargumentation tothe point of notdiscarding theother, even if s/heproves against ourreligion.1432 AH/ 18 July 2011The First Sermon: We deduce and take lessonsfrom the life and times, policies,and strategies of the honourableProphet Muhammad (May God’sbenedictions be bestowed onhim and his progeny) in directing Sheikh `Abd al-Mahdi al-Karbalayi general secretarythe Muslim ummah’s affairs. In of the Holy shrine of Imam al-Hussein.addition, this modus operandiproves helpful in confronting Accordingly, it is a must for the to have strong religious, social andthe challenges that aim at the ulema (clerics), intellectuals, moral foundations. We are able toorigin and spirit of Islam. There cultural and propagation institutes support such peaceful coexistence.are several dangers that must be to prove active so as to depict an In the meantime, we ought toconfronted and defeated. Among illuminating and bright picture of consider the manner the Prophetsuch challenges is the horrible Islam. Hence, it will illustrate that Muhammad and his companionspicture that the blasphemous Islam respects others’ viewpoints used to deal with followers of othercamp portray of Islam, their as well as peaceful and logical religions. Additionally, we ought topersistence and practical dialogs on the basis of reasonable observe how he recommended hismethods, and the blind war they argumentation to the point of not people to contribute to this kind ofhave waged against the Muslim discarding the others, even if s/ coexistence in such a way that thenations. Hence, how can we he proves against our religion. In Muslims succeeded in capturingdepict a faithful and loyal picture this way, we are the people who the hearts of the followers ofof Islam? live in this world and are expected other religions. We have not found 6Hussein Revivalism
  • 7. anywhere that Islam made use of This is because the danger that Imam not only always stressed onforce at the outset. Rather, it relied threats the Muslim ummah is moral principles and concepts inon making the others convinced present at this time. Hence, it is peoples interaction with othersthrough changing their viewpoints necessary to discuss doctrinal and but they themselves practicedand intellectual frameworks, all belief traits in a sound academic them in their manners. No doubtsvia raising arguments, reasons, way, on the basis of arguments such manner and policy have a lotconvincing evidence, and and proofs, not on the basis of the to maintain Muslims unity.reasonable proofs. ways rejected by and in the Holy The Second Sermon: The other challenge concerns Quran, that is, denigrating and/or Sheikh `Abd al-Mahdi al-Karbalayithe cultural challenge to the effect excommunicating others. maintained that the citizensof the significance of an academic, 2. The necessity of peaceful do have the right to expressspiritual, moral, and educational coexistence amongst various themselves and proclaim theirconstruct. The significance of this Islamic denominations on needs. This is a right proclaimedpoint rests with the fact that other the basis of mutual respect in the Iraqi constitution and rightnon-Muslim peoples and nations and honorification as well as endorsed by the constitution. Thishave contributed significantly to respectful social interaction is their right to request their basiccultural and academic settings; with their followers. Rather needs, upgrading their level of lifeotherwise, they might interpret our this peaceful coexistence style, and lowering their problems.present situation as if Islam and extends to the followers of other However, such claims for theirMuslims seem to be different from religions, as such was what the rights must not entail any harmthe rest on the train of culture and Infallible Imams instructed and to the social welfare and missingcivilization. emphasized. This is no doubt a the opportunities of the architects There is yet another challenge necessity, for religious multiplicity and policy-makers for the benefitswhich concerns not being is a real fact in the lives of Muslim of the peaceful challenges andwatchful of the conspiracies of the communities, a fact which cannot producing disgusting scenes.foes of Islam. This is important be ignored. This is important due The above point is what isbecause they make use of to two reasons: stressed by the authorities andnasty techniques which aim to A- The human community is in the hierarchies of the securitymake differentiations amongst dire need of mutual cooperation systems to be watchful of theMuslims and the Muslim ummah. because of its own development needs of the citizens and tryingHence, as Muslims we have to and an organized life style. to comply with their needs andbe watchful of their conspiracies Additionally, it is a threat that not adopting violent methods tobecause the Infallible Imams some group or community leads confront them and commit blood-used to concentrate on such a secluded life. Hence, mutual shedding.affairs. It follows that all of us must cooperation and interaction is a He addressed the policy-makersbe active both in words and in must and well according to social and officials to adopt practical,deeds and considers the Islamic regulations and norms, leading safe, and fast ways to satisfy theunity, despite some may express to complying with the needs needs of the citizens, includingopposition on the basis of their of all subgroups in the larger the following ways:faith or temperament. community. 1- A swift action to lower the As for the inner challenges, some B- The human being must salaries of high-ranking officials,instances are as follows: be cognizant of her/ his social ministers, and members of the responsibility and mission parliament.1. Some groups concentration toward her/ his community and 2- To remind the authoritieson sectarian differences and the benefits drawn out of such of the probable dangers ofaugmenting them, utilizing social, moral, and sentimental remaining these problems withthe weapon of accusation and commitments, simply because the public owing to the authoritiesslanders regarding others, such commitment will lead to the shortcomings and not providingand retarding the rest from the unity of the community and its the public with their basic needs,precinct of Islamic thought, both strength to rise over the difficulties and even without solving theirmethodologically and practically. and problems. The Infallible problems. 7 Hussein Revivalism
  • 8. Enquiry International Cultural Festival "The Spring of Martyrdom" A communication channel amongst Nations Under the motto(Out of the Husseins Revolution have human Session. Invitations have beenslaughter of Imam al-Hussein, implications lying beyond racial, sent too many religious, culturalsprings of freedom and dignity religious, geographical and even and academic personalities fromhave burst out), the Seventh temporal limits and boundaries . different countries to participate inInternational Cultural Festival of this international human event.Martyrdom, which al-Hussein The Festival also aims at informingand Al-Abbas Holy Shrines have people of the new awakening The activities of the 7th Spring ofpersisted to celebrate annually on message of Imam al-Hussein, Martyrdom Festival in 1432 AH/the occasion of the birthday of the which is based on sublime human 2011 were as follows:grandson of the Great Prophet- bases suggested by the IslamicImam al-Hussein- and his brothers. message which calls for welfare, On the first day, the Festival was peace and justice, changing the inaugurated. It was officially started The Festival usually compasses vicious picture of Islam which by recitation of some Quranicvarious activities, performances, has emerged from the extreme, verses, followed by a lectureresearches and publications by expiatory (takfiri), and hard handed delivered by Sayyid Ahmad al-Safi,personalities coming from different culture of some sects who pretend the Superintendent of al-`Abbasscountries of various religions and to be part of Islam. Sacred Sanctuary on behalf ofbeliefs .It is always attended by the Superintendence of the Twopolitical, religious, and cultural In times like these, the two Holy Sacred Sanctuaries at Karbala. Hepersonalities and scholars from Shrines prepare themselves welcomed the guests for arrivingIraq and other countries. This through their committees and at Karbala, the land of glory, grace,Festival has been established sub-committees represented by jihad, knowledge, and sacrifice.so as to consolidate the bonds the Information Committee, the Indeed Karbala is renownedof international friendship and Artistic Committee, the Ceremony for being the land of salat,cooperation, and to activate Committee (Protocol Committee) encouraging people to do thepositive intellectual and human and Research Committee, so as good and prohibiting them frominteraction, due to the fact that to cover all the activities included doing the evil, the most enchantingthe Islamic Message and al- in the Festival in its Seventh complexion of the revival of salat 8Hussein Revivalism
  • 9. The Festival aims at consolidating the framesof international friendship and cooperation,and activating positive intellectual, human andcollaboration. This arises from the fact that Al-Hussein s revolution has incorporated humanimplications and meanings which lie beyondracial, religious, geographical, and even temporalboundaries .and the most resplendent voice Imam al-Husseins martyrdom thethat draws the public attention geographical location extendedto it. Such is the land of Imam al- to an area larger by far than theHussein, purified and has made original site, yet it has since beenthe earth purified. In his lecture, extended to the entire globe.Sayyid Ahmad al-Safi touched Furthermore, it has been extendedupon the following points: to the heavens, too.1. Contemplation on Imam al- 3. This much of knowledgeHusseins career brings everybody makes us enquire of this grandinsight, makes them achieve the massacre that has occurred untoknowledge that is the locus of the inhabitants of the earth andperfection as well as a fountain the heavens, the whole universe.for perceiving perfection, a high What has been gained instead?palace whereto no bird may soar What were his basic tenets? Was itup, and a firm castle where no ethics? Islamic laws? Etiquettes?flood might harm. God has made it Or, is there still something elsea conundrum for His servants such that minds cannot reach and eyesthat if there might be anybody cannot discern, while there isamong us who could discover only a fragrance of bloodshed outthe mystery of this conundrum, of tyranny and animosity? Suchthis very honor shall suffice them, queries make the keys to enteringleading to a sense of bewilderment Karbala, from a geographical ,that results not out of ignorance temporal, and intellectual pointsbut out of appreciating the of view. No doubt, such queriesgrandeur. Indeed we are all in dire remain in the minds of theneed of appreciating this grandeur. intellectuals who are capable of2. The geographical location contemplation and theorization.where the Battle of Karbala 4. As it occurs, academictook place was a limited area by discussion, intellectual joint-work,ordinary geometrical measures, or a poetical piece needs anas the time span it took never occasion to be produced. And,exceeded a few hours in the perhaps the present gracefulhottest time of a day in July of meeting at such a blessed placethat year. Nonetheless, after would create afitting atmosphere 9 Hussein Revivalism
  • 10. Enquiryfor this purpose. Dhakir Muhammad `Ali of Dar al- justice, the good, cooperation; it `Arif (Beirut, Lebanon): has nothing to do with imposingOn the second day, the Festivals "We participate at the Book pressure, as some insist onBook Fair was opened at the Fair each year, and our books portraying Islam in that way."Central Library of Karbala. There pertain to academic, political, and On the Third day,session forMr. Maysir al-Hakim, a member philosophical subjects; however, researches held in hall of theof the Preparatory Committee the customers prefer political last prophets with professor ofand the Director of the Book Fair, books." Christian Antoine Bara as wellexplained that there were a set Muhammad Hasan Sattari of the as prof. George Jurdak. Theof regulations, including those Book City (Tehran, Iran): evening of Quran that has apertaining to the book stands and "At Karbala, I see great attention significant presence in the holythe titles brought in for the general to books in the realms of such shrine of Abbas, a sociologist Dr.purpose of the occasion held. academic fields as medicine, Mohammed Fathi from Turky forThe reporter of the present essay engineering, and computer joy when you see such evenings,met up with some publishers sciences." adding that the festival is good,representatives and interviewed Mr. `Aqil al-Yasiri, a member of and the happiness of the days isthem regarding their views of the the Preparatory Committee at the occasion of birth Imams. Butplace of the present 7th Book Fair al-`Abbass Sacred Sanctuary, the tragedy of Karbala and theas well as their remarks. Below, indicated that both of the Sacred battle of Al-taff made us sorrowsome of their comments are Sanctuaries have been active, and its always in our hearts.indicated: amongst other activities of the Hafez Mamoud Mohammed Nia`Abd Allah al-`Amili, of al-Markaz Festival, regarding changing the from the Islamic Republic of Iran: Ial-Islami li al-Dirasat (Beirut, location of the Book Fair from the wish in my life to read Holy QuranLebanon): space between the two Sacred in the holy shrine of Imam al-"We are sharing five book stands Sanctuaries to its present location Hussein and this has done. Thanksthat are divided into sections for at the Karbala Central Library to Allah and the blessing of Imamal-Markaz al-Islami, Dar Amjad, because of the larger space and al-Hussein. When I read in theDar al-Ta`aruf, Dar al-Zahra, and finer services available. holy shrine I like read in paradiseal-Muassassah al-Dawliyah. Mr. Layth al-Musawi, another because the land of Imam al-This is the third book fair we are member of the same committee, Hussein is the garden of paradise.participating at. The present pointed to the activities done to I would like also to express myplace is fine because it is located achieve better performance of grateful to the holy shrine staff ofat the citys Central Library; the Festival. He indicated that Imam Al-Hussein for their effortshowever, it is far from the two the two Sacred Sanctuaries for establishing such distinguishedSacred Sanctuaries, hence a were enthusiastic regarding the evenings and their extraordinarylower number of custors may Spring of Martyrdom Festival. Our receptions for all delegationshave access to it. At any rate, the experience of the past years has participating in the seventh festival.organization of the book stands provided us with rich expertise forhas been fine and satisfactory, the staff in charge of holding this On the fourth day, was theand especially the two Sacred festival. We have been active day opening of the museum of ImamSanctuaries have contributed a lot, and night for achieving a brilliant al-Hussein and the presenceparticularly their publishing offices performance to show to other of religious, political, culturalhave been the two most prominent Muslim nations in the world that characters, and a large numberones." the mission of Islam is peace, of delegations participating in Said The Festival has really proved to be an Anybody who understands Imam al-encouragement, and this is what Islamic media Husseins movement as a humaneneeds it today, for there are changes day after day. Mission, they must study the concepts ofHowever, there are some opposition trends and the true Islam as understood.media coming from Western media, all aimingto, and concentrating on, weakening the Islamic Wank Fi Yusuf /Chinamedia. Mr. Walid `Abbas / Sweden 10Hussein Revivalism
  • 11. the festival and a large number ofvisitors who were impressed ofthe inventories which were in themuseum then we met Mr. AhmedAl-Kholi from Egypt who residentin the Canada.We thank those who at thismuseum for their efforts to presentthe data of Imam Al-Hussein,even if slightly to the world. Themuseum combines a rare raisedand very valuable. The way oforganizing is very good waybecause its help visitor to see allpieces in the museum and thelighting excellent and consistentcomparable to the largestmuseums in the world becauseI have visited many museumoutside of Iraq.On the fifth day: At the end of thefestival was held a ceremony todistribute prize to the participatingdelegations at the Hall of theprophets which were contain thespeech of Secretary General of theholy shrine of Imam Al-HusseinSheikh Abdel Mahdi Al-Karbalaiand speech Ayatollah MohammadAli Al-Muski and the speech ofMr. Ahmed Al-lmaei Al-Hassani,then the speech of the AlAlamaMr. Ali Alsazoara of Najaf whopresent instead of him dumpeMr. Muhammad Taqi Hijaz andthen a poem entitled dream ofthe poet Dr. Abd Al-hadi Al-Hakimthen speech of Chinese Yusefthe speech of African delegationsto participate Sheriff MohamedAli Haiderr from the Republic of the Museum of Imam al-HusseinSenegal. The Museum of Imam al-Hussein Of course such festivals have special taste The Festival was very instructive. It hasand fragrance because it aims to come up been very wonderful to meet up with a largewith some bridges between all religions and number of scholars coming from variousdenominations. countries who share a praiseworthy interest in the life, personality, and achievements of Imam al-Hussein. Christina Marka (Zainab) /German Dr. Muhammad-Reza Fakhr-Rohani (University of Qom, Iran) 11 Hussein Revivalism
  • 12. InterviewTourism is the white Gold By: Haidar M.K.Archaeologically, Iraq contains the The cities of Najaf and Karbalamost ancient sites and monuments. are the backbone of religiousHowever thousands of antique tourism because of the holy shrinesplaces that represent the cradle of which are considered as the mostthe human civilization remain has important sites in Iraq.not been explored until now. Thesmall part that was discovered was European countries)". In 2010,exposed to looting and theft in the approximately 1.5 million touristsdark period which Iraq witnessed. visit Iraq, most of them visitedThe only things that has been left the holy shrines. He maintainedin high winds which represents the that this flocked of the tourists tohistory and spiritual civilization of visit the shrines in Iraq is to thethe country is the holy sites in Najaf, homeostasis security which IraqKarbala, Baghdad, and Samarra. has witnessed in recent times.Religious tourism is considered one According to economists views,of the important resources which the tourism suffered from lackhas played a pivotal role to increase of some legislations in religiousthe national income. Specialists in tourism which ruin the basicthe field of tourism believe that Iraq infrastructure of the sector, becausewould be one of the countries that of the negligence or lack of the realtourism contributes to recovery of investment.economic activity even if oil runs The Iraqi News Agency took theout and Iraq will get rid of a single views of a number of the officialseconomic (oil). Religious tourism in in the Ministry of Tourism andKarbala, Najaf and Al-Kazimiya is a number of tourist hotels inconsidered as the backbone of the Baghdad and Karbala to show theeconomic revival to these cities. significance of tourism in Iraq.Abdul Zahra al-Talaqani, spokesman An official in the tourism sectorof the Ministry of Tourism, said," believes that the governmentVisitors come from thirty countries must activate this sector and(The Gulf, Asian as well as the open opportunities to invest in Iraq, pay attention to the role of new companies and activate the National Office of Tourism. One hotel manager in Baghdad said "it should be entrusted to new companies and to activate the National Office of Tourism. It distributed the visitors to hotels and companies equally. Tourism agreement must be sign with and some neighbouring countries and Abdul Zahra al-Talaqani Gulf States. 12Hussein Revivalism
  • 13. Approximately 1.5 million visitors came from thirty countries (The Gulf, Asian as well as the European countries) in 2010. Iraq - Karbala The owners of a tourist hotels in Karbala stresses, "the cities of Najaf and Karbala are the backbone of religious tourism because of the holy shrines which are considered as the most important sites in Iraq. 30-40 types of tourism in Iraq. As for tourism in the city of Karbala, the Directorate of the Tourism Authority in the province of Karbala, Abdul-Hussein Mohamed Mazloum confirmed that the city of Karbala contain not only religious tourism but there are other tourist activities that must be taken into account where there are about 30-40 types of tourism, including archaeological tourism, medical tourism, desert tourism and others. The tourism in Iraq is a Iraq - Samara routine operation and there is no openness to other cultures, while the sector does not work on tourism development. He maintained that that the religious tourism at Karbala particular, and in Iraq in general is faced with some problems concerning the provision of specialized cadres in the field of religious tourism like translators, guides and workers. Hence we know that the tourism resources in Iraq is the presence of the holy shrines, as well as the natural and human resources that could contribute to the tourist attractions and the religious tourism at Karbala has increased dramatically. So, we can say that the Iraqi tourism is the white gold that will lead Iraq to the beach of peace and will be a substitute for the black gold in the future .Iraq - karbala - al- Akeeder 13 Hussein Revivalism
  • 14. Interview The Muslim thinker Adly Abu Hajar: Well see to a practical Islam to come from the West to Muslim countries and this is our ambition and our hope. Safaa Al-Sadi The spread Islam and the future of Muslims, conflicts and implications in the Eu- ropean continent are important things, including the quality of life in the West , what they have achieved and what were the problems of woman’s veil there? Dr. Adly Abu Hajar, Assistant Secretary-General of the Organization of the Is- lamic Conference and the President of the Council of European Intellectuals in Scandinavia, a Palestinian national who lives in Sweden, a member of the lo- cal council of the city of Malmo, the Swedish parliament and a member of the state,answered such questions. 14Hussein Revivalism
  • 15. Hussein Revivalism / Regarding the Muslims life So, we are cooperating to compose Muslimsin the European continent, are they integrating form Europe. The Europeans who convertedwith the Western societies and losing their to Islam have their different religious attitudes,identity or getting isolated? Do they have power they are mystics, academics and learners andto defend their interests, values , traditions and this is because of heterogeneous mixturecustoms, humanitarian and social beliefs? with Muslims and diversity, this diversity exists* Islamic presence in Europe is very old; there among Muslims themselves and those whoare Muslim people from Europe, immigrants and find themselves in Europe and we are workinggenerations of other Muslims who were born in on this problem to change it by giving a MuslimEurope. If you look at the generations that were a picture to live as a Muslim in the Europeanborn in Europe, you will find integrated people culturel.and working in different areas in the Europeansociety. We try to fortify and maintain this Hussein Revivalism/ What is the role ofintegration which was achieved by the human theorganizations and institutions as assistants inMuslim culture with the new society to its the Islamic European Conference Organization?benefit him, including its earnings from a culture * When these organizations are set up theywill benefit him. As such, we have people who have intend several goals:have no opinion or integration with others. These organizations for the Islamic conferences or a legitimate representative of Muslims inHussein Revivalism / Are European Muslims Europe defend their human rights, demands ofable to make economic or political pressure a their European rights and defend Islam. We aretool to take care of their interests and survival in working to help and improve the conditions ofthe European society? Muslims in one way or another concerning the* There are a lot of problems on the economic status of women, youths and the new refugeeside. Muslims, who are from outside European families because the number of Muslim familiescountries, have huge investments. But Muslims, in Europe is estimated to be aout 55 millionwho live in the West, have institutions and Muslims.The responsibility of the Organization,associations. which is self-funded and non-governmental. "We can consider that economical effects anda political lobby are the most important factors Hussein Revivalism/ What are the types of thewhich started in Sweden. For instance, we programs which are held in the organization tohave people in the European Parliament. as call others to Islam, and are they accepted bya member of the local council in the city of the European society?Malmo, we established conference for Muslim * There are conferences held within thepoliticians to collaborate with the Swedish institutions of the Union of the EuropeanGovernment, Islamic Conference Organization Parliament. Islam is presented as a dialogueof the European Union and 25 European with Western politicians, and there are politicalcountries most of them have members in conferences for Muslims to give them a clearthe local councils and the municipality, the picture of how to defend Muslims and theirParliament and others. rights in Europe, as we have the European Council of Imams that guide females andHussein Revivalism/ As imigrant Muslims, what religious. They hold three conferences in Viennais your relationship with European countries and in cooperation with the Austrian Government tothose who were converted into Islam in Europe? improve the performance of the imam.Can you add something to their culture?* The members of the Islamic Conference Hussein Revivalism / What are the womensrepresent a model for all Muslims of all ethnic share of the Islamic rights in Europe and theirbackgrounds and their sectarians, whether view?they are new Europeans or Muslim youths. * There are equal in the Western society, and 15 Hussein Revivalism
  • 16. Interview there are customs and traditions that moved with accusing Islam to be backward and with immigrants related to women offensive reactionary? What have you achieve? to Islam, including beating the women and * We introduced treatments for such charges not allowing them to receive education and through our integration with the Swedish their type of her dress. We try to differentiate parties and politicians because the parties in the habit and worship. The modesty is and parliament make decisions and laws in worship and necessary, and piety is the best the West. Through our relationship with the clothing for women. We invite them to stay politicians we have changed for the better. For away from the (burqa) as are usually offensive instance, the demonstrations can achieve in to Islam because of the users and abusers Denmark when they required. " who disguised themselves behind it and throwing it to Islam and that the purpose of Hussein Revivalism / what do you think the prevention of the burqa is to show them about the future of Islam and Muslims on the that we are far from anyone who tries to distort European continent? Islam, and put him at risk is the responsibility * Well see to a practical Islam to come from of everyone. " the West to Muslim countries and this is our ambition and our hope. This is what we Hussein Revivalism / According to the touch through converted Westerners to Islam, Western view of Islam, how did you deal and Islamic libraries, translations of the Holy 16Hussein Revivalism
  • 17. Some Characteristics of al-Abbas Al-Abbas received a great deal of praise and appreciation by our immaculate imams, who expressed and indicated their admiration for his heroic deeds which culminated by his martyrdom while defending the third imam, al- Hussein Ibn Ali at Karbala in 61 AH. Imam Ali, their father, had predicted the responsibility of al-Abbas in defending his brother and his family and companions at Karbala. Imam Hussein, when al-Abbas was just passing away, said, “I have now become helpless”. Imam Zain ul-Abideen, the fourth immaculate imam, expressed his gratitude for the sacrifices offered by al-Abbas in defending his religion and belief. Imam Sadiq, our sixth immaculate imam, has reportedly mentioned in his ziaarat (pilgrimage) to Al-Abbas, “I testify to you for your submission (to the will of God), honest acceptance as true, loyalty and sincerity to the descendent of the commissioned Prophet (Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Household).” Then he addresses him as follows, “You were the most excellent steadfast fighter, protector, supporter and brother who defended his brother, responded to the obedience of his Lord, and worked desirably for gaining the abundant reward, which others refused, and the nice tribute.” (Mafatih al-Jinan (The Keys to the Gardens of Paradise), 2009: 431 and 438) In the excerpt above, Imam al-Sadiq mentions some characteristics of Al-Abbas. The importance of such characteristics arises from the fact that they are stated by an immaculate, infallible imam, who calls phenomena by their real names. These characteristics are as follows: 1-Submission to the will of God: Al-Abbas was completely aware of the imamate of his brother, Imam Hussein ; therefore, he did his bestQuran and Islamic books are good to defend him, not because he was his brother, but because he wasproof despite of the difficulties, his imam, through whom he submitted to Allah.challenges, and suspicions. Islam is 2-Honest acceptance of the truth: Al-Abbas devoted himself andcontinuing its way and progressing his three brothers for his belief. He indicated that he was the bestbecause of the demonic realization representative of a faithful believer throughout his obedience to thethat encourages people to research Almighty Allah. 3-Loyalty: This characteristic is indicated through his support of theon the truth. There are many right side represented by his brother, Imam Hussein in his ordeal,people who try acerbate questions although Al-Abbas received a big deal by those enemies whoon Islam and the Quran, then they pretended to be his uncles on the part of his mother.convert to Islam, because the 4-Sincerity: This is yet another characteristic of al-Abbas. In fact, heintellectual discourse is the only was sincere in his defence of his brother Imam Hussein in Karbala,way which Islam is based on. in fighting throughout his life accompanying his father, and in his So, we have to be Muslims as opposition to the wrongdoers.much thought and clarity of Islam In his other speeches, Imam Sadiq furthermore mentioned otherand live up to Islam to be true features of al-Abbas, such as his clear-sightedness, steadfast faith,advocates. " and carrying out jihad for Islam. By Dr Hameed H. B. Al-Mas’udi 17 Hussein Revivalism
  • 18. Article Never Initiated the Battle of Karbalaa The Al-Taf Revolution, that Taff Battle, widely known as is, the Battle of Karbala, was the Battle of Karbala. This a historical tragic accident is what has been preserved in the first century of the by preachers and mourners Hejirah calendar. Imam al- through their sermons and Imam al-Hussein Hussein had started his writings. These accounts are revolutionary trip to Kufa after studied by analysts of history its inhabitants had pledged and indicate the reasons their communal allegiance to behind this Revolution. The him for his victory. However, apparent reason is the reality prior to reaching Kufa, he that which had reached the was faced with the army of nation in the period of Yazids `Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, instead reign to the Muslim nation, of some hordes of supporters without any reaction to reject of the Umayyad Caliph Yazid, the falsehood fabricated by feeling a sense of the risk of the Umayyads. The al-Taff insurgency. Imam al-Hussein Battle and Revolution came was forced to get off unto to represent a great explosion the land of the same region, of rejection and impressed generally called Karbala; it was on the minds and souls precisely the place where the of the public an image of Battle of Karbala took place. public rejection regarding the The companions of Imam Umayyads wrongdoings and al-Hussein, however small in crimes. There are a number of number, found themselves in reasons for thinkers and those front of at least thirty thousand who are in quest of finding out swordsmen, led by `Umar b. the truth: Sa`ad; their purpose to finish First: The economic factor the Battle at the cost of the which represents the main tragic martyrdom of Imam al- reason that led the people to Hussein and his companions. poverty when the Umayyads The above account is just took over and usurped all but a summary of the al- Muslims properties, wealth, 18Hussein Revivalism
  • 19. Drawn by Hasan Hamzaand welfare. to attain the post of wishing people tried to army led by al-Hurr, whileSecond: The emergence caliphate because of prevent Imam al-Hussein he had a golden changeof a racial discrimination some shortcomings in the from going to Kufa. This for victory. On Ashura, inin the Umayyads truth of his movement, was because its people response to a questionpolitics and policies to which represented the were known for instability, raised by of one of hisdifferentiate between the reality of the revolution. disloyalty, and breaking companions, Imam al-Muslim people and tribes, No doubt, Imam al- their promises. It follows Hussein declared that “I dofor instance discriminating Husseins revolution has that, measured by ordinary not like to be the initiatorpeople on the basis of had both earthly and standards, it looked like of the battle.” In fact Imamtheir tribes and clans, e.g., heavenly dimensions and a suicidal attempt, for it al-Hussein intendedthe al-Madharis versus aspects. On the surface, was certain that Imam al- to convey the values ofYemen tribes. it represents the persons Hussein would be faced immortal character toThird: The urgent need of fighting in the battle, with the Umayyad hordes. all human beings. Thisthe human values, which yet on a higher level, it Despite all worldly account is a clear proofwere lost in that period. represents the mission of calculations and standards, that Imam al-HusseinQuite a large number of maintaining the sublime Imam al-Hussein insisted never made any move tothe Muslim nations were values. Metaphorically, on going to carry out his fight; rather he made asuffering from the lack Imam al-Hussein did not Divinely-ordained mission martyr of peace, who wasof moral standards in the fight exclusively on Ashura in favour of maintaining martyred for the defencethen Muslim community. -- the tenth of Muharram, the sublime moral values. of the sublime DivineAt the same time, some or at Karbala; his It follows that Imam al- values, valour and pridepeople might imagine movement has echoes in Husseins departure and at the heavenly level. Histhat Imam al-Husseins unlimited time and places, revolution was an open act rejection was not a "No"cousin and envoy, Muslim depicting a perennial in rejection of corruption answer to `Umar b. Sa`db. `Aqeel failed in carrying battle between moral prevalent in the nation. or Yazid; it was a rejectionout his mission and task values, as represented by Imam al-Hussein never of absolute falsehood.when he went to Kufa. By Imam al-Husseins small aspired for taking over the Such was Imam al-the same token, some may army) and the immoral, throne of succession, nor Hussein; the al-Taff Battleregard Imam al-Husseins non-humane values, was in quest of making proved a good token for thedeeds at Karbala might be typified in `Umar b. Sa`ds any clash and waging a mankind to differentiateinappropriate. According hordes. During Imam al- war. On the first few days between mean worldlyto some viewpoints, Husseins movement of arriving at Karbala, he values versus the highlyImam al-Hussein wanted and exodus, most of well- refused to fight the enemy sublime Divine values. 19 Hussein Revivalism
  • 20. Art Al-Hussein’s Ancient Arabic literature when their reign ended.was devoid of theatre untilthe middle of the nineteenthcentury. Despite the advent of Theatre A French newspaper Le Temp 1907 wrote an article entitled Le lamentations "deHusseinaArabic literature, when Maron al- theatre in reign of the Buyid, but Kerbala"Naqash (1817 - 1855) translated the obstacles prevented him from "The Passion": (suffering ofsome foreign plays which were continuing and progressing. Hussein in Karbala) described theshowcased in Beirut, it still tragic theatrical presentation, instumbles (in production and The Obstacles of al-Hussein Karbala, led by Tabrizi. It referredstaging) to the present day. Theatre to the scenes which were enacted The seeds of Arabic theatre had by a number of persons. Thebegun after revivalism of Imam First:The persecution of the sorrow and tear sprinkle whichal-Hussein , when Lady Zaynab rulers, after the Buyid reign, who melt the heart with grief andtold the story of the martyrdom were dedicated to the memory of compassion. The companions ofof Imam al-Hussein and his Imam al-Hussein. His martyrdom Imam Al-Hussein (A.S) sacrificedcompanions. The people still had been scaring them so long their own lives to revive Islam.remembered the battle of Karbala as its slogan was reform and the The actors wore in white, ridinguntil the buiyds reached Arab promotion of virtue and prevention white angelic horses. Thecountries in the fourth century. of vices. So, they tried to prevent audience stood in the form of a The first enactment of the any depiction of the funeral of semi-circle and recited religiousCommemorative observance Imam al-Hussein ,while Muslims songs. This theatre travelled toof Imam al-Hussein was held in in the Abbasid reign revived the southern Lebanon at Al-NabatiyehBaghdad, in Muharram 352 AH / anniversary of Ashura secretly in City and was presented in the866 CE. Mu`iz the Buyid forced the cellars. large courtyards by re-enactingpeople to close the markets and the horse riding and the battlefielderected a stage to form a theatre Second: Shia scholars did not operations.to enact Karbala battle. A group prefer to represent the persona of So the al-Hussein theatre remainsof women walked in the streets to Imam al-Hussein because he is the oldest one in the Arab landsre-enact the funeral of al-Hussein. infallible. which plants tree of culture in theThe scene of funerals took desert of Karbala, as it has beenplace in the centeral sequare of Third:The Persians Buyid Vociferates by the blood of al-Baghdad which was attended by developed l-Hussein’s drama and Hussein.the state officials and the public. dramatized it, knowing the historyIt was considered the first Arab of the theatre. It was deteriorated www.Imamhussain.org 20Hussein Revivalism
  • 21. One day a man came to the Holy Prophet The owner requested him to observe the rulesseeking advice on how to deal with his of Islamic etiquette and enter after gaining Dealing with Unprovoked Annoyanceneighbour’s unprovoked annoying behaviour. permission from his family members. SamraHe said, ‘Be patient and do not raise any hue blatantly refused to comply with his request andand cry. Besides, try changing your own attitude walked in without announcing himself. He alsotowards him.’ eyed whatever he saw, not lowering his gaze asA few days later the man returned more commanded by Almighty Allah. Human Rights in Islamexasperated than before. He repeated, ‘Be Exasperated with his behaviour, the ownerpatient’. complained to the Holy Prophet about him,The third time the man came, he was at the requesting him to advise Samra.end of his rope. He said, ‘I’m sorry, but I can’t The Holy Prophet called for him and said,take anymore. He is pestering me and my family ‘There is a complaint lodged by the ownerbeyond measure.’ of the orchard against you. He is annoyed byThe Holy Prophet then advised him, ‘Today your indecent behaviour. You enter his orchardis Friday. Go home and place your household unannounced and eye his women, who don’tbaggage on the main street where people can get a chance to go indoors. You are advisedsee it. When they ask you the reason tell them to enter only after getting permission from histhat your neighbour’s behaviour is unbearable. family from this day onward.’ Samra refused toThus, everyone will learn about your complaint.’ comply with his directive.The man followed the Holy Prophet’s advice The Holy Prophet offered another alternative.to the letter. His neighbor was under the He suggested he sell his tree. He refusedimpression that he would continue bearing outright. He raised the price of the tree. He stillhis excesses, not realizing that Islam preaches refused. He promised a tree in heaven for thisforbearance to a certain limit. Once that limit one. He rejected every offer.is crossed, the oppressor has to face the The Holy Prophet then gave his verdict on theconsequences. Transgressors do not deserve situation. ‘You are a stubbornanyone’s respect. and sadistic person. Islam does not permitAs soon as he learnt that his neighbour had anyone to harass or harm anyone.’ He ordereddecided to place his excesses into the people’s the owner of the orchard to cut down Samra’scourt, and was apprising them of his behaviour, tree and throw it in the street. The people wenthe got unnerved, and begging forgiveness, and did as directed.requested him to take his baggage back to his The Holy Prophet looked at Samra and said, ‘Gohouse. He promised never to bother him again, hence, and use the tree in the open fields youand maintain good neighbourly relations with see around.him.Protecting Ones RightsSamra ibn e Jundab planted a date-palm in theorchard of an Ansar (Medinite). The domesticlodgings of the owner were within the precinctsof his orchard. Samra was granted the right toenter the orchard to water his tree or pick fruitwhen ripe.However, Samra abused the right grantedby Islamic law. He entered the orchard Imam reza.netnonchalantly, in fact, irresponsibly, withoutannouncing himself. In the domestic quartersof the owner, his family members were busyin their chores, sometimes not dressed forstrangers’ eyes. 21 Hussein Revivalism
  • 22. Bookstion to non-Muslims countries Migration to non-Muslims countries Introduction The Ritual Prayer The salat has been described in some ahadith as “the pillar of religion.” Imam ‘Ali, after receiving the fatal injury by Ibn Muljim (may Allah curse him), in a part of his advice to his sons, al-Hasan and al-Husayn said, ”[Fear] Farewell Allah, and keep Allah in view with regardst salat, for it is the pillar of your religion. [Fear] Allah, and keep Allah in the matter of the house of your Lord (i.e., mosque): do not leave it empty as long as you live.” As-Sukuni narrates from Imam as-Sadiq , “The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Satan is frightened from a believer as long as he keeps up salat on time; but when he starts neglecting them, Satan becomes emboldened and tempts him to commit major (sins).’” Yazid bin Khalifa said that he heard Imam as-Sadiq say, “When a person stands for salat, mercy descends upon him from the heaven to the earth and the angels engulf him, and an angel calls out: ‘if this person knew what is [the reward] for the salat, he would never stop.’” From these [few selected ahadith] we can understand the clear and obvious importance of salat in Islam. And since salat is like having audience with the Almighty Allah (as the ahadith have it that a person standing for prayer is as if he is standing in audience of the Almighty), the worshiper should approach Allah through presence of heart by not thinking or occupying his mind with anything worldly and transitory. Almighty Allah says in the Holy Qur’an: “Indeed successful are the believers who are humble in their prayers.” (24:1) When Imam ‘Ali Zaynu ‘l-’Abideen said his salat, he used to stand “firm and motionless like a tree: nothing moves on it except what is moved by the wind.” When the Imams, al-Baqir and as-Sadiq , stood for their salat, “their colour would change to red and then yellow as if they were talking to someone whom they could see.” - Praying Friday salat with due attention to its required conditions is preferable to praying the noon salat, and is sufficient; that is, if a person says Friday prayer, he does not have to say noon prayer. - Praying in congregation (jama’at) is preferable to praying individually. Its preference is stronger in the dawn, sunset and night prayers. A noble hadith says: “A salat [in congregation] behind a learned scholar is like [praying] a thousand cycles; and behind a Qurayshi is like [praying] a hundred cycles.” As the number of the worshippers increases, the preference [and the reward] also increases. 22 Hussein Revivalism
  • 23. Selections fromSelections from Nahaj AL-Balagha Nahaj1- There is a tradition of the Holy Prophet "With the help ofhair-dye turn old age into youth so that you do not resemblethe Jews". When Imam Ali was asked to comment on thistradition he said that in the early stage of Islam there werevery few Muslims. The Holy Prophet advised them to lookyoung and energetic and not to adopt the fashion of theJews (priest) having long white flowing beards. But theMuslims were not in minority then theirs was a strong andpowerful state they could take up any style they liked. AL-Balagha2- For those who refused to side with any party Imam Ali orhis enemies Imam Ali said: They have forsaken religion andare of no use to infidelity also.3- One who rushes madly after inordinate desire runs therisk of encountering destruction and death.4- Overlook and forgive the weaknesses of the generouspeople because if they fall down Allah will help them.5- Failures are often the results of timidity and fears;disappointments are the results of bashfulness; hours ofleisure pass away like summer-clouds therefore do notwaste opportunity of doing good.6- If the right usurped from us is given back to us we shalltake it otherwise we shall go on claiming it.7- If someone›s deeds lower his position his pedigreecannot elevate it.8- To render relief to the distressed and to help theoppressed make amends for great sins.9- O son of Adam when you see that your Lord the Glorifiedbestows His Favors on you while you disobey Him youshould fear Him (take warning that His Wrath may not turnthose very blessings into misfortunes).10- Often your utterances and expressions of your face leakout the secrets of your hidden thoughts.26- When you get ill do not get nervous about it and try asmuch as possible to be hopeful.11- The best form of devotion to the service of Allah is not tomake a show of it.12- When you have to depart from this world and haveto meet death (eventually) then why wish delay (why feelnervous about death).13- Take warning ! He has not exposed so many of yoursinful activities that it appears as if He has forgiven you (itmay be that He has given you time to repent). 23 Hussein Revivalism
  • 24. Article Al-Imam al-Hussein (pbuh) The Savior of IslamDr. Ahmad Hammoud Since the creation of humankind the challenge between knowledge and ignorance, truth and falsehood, good and evil, belief and disbelief, freedom and slavery has taken place. The first challenge to Allah (sw) came from (Iblis) who disobeyed His order and refused to prostrate to our father Adam (pbuh). Consequently this was the starting point of challenging Allah’s authority and sowing the seeds of mischief and spreading corruption in land. This precipitated a movement of challenge between the messengers of Allah and tyrants. Generally the policy of tyrants and oppressors refuse to submit to Allah’s worship and rule justly due to their arrogance and their belief that they will never be defeated militarily, politically and economically. The holy Qur’an set many examples in this regard. Al-Imam ‘Ali (pbuh) stated that Allah deputed Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny) with truth so that he may take out His people from the worship of idols towards His worship and from obeying Satan towards obeying Him. 24Hussein Revivalism
  • 25. Therefore, Prophet Muhammad(peace be upon him and hisprogeny) faced the greatestchallenges to set people free fromthe shackles of pre-Islamic slaveryand ignorance and inspired them toa trajectory on the right path.After Prophet Muhammad’s deathal-Imam ‘Ali (pbuh)and al-Imamal-Hasan (pbuh) persevered thestruggle to save Islam particularlywhen the tribal trends reappearedagain and the enthusiastic spiritof Islam started to whither and thematerialistic lifeoverwhelmed the Muslim worldand the Muslim goals shifted awayfrom the hereafter to the worldlylife. According to historian recountsthey documented that the situationhad deteriorated during the ruleof Mu‘awiya who attemptedto annihilate ( Ahl-ul-Bait), theirfollowers and the companions ofProphet Muhammad (peace beupon him and his progeny) whotook side with al-Imam ‘Ali (pbuh).In addition, Mu‘awiya and theUmayyads were plotting during thecaliphate of ‘Uthman to convince‘Uthman to transfer the caliphateoffice from Medina to Damascusin order to usurp the caliphate after‘Uthman’s death, but ‘Uthman didnot agree. Later Mu‘awiya wasable to recruit certain prominentleaders, fabricate many traditionsand invent sects and school ofthoughts to consolidate his ruleand make people believe that his been broken, the pillars of belief “Hussein is from me and I am frompower is legitimate. Undoubtedly had been shaken, the features of Hussein” that is to say: “Had notthis allowed the Byzantine religious Prophet Muhammad (peace be al-Imam al-Hussein (pbuh)revoltedideologies to manifest in the Muslim upon him and his progeny) had the Message of Islam would haveland to confront the Message of changed and corruption prevailed. been obliterated”.Islam and the school thought of Thus al-Imam al-Hussein (pbuh) Accordingly, Edward Gibbon the(Ahl-ul-Bait). saw it as duty to save Islam, remove English historian said: “WithoutHowever, after Mu‘awiya’s death injustice, and oppose tyranny. his martyrdom Islam would havethis policy continued to be more To highlight the tradition of the extinguished long ago. He was theeffective during the rule of Yazid. Prophet Muhammad (peace be savior of Islam and it was due to hisThe Message of Islam was in great upon him and his progeny) he Martyrdom that Islam took suchdanger, the rope of religion had has been quoted as articulating deep root”. 25 Hussein Revivalism
  • 26. photo by Hassan maash photo by Ahmed al-HusseiniF e s te i v p rl i nSgp o if nM a r o yf r dM Th Sa r g t The Museum of Imam Hussein photo by Hassan maash
  • 27. M a r F y s tdi v am P a n oor a a m a om t er o l a n r ma photo by Ammar Al-khaldii
  • 28. Article The effects of Sacred books on man Since man was found on earth as an aware creature with different demands, he did not stop thinking about techniques and schemes that regulate his life. He tried to find suitable solutions for the individual and social problems and for his relationship with others. Man has known throughout different periods of time two sources for legislation and planning which are: 1- Inspiration or what the propriety received from heaven. 2- Thoughts devised and laid by man himself through his pure thinking. The supporters of the two source throughout history defended the principles they believed in and accused the 28Hussein Revivalism
  • 29. other side of inefficiency. population on earth. just running after development asThe supporters of inspirations The other characteristics of a target and not as a means thatbegins with the absoluteness of applied (human) thought is that crushes his personality, the realityGod in his absolute knowledge and it is concerned only with the of succession is and will be onindependency. materialistic side of human the effective tool to be closer to GodAs God is the supreme and being. It focuses on the problems in its two sides, inspiration andabsolute creator, he is fully aware that relate to this side and tries to material and it will be a completeof the characteristics and demands develop techniques that facilitate construction as God`s integrity.of his creatures. The supporters man`s practical side. As for the And when Qur`an finishes its roleof human thought [man`s laid Qur`an we notice that it does not In preparing man for his effectivethought] began to praise the goes into legislating rules that role in life and in man`s readinessscientific and cultural achievements regulate man`s life directly but to build life in the right way, thereached by human thought and tries first to point to a principal Qur`an came with another lessonthey alleged issue giving these rules their to stop man from deviation. TheseThat what the inspirations brought effectiveness and their capability were verses that reminded man ofwere just theological text dealing to be a practical matter which is God`s punishment for anyone whowith religious doctrines and that to build man`s personality in committed wrong doing. [ thosethey should never quit the mosque. providing him with religious and who like to spread wrong doingsIf we make an objective and psychological pillars that enables among the believers will have severconcise comparison which fits the him to respond to these legislations punishment in life and the life tosize of the article, we can`t deny the and to deal with them as needed (in come. God knows that but youcultural advances achieved by man the right manner). don`t] noor 19.on many levels, such as medicine, And to deal with them according [god will not forgive the unbelieverstechnology and different sciences. to his dual composition of purity who committed injustice and heYet, the supporters of this principle, making man always a state of will not lead them but to the way ofhad to admit of the inefficiency supremacy. Then the Qur`an hell to be immortal there forever].of human thought to realize a lot addresses man as a human being As for the part concerned with theof things and that too many thing who is ready to do good deeds and life to come, eternity, in addition toreached by human thought might these abilities are natural in him. its reference to the completenessprove untrue. For example, the Then the Qur`an shows man`s of God`s wisdom in creating manprinciple of power to distinguish role in life and why he was created, and his justice in rewarding everybetween good and evil and the the Qur`an state two reasons for person according to his deeds, soprinciple of social discrimination creating man. First is succession, creating man will not be in vain.between people. People differ man`s behavior will be affected by We notice in our life that everyin their mental composition his feeling of his high position as a society has a means of punishmentand in their cultural tendencies, successor of God on earth. to punish any one who tries to dodepending on the theory of these [I am putting a successor on earth] wrong doings.two principles were adhered by the cow30. Secondly earth was As there is not any society withouta number of philosophers and created for him. crimes because of lack of observinganthropologists. So they are the [he put (laid) the earth for people] tool for punishment and when weproducts of human thought but rahman 10. believe that God`s knowledge andto what extent can we apply the And he should do his best go build power are absolute, the system inprinciple of “right and wrong” when and reclaim it. Here we would like to the life to come (eternity) will be thea man like Hitler believed in them mention an important point which punishment tool for every crime onand tried to apply them in his Nazi the supporters of the human laid earth.movements? thought neglected in the process of Here when the Qur`an finished itsThe results were the catastrophes building and construction. plan in constructing a completeof the second world war. So The Qur`an stresses it and makes it man from beginning to the end, itanother trial to distinguish between man`s job which is associated with changed man to a creature ready toright and wrong from the product of his existence on earth, but it is a implement the spirit of legislation tohuman thought would have been balanced construction that satisfies reach the desired situation.enough to eliminate the whole man`s need and prosperity and not By Salah Al-Khaqani 29 Hussein Revivalism
  • 30. Project A Pilgrims Guide on the Road to Karbala Safe Sheltering, Various Services, and Fine Resting ResortsReligious tourism and pilgrimage 12 billion Iraqi dinars have been invested on thisin Iraq has considerably changed project, and it is estimated that the whole projectand improved in recent years. has been under construction for three months, withThe authorities expect thenumber of tourists and pilgrims about 60 % of the project already donewho come to visit the varioussacred places and in specific –Karbala - are to reach over 1.5 ancient times, for a great majority especially when millions ofmillion foreign pilgrims a year, of pilgrims will come to for pilgrims rush to Karbala.all due to the improvements in pilgrimage to Karbala on foot. This situation has made thesecurity since 2008. According to the engineer authorities of Imam al-HusseinsDue to the escalating number of Muhammad Hasan Kazim, the Sacred Sanctuary decide onpilgrims and tourists, from both superintendent of engineering building pilgrim towns first on theinside and outside Iraq, Imam affairs department of Imam al- roads between Karbala and NajafAl-Husseins Sacred Sanctuary Husseins Sacred Sanctuary, as well as Babil and Karbala.has taken some measures to this construction will be located Then in the future, one will beconstruct a large residence on the Babil-Karbala road at built on the road between Karbalacomplex for the pilgrims taking a distance of four kilometers to Baghdad. Needless to say,rest with some towns providing from Imam al-Husseins Sacred these towns will provide all typesthese pilgrims with multiple Sanctuary. The purpose will be of services, from serving food,services. This will be a modern to offer the best services to the rooms for taking rest, medicalemulation of what used to be in pilgrims of Imam al-Hussein, treatment, and mosques for 30Hussein Revivalism
  • 31. They indicated that the final building will be a two-floor building that iscomprised of 23 halls for sleeping, with each hall having room enough for 200pilgrims. In the same way, there will be a medical clinic and a place special forperforming prayers.saying prayers.. . medical clinic and a place special has been under construction for Adding that the services will for performing prayers. three months, with about 60 %be available all days throughout of the project already done. Itthe year, hence technical team There will also be a large is hoped that the whole projecthas been dispatched by the dining hall for giving services will be accomplished before theSanctuary to consider the to thousands of pilgrims free end of this year, and specificallyrequirements of the pilgrim towns of charge on ziarat occasions before the Arba`een ziaratin terms of their needs, facilities, when millions of pilgrims rush to season.and so on. More importantly, Karbala. In the same way, therethe Shiite Endowment Authority will be tens of water closets, Technical Details:oversees such projects. They places for performing ablutions The Engineer `Abd al-Karim,added that the engineering (wudu) as well as for taking project supervisor, gave someprojects concerned are carried shower, all beside two-floor suits important technical details. Theout by Iraqi staff and under the to accommodate pilgrims coming whole project will take up 50,supervision of Imam al-Husseins from abroad. All these places will 000 square metres. The projectSacred Sanctuary. They be supported by green grass- is being carried out under theindicated that the final building covered areas, gardens, and supervision of Imam al-Husseinswill be a two-floor building that parking lots. Sacred Sanctuary for the purposeis comprised of 23 halls for They stressed that so far 12 of providing multiple services tosleeping, with each hall having billion Iraqi dinars have been the pilgrims on major ziarat timesroom enough for 200 pilgrims. invested on this project, and it is and occasions. He added thatIn the same way, there will be a estimated that the whole project there are plans to build dozens of 31 Hussein Revivalism
  • 32. Projectsuch pilgrim towns in the futureon the roads outside of Karbalaprovince, both near and far awayfrom Karbala. And in case thepossibilities permit, the Sanctuarywould be ready to do their utmostfor the sake of giving servicesto the pilgrims and the SacredSanctuary.So far there have been ninepilgrim towns, three of whichhave been built by the Ministry ofMunicipalities; however, the onessupervised by Imam al-HusseinsSacred Sanctuary are yet tofinish, although they are expectedto finish in the near future. Thematerials used are the best oftheir kinds, as the roofs used aremade in Iran. There are plans to build dozens ofSome technical such pilgrim towns in the future on the roads outsidespecifications of the projectare as follows: of Karbala province.1- 13 halls for sleeping.2- Eight sets of water closets, 10- Special equipment for water they seek spiritual proximity towith 24 for each building. purification. God. On the basis of the above3- Two large sanitary places, 11- The pilgrim town has its own argument, religious tourismwith each one comprising of 100 electricity generator for giving at Karbala has got a doublewater closets and washrooms. permanent service, especially significance which symbolizes 4- A large restaurant on two at the time when millions of the Islamic rituals. Therefore,floors that serves 1,000 pilgrims pilgrims rush to Karbala for ziarat it is absolutely necessary toat a time. purposes. develop construction projects, 5- A spacious mosque for 500 Finally, since good hospitality tourist resorts, enlargement ofpilgrims. and expressing warm welcome the Between-Two-Sanctuaries6- There are six special pavilions to pilgrims and tourists are (Bayn al-Haramayn) Street, andfor the guests of Imam al- the human traits of all peoples the regions around. To these,Husseins Sacred Sanctuary. and nations, religious tourism the following must be added:7- 64 special parlors for the in Iraq in general and that of enhancement of the shrines ofteams invited by Imam al- Karbala in specific are expected highly-religious dignitaries inHusseins Sacred Sanctuary. to play a leading role in this the city as well as in its suburbs,8- a medical center for men and regard such that the pilgrim or followed by construction of sowomen, open throughout the tourist has a feeling of being at many other hotels and inns,year at the order of the Secretary home. In addition, quite a lot modern bazaars and markets asof Imam al-Husseins Sacred of pilgrims may wish to stay at a focal point for tourists, and theSanctuary; it will give services to Karbla much longer than what regions which are located on thethe people living around as well, if they planned before, all due roads from Karbala to Najaf andthey do not have access to any. to the religious cities where Babil.9- Special telecommunication the members of the Ahl al-center for telephoning services. Bayt are buried through whom By: Faysal Ghazi Maytham al-Hasnawi 32Hussein Revivalism
  • 33. The real way By Jaffer al-BazeeThe true way to find Islam is the pure hearts that are looking for the truth.It is the way to rise out of darkness into light.Miranda Netherlands is a lady in the third decade of her age. After a longsearch, she found out the true way in Islam. We had a meeting with herduring her visit to the holy city of Karbala .Miranda said and expressed her satisfaction through smiles upon herface, maintaining,"Allah has blessed me with Islam through young Iraqis."He guided and taught me the principles of Islam. He has made everyeffort to help me understand the rules of Islam and read the Holy Qur›an.Then, we decided to married according to the rule of Islam.I loved Islam and the way of Ahl al-Bayt yet. "Had it not been throughAhlu Al-Bayt, I would not have known the Ahl al-Bayt and become aMuslim." Miranda maintained.Miranda would like to convey the principles of Islam to the Westernpeople. In doing so, she has had a lot of difficulties, so she thought of aneasy way. However, it is still difficult to reflect on the roles of Islam anddisseminate its principles.Miranda believes that love is the core structure in all heavenly religions.Love is the link that connects the believer with his/her Lord. She saysthat she had thought of finding her love in the Prophet Mohammad andhis progeny, and to place her standards on their standpoints towardthe whole world and invite others to the religion of Allah. A smile is theweapon that she likes to use when meeting the people there, as theylook to Muslims without any smile. She wants to tell them that we loveour motto "The smile on the faces of people" and that this is one of whatthe Prophet Muhammad has taught us.My mission is disseminating the Islamic thoughts through delivering aseries of lectures. Nevertheless, I am in dire need of the right religiousinformation and knowledge. Hence, I need books in my language. Untilthat time, I must seek God›s help 33 Hussein Revivalism
  • 34. Article Did One of the most common clichés under Islamic principles. about Islam is that it “spread by the Nevertheless, while the Muslim sword”. After all – the reasoning political entity was spread by the goes – why would so many people sword, Islam itself was not. Although, have converted if not under threat of after the death of the Prophet, Islam death? It is not difficult to speculate Muslim political control swept across why European Christians would the former Byzantine and Persian have favored this explanation: many Empires at lightening speed, it took of the early converts to Islam were about three to four hundred years for Christians, and they must have been these regions to become majoritySpread uncomfortable with so many of their Muslim. Although there are accounts brethren converting. However, some of forced conversion, it was not the Muslims today also have adopted norm. In fact, there are numerous the idea that their ancestors became accounts (oftentimes, pathetically Muslim by force, not by choice. humorous accounts) of Muslim by Several factors do lend credibility rulers discouraging conversion. For to this myth. Unlike Christianity, instance, the governor of Egypt is Islam does have concrete teachings said to have been told off by the regarding jihad (in the sense of caliph for refusing to allow adult males warfare) – clear in fiqh books and to convert unless they underwentSword? even du’as such as the fourth Imam’s circumcision – an understandable du’a for the people of the frontiers. deterrent. The main de-motivator Battles, although typically not waged was the jizyah, or a tax (outlined in offensively, are an oft-remembered the Qur’an) levied on non-Muslims and (let’s admit it) oft-celebrated part in an Islamic state in exchange for of early Islamic history; who hasn’t protection and exemption from heard a rousing story of Imam ‘Ali military service. More conversion cleaving his enemy in two? Of course, meant less jizyah, and so the the geopolitical tension between Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs – Christian Europe and the Islamic who generally lived in luxury at the empires fueled this stereotype – even people’s expense – had ample reason though a fair share of the conflict, to dislike conversion. such as the Crusades, was not Additionally, many of the non- instigated by the Muslims. Muslims living under Muslim political It must also be openly acknowledged control had little contact with that while Islam as a faith (as opposed Muslims. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, for to a political entity) spread in many example, intentionally established ways, many Muslim caliphs and Kufa and Basra as separate garrison military commanders did not adhere cities to prevent his troops from to Islamic principles. An obvious mixing with the local populations. example is Khalid ibn al-Waleed, who, Persia, although technically under on the one hand, brought much of the Muslim control, had even less of modern Middle East under Muslim a Muslim presence, and initially political control but, on the other, was there was only one major (and severely censured even by ‘Umar ibn understaffed) garrison city in the al-Khattab for his crimes. Although region. Few Muslims also settled many Muslims romantically view the in the new territories. Since many Abbasid era as the “Golden Age”, parts of the Muslim empire, such as during this era, “jihad” was often the mountainous regions of Persia, waged for financial or political gain – were difficult to access, there was Dr. Amina Inloes/ London something completely unacceptable little communication with the Muslim 34Hussein Revivalism
  • 35. government, and sometimes the desire to avoid bloodshed, as well Muslims and Christians. It is hard tojizyah was not even paid. As a result, as a loss of trust in the ability of the imagine this arrangement succeedingMuslim political control did not Byzantine and Persian Empires to if the Muslims and Christians haddirectly lead to the spread of Islam. provide security. However, another borne serious mutual hostility.Of course, Muslim political rule did major factor – particularly among Many Jews are also said to havefacilitate the spread of Islam. Islam Christians – was religious. In the preferred Muslim rule. This, of course,seemed more attractive in an empire early 7th century CE, North Africa does not include all Jews; one ofrun by a Muslim elite than it does and much of the Middle East were the most famous rebellions againsttoday, when Islamic culture is no under Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Muslim political control was led bylonger seen as a culture of power control – whose influence is attested a Berber Jewess. But despite theor prestige. After the Umayyads to in Surat al-Rum. The Byzantine tension between Muslims and Jewspassed an edict that all government state religion was Christianity, and today, for most of Islamic history,business had to be conducted in these regions were also largely Jewish minorities flourished in manyArabic, non-Arab non-Muslims Christian. Many of these Christians, Islamic lands. While under Muslimlined up to learn Arabic in hopes however, did not adhered to the control, Spain was renowned for itsof gaining government jobs. This, official Byzantine state views on the centers of learning where Muslims,in turn, facilitated access to the nature of Jesus or other theological Jews, and Christians researchedQur’anic text in its most powerful questions, and thus they were side by side; Spain also becameform – the original Arabic revelation. deemed heretics. The Byzantines renowned for its persecution of JewsNonetheless, state-sponsored appear to have taken heresy very after it fell out of Muslim control. Inda‘wah efforts were minimal and seriously; not only do they appear to fact, before the Muslim conquest ofextended primarily to non-Muslim have held genuine hatred, but they Jerusalem, the Byzantine Empire hadsoldiers employed by the Muslim persecuted Christian heretics. For forced the Jews out of Jerusalem.armies. Most real da‘wah efforts instance, a prominent Coptic leader After the Muslims took control, theywould come from people not affiliated known as “Samuel the Confessor” allowed the Jews to resettle. Itwith the state, such as traders, Sufis, was tortured and blinded shortly is a pity that this aspect of Islamicand the Imams. before the Muslim conquest of Egypt. history is largely unknown, andThe relationship between the non- Many of these Christians saw Muslim that many people assume that theMuslim subjects with their Muslim rule as a means to religious freedom contemporary problems betweenrulers should not be sugar-coated. since the Muslims did not interfere in Muslims and Jews are a result ofChristian records from that time their religious beliefs. age-old religious hatred instead ofperiod indicate that local peoples The treaties signed when Christian the real problem – the establishmentsaw the Muslims as an “other” and cities such as Jerusalem and of Israel and the displacement of theoften as infidels. There are also Damascus came under Muslim rule Palestinians.examples of Muslims attacking and also illustrate a remarkable level of Of course, it should not be forgottendestroying cities. However, one of the co-existence between Muslims and that Muslim political rule was far fromlesser-known facts about the spread Christians. Typically, these treaties perfect, and that the Umayyad andof Muslim political power is that included clauses for safety of life, Abbasid rulers committed atrocities,many of the “conquered” territories property, and “crosses”; freedom of such as the massacre in Karbala.actually welcomed Muslim political worship; and freedom to leave if one Nonetheless, a look at the history ofrule. Many cities are said to have did not want to live under Muslim this time suggests that Islam itselfsurrendered to Muslim control with rule. These treaties also, of course, was not spread by the sword. It alsolittle or no fighting. There are also included clauses requiring payment suggests that the spread of Muslimnumerous accounts of Christians and of the jizyah; still, in many areas, the political power – whether or not it wasJews covertly assisting the Muslim jizyah amounted to less than the done according to Islamic principles –conquerors by guiding them to secret tributes collected by the Byzantines was not necessarily unwelcomed. Buttunnels or sabotaging their own cities’ or Persians. One of the most novel mostly, it suggests that the majority ofdefense efforts. ideas, however, was church-sharing: our forebears who converted to IslamPart of this may simply have been an in cities such as Damascus, the converted not because they wereacknowledgment of the superiority central church would become a forced to, but because they wantedof Muslim political power and the common house of worship for both to. 35 Hussein Revivalism
  • 36. Antique Al-Tar Caves one of the oldest IraqiThe Ancient cities are productsof the grandparents in the pastwhich consider the cultural historicheritage and makes us proud ofthem. So, the communication andsustainability should be betweenthe past and the present thatcontinues. one of the civilizationlandmarks are al-Tar Caves in theKarbala governorate. On the right of the road whichgoes to the district of Ayan Al- civilizationTamur, 45 kms southwest ofKarbala and 15 km to the north-east of Al- Ukhaydir Palace,a compound configuration issurrounded by a number of caves,valleys and oases. It occupies animportant position on the Iraqiisland.These caves can be classified asfollows: First: Caves above the valley,where each one includes a smallhole, which its height about meterand a half. It is a small room its areais 2 x 3 square meters, and includeslots, with traits of smoke on theceiling.Second: Caves lie above the initiallevel of the caves. These cavesvary in architecture and shape.There are also other caves locatedalong the valley.The Caves locate in an area calledal-Tar, and this name goes backto the citizens of the region whichmeans mountain, as mentionedin the Holy Quran. In the ancientlanguage, it means "the rescue",which implies that the area was fullof life.Professor Hedo Fuji, Head of theJapanese archaeological Mission By: Maitham al-Hisnaweeand head of the excavations inthe caves of al-Tar mentioned inhis report that three stages haspassed in the history of thesecaves.First, before thirteen centuries BC;second, era of the Parthians ,and 36Hussein Revivalism
  • 37. the third is the Islamic era. The industry refer to the skil of the artistarchaeologists and researchers that look like the discovered pieceshave divided this region into in Tadmur city.compounds and have assigned to Through the examination by usingthem in letters (A, B, C, and D). carbon-14, show that the secondProfessor Fuji has made great use of these caves are graves thatefforts with the scientific team of go back to the period betweenarchaeologists at the site to find the third century BC and thirdout the cultural aspects of the century AD, which date back to theCovenant buried and the details Hellenistic period. It offers severalof the environment. He had used methods for the sewing of tissues.in the excavation of sophisticated So ,al-Tar is one of the old Iraqimachines in the tar of( beauty) or archaeological sites that shows(Um al-Jamal) and those within the the creativity of Iraqi people whocompund of caves (A). carried the values of goodness and He discovered small colourful beauty . It indicates that Karbalapieces that date back to the was the commercial centre. Let’sexistence of these caves. The record this in the pages of historydry of the place had helped the of civilization because we have thesurvival of these textile pieces oldest civilization in the world.without attenuation of damage anddisruption. The technical textile 37 Hussein Revivalism
  • 38. Holy cities The Holy Shrine of al-Askareen The religious shrines in Iraq are holy places to the visitors from different parts of the Muslim world. Samarras city one of the ancient Islamic cities, contains a proud feature. When you visit the city, you will face on the horizon high minarets embracing the sky, and the dome attracts the attention of tourists. The building of the holy shrine of al-Askareen contains three Imams whom grandson of the Prophet of Islam Muhammad (pbuh). They are Imam Ali bin Muhammad al- Hadi, his son Imam Hassan bin Ali Askari, and Imam Muhammed Al-Mahdi. Shrine Description The internal construction of the holy shrine is square, with length of 146 meters, and width from north side 133 meters. While the length of chamber tombs is 53 meters, width 37 meters, and 11 meters its height. The dome of the Holy shrine is the largest dome in the Islamic world, with its height about 64 meters, and its diameter 22 meters. It is covered with gold, while the number of the gold bricks are 7200. The holy shrine includes Five doors. western and southern doors (called al-qibla gate), the eastern door, and two doors to the north of the shrine. To the west of the holy shrine, the Dome is covered and coloured by Karbalaei’s ceramic . It locates above the house of Imams. The circumference of the dome is 45 meters and its diameter is 15 meters. History of the city When Imam al-Hadi went to Samarra, he bought a house from a Christian man called Daleel b. Jacob. The Imam lived here with 38Hussein Revivalism
  • 39. his family and this house eventually installed gold on their sanctuaries.became the centre of Samarra and • In 495 AH / 1102, re-construction ofchanged to the holiest place in the city. the fence was ordered by the son ofBuildings were built by people who like king Brkiya Seljuk Shah Abu Muzaffar.to live near it and the AhlulBayt (as). He also ordered to renew all the• When Imam Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn doors of the holy shrine with the mostMuhammad al-Hadi, died by the expensive and finest types of wood topoison given to him by Abbasid ruler be used.Al-mu’taz (on 3 Rajab 254 AH / 868 • In 606 AH / 9-1210, Abu AbbasAD), he was buried in the courtyard of Nasser al-Din Ahmad b. Almstdihis home when he was just 42 years ordered the reconstruction of theold. dome above the shrines, adding theWhen Imam al-Hassan died in the decoration to the shrine from inside,same way by the Abbasid ruler al- and built the minarets.Muaátmad, and buried in the same • Abu al-Harith b. Abdullah Arslan al-house, he had been living for 23 years besasiri put two wooden boxes on theonly. shrines of the Imams in 639 AH / 1242 The burial of the two imams is AD.considered the base of the Al- • In the year of 750 AH / 1349, SheikhAskareen holy shrine, as the house Aweys Abu Hassan decorated thelater became a place of pilgrimage shrine, and re-built the dome and thebefore it was destroyed and converted House.into a mosque surrounded by • In the year of 1200 AH / 1786,courtyard and wall. the King Ahmed Khan Aldenbli• In the same year Ms. Nargis and reconstructed the holy shrine. His sonmother of Imam Muhammad b. al- Ahmad Khan continued the work of hisHasan, who was born in this house father by adding the decorations anddied and buried in the same place in verses of holy Quran.274 AH / 887 AD, then Ms. Hakeema • In the year of 1285 AH / 1868 and(daughter Imam al-Jawad) was also during the reign of Nasir al-Din Shahburied with Ms. Nargis. Qajari there was reconstruction theHistory of the Holy Shrine holy shrine again and its land was• In the year (289 AH / 902 CE) the covered with green marble.shrine and the house were rebuilt • In 1341 / 22-1923 the roads aroundwhich stayed without repairing the courtyard and inbetween thatapproximately for 45 years. surround the holy shrine had been• In 332 AH / 44-945 AD, Nasser expanded by King Faisal I.al Dawla al-Hasan b. Abu Hija • In 1359 AH / 1940 during the reign ofreconstructed the house again, and King Faisal II b. King Ghazi, there werebuilt a small dome on the tomb of the some minor repairs and renovationsshrine. and expansion of the streets• Abu al-Hasan Ahmad the buyid built surrounding the shrine.the first building on the form of a shrine • In 1360 AH / 1941, the silver box ofin the year 337 / 48-949 AD. Imam al-Hussein had been transferred• In 368 AH / 78-979 AD, Abu shujaá to Samarra and installed on the holyVnachsro b. Hassan the buyid visited sanctuaries.the city and ordered to enlargen the • In 1381 / 1961, the silver box withshrine and build a fence around it. new decorations was set, which was• In 445 AH / 1053 the Turkish Prince subsequently however destroyed in theAbu Harith Arslan, rebuilt the dome explosion of the dome in the terrorist www.alkafeel.netand the two sanctuaries. He also attack of 2006/22/02. 39 Hussein Revivalism
  • 40. ToursimSevilleone of the Islamicmonuments in Spain Haidar Muhammad Seville was in the past the capital of the Andulusian Muslims in Spain, it is the third important city in Spain. It locates in southren Spain, it is on the right beach of a large valley river,573 kms away from Madrid. 40Hussein Revivalism
  • 41. FoundationSeville was inhabited since the Paleolithic era. Ithas evolved significantly in the Neolithic period(Alniulietik) which was established by the Phoenicians(Carthaginians) and in the Atalqa place 8 km to thenorth-west of its current location. They are calledashvela which means "the flat land". Its name hadbeen changed by Aliibrion to Hessballes whichwas known in Roman times, while Muslims called itAshbeleai. The Spanish name today is the «Sfelia».Muslims conquered Seville in 94 AH / 713 AD. Itwas settled by a Muslim society that knew Balbldeinto distinguish them from Army of al-sham. TheIncreasing number of people whom came fromal-Sham, especially from al-Homs city, made itsname a watchword and was called by the Homs-Andalus. Seville remained one of the Umayyad statethroughout century. In 646 AH / January 14, 1249, Ferdinand III seized itafter a siege that lasted one year and five months toend of the Islamic sovereignty of Seville, which lastedfive and a half centuries.Monuments and RelicsDespite an end to a flourishing era of time for theMuslims in Seville, the monuments of their civilizationstill remain a testament to the civilization of Muslimsin the affluent Seville. Among these monumentsthere is a mosque which was built by Almohad AbuYaqub Yusuf. It is remaining minaret is now known as"Giralda". It is a square with four sides of 16.1 m and aheight of 96 meters. In the same city, a mosque was built by Muhammadb. Omar, which later turned to the Church of ElSalvador. There are gold towers which were built byGovernor of Seville Prince Almohad Abu Ala Idris.The lake and gardens are still existing and the citywas coordinated by the entire Islamic Andalusiancommunity with the old random scheme and narrowwinding alleyways, courtyards, roofs, and ornateiron gates. The low buildings and the predominanceof tiled roofs in this part of the city have been noteable. The modern districts of the city had been builtaccording to the chart often and increased the greenspaces among the high buildings with flat roofs, whilethe commercial centre of the city in the old section.Sources- The history of Andalusia, Ahmed Bader (fragmentation ofMoroccan sovereignty fall), (Damascus, 1983). Andalusia inhistory, Shakir Mustafa (Publications of the Ministry of Culture,Damascus, 1990). 41 Hussein Revivalism
  • 42. tru Woman Struggle Struggle On her way to Afaf’s house, Fatima sank in a sea of thinking. Different ideas rolled in her mind, but she an encouraging smile on her lips, saying: - You look set up, Fatima ? May I know why? was satisfied that Afaf was - I can’t understand myself. the life boat and the source I feel Satan has overcome of light that would direct her me. Fatima answered in a to the right way. She had sad voice then paused to a mysterious feeling that collect a clear expression to she was weak and in need show her sufferings. of some strong help to Afaf realized her friend’s overcome her anxiety and problem and tired to pave fear. Finally, she decided to the way for her to talk tell Afaf about everything in frankly. detail. -Yes, Fatima, go on. When she knocked at the -I am not courageous door, she felt that she might enough to overcome the not find her. But as she was difficulties on my way told that Afaf was there, of preaching "Fatima she was overwhelmed with continued". pleasure. With confused -Which kind of difficulties, steps she went into Afaf’s sister? Tell me I ’m your room where she was advising sister. Afaf received warmly by her. commented urging her to They shook hands and sat speak. Translated by:Sir Sa`ad Shareef down. -I believe that we, Muslim Afaf said with a soft tone of women, should carry on blaming: our responsibilities towards written by :Bint al-Huda - Really I missed you Islam. So I rushed to last week. You’re most preaching to save Muslim welcome. girls from the bitter life Hearing those nice words, which they live but it is Fatima calmed down and society …. Answered paused. Afaf glanced at Fatima and paused. Fatima’s face reading much -What’s wrong with it, in her eyes. She drew her Fatima ? chair nearby Fatima is with -It is a corrupt society with 42Hussein Revivalism
  • 43. uggno morals and that mademe feel bitter.-Did you guess thatpreaching was easy orwithout difficulties? No,we shouldn’t deny suchdifficulties but also we haveto face them bravely andpatiently as we adoptedreligious ideas.-There is no certain matter,Afaf.-So it is cowardice againstdeviated currents andfearing from poisonousideologies. Said Afaf, tryingto motivate her. In fact she succeededbecause when Fatimaheard the words “cowardiceand fear” she up rousedsaying:-No, no. I will neverfeel coward againstany current or ideologybut contradictions andannoyance disturb memuch.-What else Tell me Fatimato answer you!-I believed I had to serve myreligion in my position. I alsobelieved that Islamic faith isnot limited, said Fatima andpaused.-So you are shocked by oursociety because people are wrongly evaluated by according to wrong criteria. Is that right? Fatima? -Yes. -For this we set out for preaching. God says “Those who surrender themselves to Allah and accept the true faith, who are devout, sincere, patient, humble, charitable and chaste; who fast and are never mindful of Allah – on those, both men and women, Allah bestow forgiveness and a rich reward. (33.35). -But people mock at us when we face difficulties or hard experience. -Let them laugh but finally they will weep much. Haven’t you read in the Qur’an “You shall be bereaved of your possessions and dear ones and be subjected to the insults of the pagans and of those to whom the scriptures were given before you. But if you endure with fortitude and guard yourselves against evil, you shall surely triumph.(3:185). The Qur’an has clarified everything and paved the way to preach promising paradise. We shall take the prophet as an example and how much he had suffered to change a nation from idolatry, robbery, plundering, primitive habits and drinking wine to an ideal nation. A nation of morals. How much he had met. They called him magician and liar and tried to kill him. Also, when he went to Taif preaching, the unbelievers sent their children to mock at him and throw stones at him. He did nothing but called God, “Lord, you see how weak I am and how badly I am treated. If you are angry with me I will not care for this punishment but if you stand by me, I’ll be stronger.” So, Fatima, we shouldn’t surrender to plosives and falsehood. Remember Zainab daughter of Imam Ali when she stood by the body of her brother Hussein in Karbala battle she said to God, “Lord, accept this sacrifice.” We have to remember all those events to simplify the way. When Afaf paused, Fatima was about to burst into tears saying : Really you are a good supporter and a good relief to my soul. How fool I was when I surrendered to despair. -No, no you have never been fool nor despaired but it was a normal reaction to such society and you have done well when you came to me to stand by you. I hope you have never deserted me, Fatima! -Never! I didn’t desert you but I was rolling in a circle of anxiety. Said Fatima hesitatively. -So, you were afraid to be frank with me. If so, you were definitely wrong because you didn’t guess the bad effects behind that. Be sure I won’t leave you alone. Said Afaf looking smilingly into Fatima’s eyes. Feeling strong Fatima said confidently. “Be sure, Afaf. I will never surrender to weakness and I promise you that I will tell you about all my sufferings because you are the best guiding angel as you were. -I am not an angel but I am the advising loving sister, to you and all girls of Islam. 43 Hussein Revivalism
  • 44. Article We live in a culture that exaggerates physical beauty above and beyond where its true status lies. The media and culture have indirectly pushed people’s minds to treat beauty as one of the determinants of self-worth, especially in young girls and women. It becomes crucial n of for everyone of us to examine eptio what beauty really is, and perc what role physical beauty has ur ty to play in our lives. O Is beauty limited to physical au characteristics or is there a be higher dimension to it? Is beauty an independent trait or does it shine in people with good personalities? f’s, Although the answers to Yusu uty.” these questions are very like ea be auty true b subjective, the Islamic view of seen s the e ver usuf ha beauty helps us to shape our has ted Y o one rea opinions in the best manner “N c who possible.Bu t He 44Hussein Revivalism
  • 45. All Creation Is Beautiful serve to enhance and sometimes evenAlthough the eyes may not perceive determine how we perceive physicalevery creation around us as beauty, the beauty. Some characteristics thatQur’anic verse (32:7) tells us that all are mentioned are self-confidence,creation is beautiful. This verse is clearly cheerfulness, altruism, and optimism.talking about beauty on a higher level When it comes to judging betweenthan the mere physical dimension that physical beauty and personality, ourour eyes try to find in what they perceive. mind inclines towards appreciatingThis verse urges us to appreciate beauty people who possess such positive traitsin all creation and to see the beauty in and brighter souls.Allah’s universe through observing how Actions that Enhance Beautyinterconnected and orderly it is! Proximity to Allah and obeying His commands surely enhance one’s beauty,The Perception of Beauty both inner as well as physical beauty.How does Islam view human beauty? The Holy Prophet (peace be upon himIs physical beauty always looked upon and his progeny) said, “Beauty is in theas a positive trait? Needless to say, tongue (wording)”. Good moral conductphysical beauty is indeed a blessing is one basis of judging what qualifies– but according to Islamic teachings, as beauty. Ayatollah Hussain Madhahiribeauty is just like any other material and writes in his book Islamic Family-Lifeperishable trait such as wealth, rank, and Ethics, “Sometimes speech is like theoccupation. Physical beauty by itself has beauty spot on the face which enhanceslittle worth and is given no significance the beauty of the person.” A person within Islam if it does not accompany inner good morals is truly beautiful inside outbeauty (piety and good moral traits). and wins peoples’ hearts.Real beauty is what we carry with us in In addition, some recommended actionsour journey to the hereafter: our good enhance inner and outer beauty. Onedeeds. In the Holy Qur’an (3:106) we of them is the highly recommendedare reminded of Judgment Day when Night Prayer (Salat al-Layl) that, whenpeople’s deeds will determine their performed on a regular basis, enhancesphysical appearance: “On the day one’s physical beauty. Allama Majlisiwhen (some) faces shall turn white and writes in his book on Salat al-Layl: “Salat(some) faces shall turn black; then as to al-Layl makes one’s face beautiful;those whose faces turn black: Did you beautifies one’s etiquette; gives adisbelieve after your believing? Taste pleasant smell to one’s body andtherefore the chastisement because you increases one’s daily sustenance. It alsodisbelieved.” removes sorrow and grief and givesIn our everyday lives we often come strength to the eyes.”across people who may be good-looking Hence, closeness to Allah createsbut something about their character both inner as well as outer beauty! Inrepels us from them; the reverse is conclusion, below is a historic coupletalso true for people who may not be so that refers to the beauty of Prophet Yusufgood-looking but appear beautiful to (peace be upon him), whose beautyus because of their positive qualities. is a symbol of Allah’s most beautifulA recent article by plastic surgeon creation:Dr. Robert Tornambe, published by “No one has ever seen beauty likethe Huffington Post, presents an Yusuf’s,interesting conclusion about how the But He who created Yusuf has the truemind judges beauty. The article “What beauty.”Makes a Person Ugly?” focuses on Let us try to reflect true eternal beautycertain positive personality traits that from within ourselves! 45 Hussein Revivalism
  • 46. World Islam in Japan Islam’s relation with Japan is quite influence of local Muslims there andrecent as compared to those with other subsequently took the name Ahmadcountries around the world. There Ariga. However, recent studies haveare no clear records of any contact revealed that another Japanese knownbetween Islam and Japan or any as Torajiro Yamada was probably thehistorical traces of Islam’s coming into first Japanese Muslim who visitedJapan through religious propagation Turkey out of sympathy for those whoof any sort except for some isolated died in the aftermath of the shipwreckcases of contact between individual of the "Ertugrul". He converted toJapanese and Muslims of other Islam there and took the name Abdulcountries before 1868. Khalil and probably made pilgrimage toIslam was firstly known to Japanese Makkah.people in 1877 as a part of Western The real Muslim community lifereligious thought. Around the however did not start until the arrivalsame time the life of Holy Prophet of several hundred Turkoman, Uzbek,Muhammad was translated into Tadjik, Kirghiz, Kazakh and other Turko-Japanese. This helped Islam to find Tatar Muslim refugees from centrala place in the intellectual image of Asia and Russia in the wake of thethe Japanese people, but only as Bolshevik Revolution during Worldknowledge and a part of the history of War I. These Muslims who were givencultures. asylum in Japan settled in several main Another important contact was cities around Japan and formed smallmade in 1890 when Ottoman Turkey Muslim communities. A number ofdispatched a naval vessel to Japan Japanese converted to Islam throughfor the purpose of starting diplomatic the contact with these Muslims.relations between the two countries With the formation of these smallas well introducing Muslims and Muslim communities several mosquesJapanese people to each other. This have been built, the most important military government throughnaval vessel called «Ertugrul» was of them being the Kobe Mosque built organizations and research centerscapsized and sank with 609 people in 1935 (which is the only remaining on Islam and the Muslim World. It isaboard drowning 540 of them, on its mosque in Japan nowadays) and the said that during this period over 100way returning home. Tokyo Mosque built in 1938. One thing books and journals on Islam wereThe first Muslim Japanese ever known that should be emphasized is that very published in Japan. However, theseare Mitsutaro Takaoka who converted little weight of Japanese Muslims was organizations or research centersto Islam in 1909 and took the name felt in building these mosques and were in no way controlled or run byOmar Yamaoka after making the there have been no Japanese so far the Muslims nor was their purposepilgrimage to Makkah and Bumpachiro who played the role of Imam of any of the propagation of Islam whatsoever.Ariga, who about the same time the mosques. The mere purpose was to let thewent to India for trading purposes During World War II, an «Islamic military be better equipped with theand converted to Islam under the Boom» was set in Japan by the necessary knowledge about Islam 46Hussein Revivalism
  • 47. The real Muslim community life however did not start until the arrival of several hundred Turkoman, Uzbek, Tadjik, Kirghiz, Kazakh and other Turko-Tatar Muslim refugees from central Asia and Russia in the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution during World War I.and Muslims since there were large particular after realizing the importance most of those who converted to IslamMuslim communities in the areas of these countries for the Japanese disappeared from the scene.occupied in China and Southeast Asia economy. With this publicity many When visiting Muslim countries, theby the Japanese army. As a result, Japanese who had no idea about Islam remark that Japanese Muslims arewith the end of the war in 1945, these got the chance to see the scene of Hajj the minority religious group alwaysorganizations and research centers in Makkah and hear the call of Adhan brings a question from the audience,disappeared rapidly. and Quranic recitations. Beside many "What percentage of Japan›s total Another "Islamic Boom" was set sincere conversions to Islam there population are Muslims?" The answerin motion this time in the shade of were also mass conversions which are at the moment is: One out of a hundred"Arab Boom" after the "oil shock" in said to have amounted to several tens thousand. Nevertheless, the younger1973. The Japanese mass media of thousands of conversions which generation has aspirations. Perhapshave given big publicity to the Muslim took place during those days. However, some day it will be said that Islam is aWorld in general and the Arab World in with the end of the effect of oil shock, popular religion in Japan. 47 Hussein Revivalism
  • 48. Article Children Satellite ’s Channels and Parental Responsibilities aabi Abdul Sattar al-K After having reviewed most of the articles in the global press, I did not find any subject that deals with childrens interest in satellite channels from either a positive or negative aspect. According to the responsibilities of parents in guiding and educating children, they would need to observe the behaviour of their children. Most of media channels use the word “culture” which occurs in most of the literature and also the word, “anthropology” in which it means the study of the overall way of life prevalent in the society. Some satellite channels may influence new behaviours in the community, i.e., social and moral values which were not prevalent before. So, as we seek to consolidate our Islamic and moderate identity and the consolidation of the principles and values of the Quran, in addition to what was taught by our Prophet Muhammad. In the present day, we note the variables and future prospects that may make the children confused. Therefore, the parents must take care of their childrens viewing 48Hussein Revivalism
  • 49. various satellite channels. Hence,educators and psychologists havecultural and social responsibilitiesbecause they relate to the fate of thefuture of our generations.An educational supervisor, Mr. Bahaal-Din, has explained the principle ofthe influence of the various satelliteTV programs on different age groupsin children. Between the ages ofthree to six, the children enjoy therhythm and repetition. They arealso fascinated by the names thatare sometimes ridiculous, exoticand by animals that take on differentpersonalities. In comparison,children between the ages of six tonine are more affected and attractedto fictional characters and tend tofocus on the events that are morecomplex to identify the lines ofconflict. The children between nineto twelve prefer real or mythicalcharacters that portray heroic actsrather than being interested in thehistoric topics.Those who are between the agesof twelve to fifteen show a thirst forthe ideal characters and possess thecapacity to respond to the positionsof cynicism and hot dialogueafter developing their language.This is a universal and scientificanalysis to the exact stages of childdevelopment.The important question is, "Do weprepare ourselves for the needs ofour children at the various stagesin their lives, according to theirpsychological, emotional & socialinfluence characteristics?"Therefore, we must help our childrengrow and develop their knowledgeby watching programs that willbenefit them through appropriatesatellite channels. 49 Hussein Revivalism
  • 50. Global report children make th e most vuInerab st child group to abuse le approximately 1 and exploitation. 26 million child this context ther In work in dangerou ren was a recent U s situations . Nations report nited Accordi on the situation ng to some estim children in the w of from 2000 sugg ates, orld that reflect est that 5.7 mill deteriorating gl s the childre ion obal level for ch n were working and violence ag ildren, or bond in forced ainst them in al ed labour, 1.8 m parts of the wor l prostitution and illion in ld. pornography, an Although the re 1.2 million were d port aimed to re victims of traffic ways in which to veal It also reveals th king. promote childre e breadth of so rights can be pr ns contexts cial omoted in the in which they ar world, many of in violence agai e engaged the descriptions nst children. The the practices of of report begins w violence agains ith the family th them in many pl t they are consid at aces of the wor ered as the mos Through field st ld. important social t udies have been units, which will checked and sp start in which ch read around the ildren face phys world, and cert sexual and psyc ical, ificates for certai hological violen children, The re n indicates that th ce. ItViolence again port presents m e number of ch forms of violence any who are expose ildren in different soci d to domestic frameworks e.g. al violence each ye : the family, scho ar range from th alternative care ols, 133 to 2 e institutions, and 75 million child places where ch the world. ren around ildren working, addition to the in The report does use them in arm not stop only w conflict. ed the family and th hen e school as soci The report reve units and as the al als that betwee most influential to 98 per cent of n 80 and important in the worlds child stitutes in the liv suffer physical ren of childre es punishment in n, but it goes be homes, and a th their to other comm yond that ird are facing se unity-based un physical punish vere the legi its of ment resulting slative, judicial from the use of and executive violent physical nature. It finds th at violence agai punishment. children require nst s unity of the fo In addition to di social institutio rces, rect physical ns, both formal punishment, w informal, in orde and hich may leave r to eliminate th physical effects the phenomenon, or is are unclear or do at most, to redu not leave any tr es them. ce aces, the child get the physical may Although is frus intimidation. It is trating report is the most serious by the UN repo sued presentation of rt, it highlights so the report that se positive aspect me xual abuse agai s for the protec children, the re nst of children. It in tion port referred to cludes the sign approximately 1 of one hundred ing 50 million girls and ninety-two 73 million boys and countries and th less than eighte e international years old who ha en Convention on ve suffered from the Rights of th forced sexual re Child, the strict e lations, or any ot measures taken form of sexual vi her by many countr olence. ies concerning childrens labour child labour, an An important d the large role aspect addresse influential institu the d in the report, tes played by th according to re contemporary m e cent estimates edia to raise pu of the ILO that 2 awareness and blic 18 million to disseminate children in 200 information.He 4 had entered th will mobilize the field of employm e society for prot ent, of whom ection of childre n. Sabbah al-Talkan i 50 Hussein Revivalism
  • 51. The report reve alsbetween 80% to that 98% ofthe worlds chil dren sufferphysical punish ment in theirhomes. 51 Hussein Revivalism