517 35-36

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  • 517 35-36

    1. 1. Study Tips: Quizzes and Test• Heavily weighted towards lecture notes • ~80/20• Be able to identify structures and function• Will be multiple choice• Calculate Water potential
    2. 2. Sugars: Translocation• How do sugars made in leaves end up in other partsof the plant?
    3. 3. Translocation = phloem transport• Energetically demanding processSieve tube elements (+companion cells)+ Minerals, amino acids, hormones..Materials can go either up or downSOURCE vs. SINK(but only one direction per tube)
    4. 4. What are some sinks and sources? SINK SOURCE Flowers Mature leaves Fruits Apical Meristems Root? Newly growing leaves RootsMovement is predictable-- radioactive CO2 studies
    5. 5. Transport of SUgars• Sugar manufactured in mesophyll cells is transportedto sieve-tube members.• Sugars are actively pumped into companion cells andsieve-tube members
    6. 6. Pressure Flow or Bulk Flow
    7. 7. Figure 35.13
    8. 8. Plant NutritionCHAPTER 36
    9. 9. The 6 Macronutrients= Building blocks of nucleic acids, proteins,phospholipids, etc.NitrogenPhosphorusPotassiumSulfurCalciumMagnesium
    10. 10. Plus micronutrients: (Small amounts)Cofactors for enzymes.Cl, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Cu, Ni, Mo. (Table 36.1)How do researchers determine what is an essentialnutrient? - Hydroponics
    11. 11. “What is wrong with my house plant”Symptoms depend on: Function (see table 36.1) There should be a picture of different Mobility leaves *Yellow: NPurple: PBurnt edges: K
    12. 12. “What is wrong with my house plant” Symptoms depend on: Function (see table 36.1) Mobility MOBILITY in plant tissueNutrient not highly mobile, Nutrient highly mobile,trapped in older tissues shunted in actively growing eg. Fe,S partsSymptoms mostly in young eg. N, K, Mgleaves Symptoms mostly in old leaves
    13. 13. The basics about: SOILSoils• Provide support• Mineral nutrients and water• O2 respirationDivided into 3 horizonsFig 36.4
    14. 14. Soil Horizon: A, B, and CHorizon A: Topsoil: Consists ofsand, silt, clay and organicmatterMinerals can be leached by rainor through irrigation and can bemade inaccessible by plants
    15. 15. Soil Horizon: A, B, and CHorizon B: Subsoil; zoneof infiltration andleached mineralaccumulation
    16. 16. Soil Horizon: A, B, and CHorizon C: Parent rock(bed rock); weatheringof this rockdetermines the basicstructure and chemicalcomposition of soil.
    17. 17. What is special about clay particles?SOIL: Gravel, sand, silt = breakdown of rocks Clay= chemical recombinationSilicon Aluminum OxygenSpecial structures: layers Negative charges along theoutside
    18. 18. Ions with positive charges (CATIONS)Interact with OM and clay particlesIONSIons with negative charges (ANIONS)DISSOLVE in water(Except Phosphate: sticks to clay particles)
    19. 19. Clay in soils provide a cation exchange system for plants Protons leaked by roots. Promoterelease of cations by clay particles
    20. 20. Other types of plant nutrition: Parasitic plants or Carnivorous plants• Found in Boggy habitats • Acidic, nutrient deficient habitats• Capture insects, digest their proteins, and absorb theiramino acids
    21. 21. Two important mutualism relevant to plant nutrition. • Mycorrhizal associations • Nitrogen fixation Mutually beneficial relationshipMycorrhizae-> FungiForm associations with plant rootsHyphae: very thin tubular filamentsImprove absorption of N, P, water
    22. 22. Two types of mychorrhizae:Ectomycorrhizae - 10% of plant families (including pinetrees)Arbuscular mycorrihzae - 85% plant families (includingcorn, wheat, legumes)
    23. 23. Fig 36. 7 Formation of mycorrhizae -> Complex signalingbetween plants & fungus
    24. 24. What is cool about strigolactones?Strigolactones• Plant hormones• Derived form carotenoids• Have a labile ether bond that hydrolyzes in soil. ->this creates a strong concentration GRANDIENT awayform the root. (cool!)
    25. 25. Mycorrhizae• Increase access to nutrient and root surface area• Expand root surface area 10-1000 fold• Primarily responsible for obtaining Phosphorus.• Exchanges nutrients for Carbohydrates
    26. 26. Last part of plant nutrition:Nitrogen Cycle
    27. 27. Two important mutualism relevant to plant nutrition. • Mycorrhizal associations • Nitrogen fixationWhy do we use clovers as cover clovers....something?Answer: Clovers, beans, alfalfa, etc. are legumes andlegumes are NITROGEN FIXERSLegumes exploit bacteria to get NH4+
    28. 28. Last part of plant nutrition: Nitrogen Where is most of the N? AIR.Plant cannot use atmospheric nitrogen N2 directlyRequires enormous energy to break the N-N bondProkaryotes can “fix” nitrogen- converting it form dinitrogen to ammonia: N2--> NH3
    29. 29. Nitrogen fixation: N2-> NH3 Nitrogenous• Done by bacteria, not plants.• Very energy intensive -16 ATP per N2• Can only occur in anaerobic conditions
    30. 30. Nitrogen fixation, cont.Legume-rhizobia interaction = species -specific!Rhizobia NOT transported in or on the seed. How do they find each other?Requires complex signaling between the plant root andthe bacteria. (cool!)1. Rhizobia are attracted by root surface compounds2. Rhizobia produce Nod factors3. Plant proteins on root surface bind Nod factors4. Plant turns on ENOD genes5. Root hairs curl, begin to produce nodule
    31. 31. Nodule Formation (fig. 36.9)
    32. 32. How does the plant maintain an anaerobic environmentfor bacteria?• Bacteroid cells packed into vesicles• Thick lignified wall• Leghemoglobin - iron-containing protein that binds O2-lowers [O2] in nodule
    33. 33. Implication of N fixation• Production of N-rich vegitation • Good source of organic fertilizer• Production of protein rich seeds

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