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510 34

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510   34 510 34 Presentation Transcript

  • BIO20B Development & Physiology Prof. Justin CummingsPlant Physiologist /Restoration ecologist
  • Lab #1 Plant morphology •Print out handouts from eCommons •All assignments are to be turned in at 2:00 on Friday
  • Plant of the week #1Coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens World’s tallest living species 2000+ years old Stump-sprouting Thick bark UCSC’s redwood
  • • Kingdom: Plantae -Includes glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants -All descended from an ancestral organism with primary chloroplast
  • •Green Algae- ancestral organismto all land plants
  • Adaptations allowing for the colonization of land by plants1.Cuticle: waxy covering of leaves2.Stomata: Openings in leaves and stems that allow for gas exchange3.Gametangia: multicellular organs that enclose plant gametes and prevent them from desiccating4.Embryos: young plants contained within a protected structure5.Pigments: allow for protection against harmful uv radiation6.Fungal mutualism: promotes nutrien and water uptake from soil
  • Gymnosperms vs. AngiospermsGymnosperms- Seed plants thatdon’t produce flowersAngiosperms- Flowering plants
  • Angiosperms: Monocots vs. Eudicots Arrangement of Cotyledons Veins in leaves flower petals vascular bundles in stem Monocot 1 parallel Usually in multiples of 3 scattered Eudicot 2 netlike Usually in multiples of 4 or 5 in a ring
  • Autotrophs: Obtain carbon through atmosphericcarbon fixation and photosynthesisWhat do plants need?•Light•CO_2•Water•Minerals
  • Basic Plant Structure• Shoot system • Stem and Leaves -Photosynthesis and Water/Nutrient Transport •Root System •Roots -Absorb water, nutrients, and stores products from photosynthesis
  • Fig 5.7•Plants Cell •90% of cell volume •Primarily serves as a storage structure •Water filled sacks containing minerals, enzymes, amino acids, and sugars from photosynthesis
  • •2 cells walls •Primary and secondary cells walls•Primary cell wall Mades up of hemicellulose and pectins•Secondary cell wall •Internal to primary cell wall •Increases structural support •Embedded with lignin
  • Meristematic cells give rise to more specialized cells • Undifferentiated cells • Cell division -> one meristem cell; one differentiated specialized cell 3 Types of mature cells 3 Types of tissue Parenchyma DermalSchlerenchyma Ground Collenchyma Vascular
  • 1. 3 types of cellsPARENCHYMA •Most common cell types •Most of a leaf •Metabolically active •Totipotent ( e.g. wounding, cuttings) •Primary cell wall; middle lamella (region between cells that binds them together) (no secondary cell wall) •Large vacuolesInvolved in: •Photosynthesis •Storage cells in roots •Most of a fruit
  • 2. 3 Types of mature cells From the Greek: “Glue”COLLENCHYMA • Flexibility and support • Thickened primary cell walls; no secondary wall • Occur in bundles • Tend to be long, pliable ------- Why is celery stringy • (Alive when mature) • Rich in pectins ------Jelly
  • 2. 3 types of mature cellsCOLLENCHYMA• Provide support to petiole, non-woody stems, and growing organs
  • 3. 3 types of mature cells From the Greek: “Hard”SCLERENCHYMA •Function: Structural Support •Thick 2º cell walls •Lignified •Dead when mature (in non- growing parts) •Protection of seed & fruits •Different types: •Sclereids----------- Why are pears gritty •Fibers ----------------- Most of what we wear!
  • FibersRigid sipport to woodSclereidsDensly packed cells; e.g. Nut Shell
  • 1. Dermal Tissue From the Greek “Over skin”EPIDERMIS• One-cell thick• Cuticle (wax on surface •  Specialized cells • Tichomes • Root hairs Periderm- Dermal tissue of stems and roots of woody plants
  • 2. Ground Tissue• Between dermal and vascular tissue• Metabolically active• Photosynthesis, storage (parenchyma)• Support (schlerenchyma, collenchyma)
  • 3. From the latin “small vessel” VASCULAR TISSUE• Continuum of phloem and xylem• Transport • Phloem: sugars • Xylem : water• Support (xylem)
  • Two specialized cels in vascular tissue: Xylem and Phloem4. Tracheary elements (=schlernchyma)• Dead when mature• Thick cell walls• Interconnect via pits in walls• Connect end to end• Conduct water• Tracheids (gymnosperms & vessel elements(angiosperms)
  • Two specialized cells types in vascular tissue: Xylem and Phloem5. Sieve tube cells = parenchyma• Live when mature• Missing nuclei , vacuoles....• Need companion cells• Connect end to end (sieve plates)
  • * This will be on the testOrgans in the roots Organs in the shoots roots stem leaves 3 Types of Tissue Dermal Vascular Ground 3 Types of cells Parenchyma Collenchyma Schlerenchyma
  • Look at root and shoot in book
  • How do plants grow?• Plants show indeterminate growth (keep growing.• Totpotent cells (1 cell-> whole organism). Meristems • Cells unspecialized • Divide ->additional cells Apical meristem Lateral meristem 1º growth 2) growth (thickening e,g. roots * shoot tips e.g. tree trcuk
  • MERISTEMS cont.What if meristem is damaged?• Other cells become meristematicAfter the meristem• All subsequent growth = elongation
  • MERISTEMS cont.How does a tree grow?Then, 2º growth from lateral meristems <Vascular cambium Cork cambium1º growth from apical meristem
  • What’s a growth ring?In Winter/spring, lots of rain,• Xylem cells bigger,• with thin walls = lightIn Summer/fall, dry• Xylem cells smaller• with thick walls = dark
  • How do little bunnies kill big trees “Girdling” Because thecambium (themeristem) is close to the surface