Millennium development goal(mdg) in education_Nepal's achievement


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Critical review of MDG-Education in context to Nepal

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  • The world has achieved parity in primary education between girls and boysMany countries facing the greatest challenges have made significant progress towards universal primary education
  • Present terminology used “underdeveloped societies,” “less-developed societies,” or “developing nations.” previously it was “backward nations”
  • The cost estimated are significantly higher than what the government is spending at presente.g. The total basic and primary education budget of government in 2005 was Rs. 11.2 billion but estimated cost for 200 is 13.7 billion or more than 20% higher Lack of transparency and efficiency in flow of fund; top down approach (Wagley, 2006)
  • Increasing trend of public investment in education but still low for quality educationThe total estimated cost of attaining MDG on education for 2005-2015 amounts to be NRs.334.5 billion
  • Millennium development goal(mdg) in education_Nepal's achievement

    1. 1. Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) on Education Class presentation Babita Thapa Nepal 21 May 2013
    2. 2. Outline  Overview of Millennium Development Goals(MDGs)  MDGs on education in Nepal  Critical review of MDGs on education  Conclusion
    3. 3. Overview  UN Global conference, 1990-Global development goals & targets  Millennium Development Summit, 2000 Millennium Declaration  Representatives 189 nations including 147 heads of state and Government adopted the declaration  Altogether 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators(by Nepal government and UN country team, 2003)
    4. 4. MDGs: 8 sets of goal for 15 years Goal 1: Reduce extreme poverty and hunger by half. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education. Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development.
    5. 5. MDGs on education in Nepal Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015. children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Indicator 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 Net enrolment in primary education (Percent) 64 81 86.8 93.7 100 Percent of pupils starting grade 1 38 who reach grade 5 63 79.6 77.9 100 Literacy rate of 15-24 years old, women and men 70 79.4 86.5 100 49.6 Source: a NPC/UNCT 2005.;b DOE 2005.;c DOE 2009.;d MOHP et al. 2007 (2006 data).e CBS 2009 (2008 data). (GoN/UNDP, 2010)
    6. 6. Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2015 and to all levels of education no later than 2015 Indicator 1990 2000 2005 201 0 2015 Ratio of girls to boys in primary education 0.56 0.79 0.9 1.0 1.0 Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education 0.43 0.70 0.84 0.93 1.0 Ratio of women to men in tertiary education 0.32 0.28 0.50 0.63 1.0 Ratio of literate women to men aged 15-24 0.48 NA 0.73 0.83 1.0 Source: a NPC/UNCT 2005. b DOE 2005. c DOE 2009. d UNSD 2005 (based on UNESCO global database; d.1: 2001 data) e UGC 2005. f UGC 2007. g CBS 2003 (g.1:1991 data; g.2: 2001 data). h CBS 2004. i CBS 2009. (GoN/UNDP, 2010)
    7. 7. MDGs ! whose interest for its initiation ?  Pushed primarily by the triad (the United States, Europe, and Japan)  Co-sponsored by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, & the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development  All of this has raised the question of whether they are mainly ideological cover for neoliberal initiatives. (Amin, 2006)
    8. 8. Is it for eliminating illiteracy? Or Is it only due to the interest of donors or are we more depending on donors?   Achievements as per set indicators BUT, Majors education projects and program are run in support of donors. Examples  DFID supports in universal enrolment in primary education and improved educational prospects for girls  USAID supports to the Ministry of Education through the Early Childhood Education Development (ECED)
    9. 9. Contd.  Dependency theory of A.G.Frank saw the world's nations is divided into wealthy nations which dominate the poor nations  Poor nation’s main function in the system is to provide cheap labour and raw materials  benefits of this system of relationship goes entirely to the rich nations, which become progressively richer and more developed, while the poor nations, which continually have their surpluses drained away to the rich nation  underdeveloped nations to develop, must break strong ties with the developed nations and pursue internal growth (Jeffrey, 2012)
    10. 10. Is Nepal ready to follow it? Challenges due to gap in enrollment, retention, Dalit/Janajati education, gender role and literacy Factors Jeopardizing the attempts to meeting the Gaps  The insurgency  Weak implementation strategy  Monitoring inefficiency  Interrelationship between poverty and education  Fund and resources
    11. 11. Conclusion: “If we see MDGs from functional lens, achievement to date seems in right track and encouraging as more people already benefited but if we see it critically, it is nothing but just becoming more dependent on rich nations with the name of development as told by A.G. Frank”
    12. 12. References Amin, S. (2006, March). A Millenium Development Goal: A Critique from South. Monthly review, 57(10). Retrieved from Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission/ United Nations Country Team of Nepal. (September 2010). Nepal Millenium Development Goals Progress Report 2010. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal. Jeffrey, E. I. (2012, November). A Discourse on Andre Gunder Frank’s Contribution to the Theory and Study of Development and Underdevelopment; its implication on Nigeria's development situation. Greener Journal of Biological Science, 2(3), 52-65. Wagley, M. P. (2006). Goal 2 : Achieve Universal Primary Education. In I. F. Research Department, Achieving Millennium Development Goals : Challenges for Nepal (pp. 39-47). Kathmandu, Nepal: Nepal Rasta Bank. United Nation. (2012). Millenium Development Goals Report 2012. New York: United Nation. THANK YOU!