The world has achieved parity in primary education between girls and boysMany countries facing the greatest challenges have made significant progress towards universal primary education
Present terminology used “underdeveloped societies,” “less-developed societies,” or “developing nations.” previously it was “backward nations”
The cost estimated are significantly higher than what the government is spending at presente.g. The total basic and primary education budget of government in 2005 was Rs. 11.2 billion but estimated cost for 200 is 13.7 billion or more than 20% higher Lack of transparency and efficiency in flow of fund; top down approach (Wagley, 2006)
Increasing trend of public investment in education but still low for quality educationThe total estimated cost of attaining MDG on education for 2005-2015 amounts to be NRs.334.5 billion
Millennium development goal(mdg) in education_Nepal's achievement
Goals(MDGs) on Education
21 May 2013
Overview of Millennium Development
MDGs on education in Nepal
Critical review of MDGs on education
UN Global conference, 1990-Global
development goals & targets
Millennium Development Summit, 2000
Representatives 189 nations including
147 heads of state and Government
adopted the declaration
Altogether 8 goals, 18 targets and 48
indicators(by Nepal government and UN
country team, 2003)
sets of goal for 15 years
Goal 1: Reduce extreme poverty and hunger by half.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development.
MDGs on education in Nepal
Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015. children everywhere, boys and
girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary
1990 2000 2005 2010 2015
Net enrolment in primary
Percent of pupils starting grade 1 38
who reach grade 5
Literacy rate of 15-24 years old,
women and men
a NPC/UNCT 2005.;b DOE 2005.;c DOE 2009.;d MOHP et al. 2007 (2006 data).e CBS
2009 (2008 data).
Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and
secondary education preferably by 2015 and to all
levels of education no later than 2015
Ratio of girls to boys in
Ratio of girls to boys in
Ratio of women to men in
Ratio of literate women to
men aged 15-24
Source: a NPC/UNCT 2005. b DOE 2005.
c DOE 2009. d UNSD 2005 (based on UNESCO global database;
d.1: 2001 data)
e UGC 2005. f UGC 2007.
g CBS 2003 (g.1:1991 data; g.2: 2001 data). h CBS 2004.
i CBS 2009.
MDGs ! whose interest for its initiation ?
Pushed primarily by the triad (the United
States, Europe, and Japan)
Co-sponsored by the World Bank, the International
Monetary Fund, & the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development
All of this has raised the question of whether they are
mainly ideological cover for neoliberal initiatives.
Is it for eliminating illiteracy? Or Is it only due
to the interest of donors or are we more
depending on donors?
Achievements as per set indicators
Majors education projects and program are run in
support of donors.
DFID supports in universal enrolment in
primary education and improved
educational prospects for girls
USAID supports to the Ministry of
Education through the Early Childhood
Education Development (ECED)
Dependency theory of A.G.Frank saw the
world's nations is divided into wealthy nations
which dominate the poor nations
Poor nation’s main function in the system is to
provide cheap labour and raw materials
benefits of this system of relationship goes
entirely to the rich nations, which become
progressively richer and more developed,
while the poor nations, which continually have
their surpluses drained away to the rich nation
underdeveloped nations to develop, must
break strong ties with the developed nations
and pursue internal growth
Is Nepal ready to follow it?
Challenges due to gap in enrollment, retention,
Dalit/Janajati education, gender role and
Factors Jeopardizing the attempts to meeting
Weak implementation strategy
Interrelationship between poverty and
Fund and resources
“If we see MDGs from functional
lens, achievement to date seems in
right track and encouraging as more
people already benefited but if we
see it critically, it is nothing but just
becoming more dependent on rich
nations with the name of
development as told by A.G. Frank”
Amin, S. (2006, March). A Millenium Development Goal: A Critique
from South. Monthly review, 57(10). Retrieved from
Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission/ United Nations
Country Team of Nepal. (September 2010). Nepal Millenium
Development Goals Progress Report 2010. Kathmandu:
Government of Nepal.
Jeffrey, E. I. (2012, November). A Discourse on Andre Gunder Frank’s
Contribution to the Theory and Study of Development and
Underdevelopment; its implication on Nigeria's development
situation. Greener Journal of Biological Science, 2(3), 52-65.
Wagley, M. P. (2006). Goal 2 : Achieve Universal Primary Education.
In I. F. Research Department, Achieving Millennium
Development Goals : Challenges for Nepal (pp. 39-47).
Kathmandu, Nepal: Nepal Rasta Bank.
United Nation. (2012). Millenium Development Goals Report 2012.
New York: United Nation.