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Technology and medical education
 

Technology and medical education

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    Technology and medical education Technology and medical education Document Transcript

    • The Role of Technology in Medical EducationBabitaLecturer Sant Baba Bhag Singh Institute of Nursing, JalandharKeywords: Medicine, technology, simulationsIntroductionIn the age of Hippocrates, physicians learned by apprenticeship to a master healer. Fivehundred years later, the great researcher, Galen made discoveries in anatomy and physiologythat framed medical curriculum for the next fifteen hundred years. Medical knowledge wascommunicated to students in medical colleges and schools through study of books andliterature until the nineteenth century, when renowned scholar Osler Famously insisted thathis students should learn at the patient’s bedside. Later, Abraham Flexnar noted disparities inmedical education and therefore proposed the institutional and curriculum requirements thatdefine the modern medical education. . New diagnostic and therapeutic techniques coupledwith recent developments in information technology have motivated the educators to adoptnew strategies for training medical students efficiently and effectively.Today, medical education has changed dramatically, driven by exponential increase inknowledge. It is not only referred to as a science of healing but rather it is a bedrock onwhich high quality health-care system is built. Technology is widely looked upon as asolution to these increasing educational demands and almost universally accepted as apositive and necessary step to improve the training of students in medical colleges. Thesedays, medical schools and colleges, like other educational institutions, are introducingtechnology because of its prominence in the present and future. It also is used as a directeducational tool through virtual patients and simulations. Technology in medical educationrefers to innovations that improve learning experience of students by providing a deeperunderstanding of a subject area. It may also refer to advancements in emerging technologiesso as to so as to provide the best patient care.ABSTRACT: Today we are living in a digital era, information age or what we more oftenaddress as jet age. We live in a world where computer, laptops and mobile phones arepredominant. Today we grew up surrounded by the digital media. Our lifestyles are changingat a rapid pace, whole education system has changed a lot as technology advancements havetouched every facet of our lives and so is true for the field of medical education also. Medicineis changing at a very rapid pace and so too is the field of medical education. One of the mostimportant changes that has been introduced in medicine are new educational technologies forinstance, interactive websites, simulation and teleconferencing. New inventions in informationtechnology, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures have changed the learning experience formedical graduates and undergraduates. In this paper we will try to find out the impact of newtechnologies in our medical schools and colleges.
    • LITERATURE REVIEW:1. Ali I Imran., “Role of technology and educational research in curriculumdevelopment”.,AAN,Chicago.,2008.Impact of E-Learning and technology creates a more learner centred models in medicaleducation. Use of technology increases the efficiency of medical education and it is costeffective and improves the performance of medical school graduates and post graduates.2. Slotte virpi.,Wangel micheal.,Lonka kirsti., “Information technology in medical education:a nationwide project on the opportunities of new technology”.,Blackwell science ltd(2001).,35.,990-95.Increased cooperation between different universities has promoted the use of information andcommunication technology in medical education in many ways. In particular, we have beenable to exploit the knowledge of separate computer-based teaching programmes developed indifferent universities. As a result, we can bring together special knowledge and skills fromdifferent parts of world.This is of great importance because modern technology and digitallearning environments allow different kinds of learning processes.3. Shamji l Adil., Law marcus., “ The role of technology in medical education: lessons fromuniversity of Toronto”.,UTMJ (2011).,88.While new technologies have helped to mitigate some of the challenges, they have also posedunique problems of their own. Due concern must be given to the hidden disadvantages oflearning tools and for the unique and occasionally conflicting goals of students, patients andteachers. The overall impact of technology on the practice of medicine has both direct andindirect ramifications for the education of future healthcare professionals.4. Keswani bright., Banerjee chitreshh., Patni priyadarshi., “ Role of technology in education:a 21stcentury approach”.In order to educate students to be life-long learners and successful contributors to the newglobal market, educators must change the way they teach and the way students learn. Weneed to remember that if we want to help students achieve a high level of competency andcompetitiveness, we have no choice but to make technology an integrated tool in the field ofeducation.OVERVIEW:Medical education and technology are two separate fields requiring knowledge and skills inorder to achieve competence . Each also has unique challenge that medical students need tounderstand. Technology is advancing and shaping medical education by helping medicalstudents navigate and manage their curriculum, as medical curriculums are prepared andrevised thoroughly so that nothing can be missed, increasing the efficiency and to someextent difficulty of the training program for the future health care professionals. We willnow examine the educational benefits offered by the technology in diagnostic and therapeutic
    • procedures. Medical schools and colleges of present days have a number of innovativeteaching tools, driven by the latest technologies in medical education. For example: Power point or interactive whiteboard learning is capturing the attention ofmedical students in the classroom Virtual Microscope and electron microscope is used these days in almost allmedical institutions in place of the traditional microscope. WISE-MD i.e. (Web-based Initiative in Surgical Education) is a tool for surgicaleducation, used in the Surgery department. Wise MD provides a computerized linearnarrative of patient illness and patient-physician interaction from the patients firstvisit with his or her physician, through the diagnostic process, into the operatingroom, through the laboratory studies and pathology, and finally to the postoperativevisits. Now a days audio tutorial instructional packages and study materials are availablemaking learning process interesting. ALEX (Advanced Learning Exchange) is a Sakai-based Learning ManagementSystem that serves as a central resource for online medical education content andcomputer-based learning activities. Online learning modules are used throughout study to teach and reinforce specificcurricular topics. The BioDigital Human is an interactive online virtual human body. It allowsstudents, using 3D glasses, to view life-sized digital content displayed on a projectorscreen in the anatomy lab. Teleconferencing is a very useful tool when the medical students and even patientsare widely scattered. The Professors and doctors are able to present lessons andmedical advice respectively through teleconferencing or chatting. One of the latest features is mobile apps. Students can view course content, patientlogs, school announcements, and schedules from their smart phones. To make iteasier to study for image-intensive courses, such as pathology or histology, studentscan load images onto their phones as digital flashcards. Previously, images like thiswere stored in a library, where one student at a time could view a particular image.Overall impact of technology in medical educationInformation Technology has changed the scenario of medical education by providingunlimited access to knowledge that is essential for clinical competence. Teachers andstudents can share learning materials from any where and at any time through cloudcomputing. Computer assisted learning [CAL] is becoming popular in classrooms as wellas laboratories of medical colleges. Medical schools and colleges of 21st century areequipped with interactive white boards, tablets, mp3 players, laptops etc. LCD’s are used inthe classrooms these days for the purpose of learning, thus bringing a new kind of teachingexperience. Computer modeling programs are used by students to learn various subjectslike neuroanatomy. Lessons are also fully recorded allowing students to rewatch
    • lectures. They also learn using a variety of simulation-based technologiesranging from low-fidelity, web-based case simulations to high-fidelity patient models.Medical Calculator is an iPhone and iPod touch app that helps doctors and nurses computeuseful formulas and equations. The use of sophisticated medical instruments promises todeliver better patient care but also places increased demands on the knowledge and skillsthat learners must master in their already existing curriculum. The advantages of diagnosticand therapeutic technologies, if used correctly, are undeniable. In the field of diagnostic andtherapeutic technologies, medical advances such as bedside ultrasound or laparoscopicsurgery improves patient care and patient outcomes. Vast amount of valuable contentavailable through resources like PubMED (U.S.A. National Library of Medicine, MD,U.S.A.)or MEDLINE (U.S.A. National Library of Medicine, MD,U.S.A.) proves to be ofgreat help to the students. Epocrates (Epocrates, Inc., CA, U.S.A.), is the populardrug database, that delivers frequent updates that are downloaded and used by students,professors as well as physicians.Role of teachers and universities in medical educationEarlier the major role of teacher has been the provider of education but this has changed now.The rapid developments in information technology has reduced the shelf life of textbooksand lecture notes. The pressure on the teachers of today is to keep up to date. The teachershave to evaluate the new information regarding their subject and then fit it in with theirprevious acquisitions. This editing job is much more demanding than learning a new subject.New role of the teachers in 21stcentury is not only as knowledge provider but also as a Rolemodel, Mentor and Facilitator, Assessing and Evaluating and Planning.[1]Teachers should shift to Problem Based Learning (PBL), small group discussions,assignments and other activities which will prepare the students to become life long selflearners. Teacher should make students aware of the sources of information required to solveany problem and how to access the available information, how to critically evaluate it andonly then to use it for solving the problem. The most important new role of a medical collegeteacher is that of a planner i.e writing objectives, preparing study guide books, andappropriate assessment tools using latest technology. With students his role is that of amentor, facilitator and guide. Communicating with the patient, history taking, physicalexamination, performing procedures etc. are skills of the profession. Clinical teachers havethe added responsibility of being role models in dealing with patients. Communication skillsand ethical issues can only be learnt by observing the teachers. No amount of lecturing caninculcate ethical practices. Students will learn what they actually see in practice.As medicine grows, so too will the educational technologies that allow medical studentsto acquire new knowledge, skills and attitudes. In view of this, Universities should considerthe incorporation of a mandatory curriculum on information technology. Universities shoulddevelop searchable database which aims to promote the sharing and development ofeducational content for medical training across the country. Universities and medical collegesshould conduct time to time workshops on educational planning followed by regular staffmeetings where all curriculum planning should be done according to latest technologicaldevelopments in the medical field. Medical colleges and universities through out the world
    • should be interconnected with each other for better learning and there should be the provisonof faculty and student exchange program within the universities and collegesConclusionMedicine has evolved through the ages, and so too have the methods used to teach it. Thishas been necessary given the growing demand for medical educators to prepare increasingnumbers of students for increasingly complex clinical practice using new and latesttechnologies. This is particularly true of advances in information science, educationaltechnology, and diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. In light of this, educators must becautioned to incorporate technology related learning tools into their curriculum judiciously.Only in this way can the progress of many years be realized in medical education today andinto the future.References1. Harden RM, Crosby J. AMEE Guide No. 20: The good teacher is more than a lecturer - thetwelve roles of a teacher. Medical Teacher 2000;22:334-47.2. Jafarey NA. Andragogy; How adults learn. J Pak Med Assoc 2005;55:114-116.3. Verma S, Gupta M, Kajil M. et al. Accuracy of cardiovascular (CV) risk stratificationby Canadian primary care physicians; Preliminary results from thePrimary cARe AuDIt of Global risk Management (PARADIGM) Study. CanJ Cardiol. 2010; 26(Suppl D):66D.4. Network of Excellence in Simulation for Clinical Teaching: SIMone [Internet].SIMone – Ontario Simulation Network; c2011 [cited3-26-2011]. Availablefrom: http://www.simulation-network.ca.5. Association of American Medical Colleges: MedEdPORTAL [Internet].Associationof American Medical Colleges; c2010 [cited 3-26-2011]. Availablefrom: http://services.aamc.org/30/mededportal/servlet/segment/mededportal/information.6. The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada: Canadian HealthcareEducation Commons [Internet].The Association of Faculties of Medicine ofCanada; c.2011 [cited 3-26-2011]. Available from: http://chec-cesc.afmc.ca.7. Anderson RG. How science and technology will enhance medical educationand training by the year 2039. US
    • should be interconnected with each other for better learning and there should be the provisonof faculty and student exchange program within the universities and collegesConclusionMedicine has evolved through the ages, and so too have the methods used to teach it. Thishas been necessary given the growing demand for medical educators to prepare increasingnumbers of students for increasingly complex clinical practice using new and latesttechnologies. This is particularly true of advances in information science, educationaltechnology, and diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. In light of this, educators must becautioned to incorporate technology related learning tools into their curriculum judiciously.Only in this way can the progress of many years be realized in medical education today andinto the future.References1. Harden RM, Crosby J. AMEE Guide No. 20: The good teacher is more than a lecturer - thetwelve roles of a teacher. Medical Teacher 2000;22:334-47.2. Jafarey NA. Andragogy; How adults learn. J Pak Med Assoc 2005;55:114-116.3. Verma S, Gupta M, Kajil M. et al. Accuracy of cardiovascular (CV) risk stratificationby Canadian primary care physicians; Preliminary results from thePrimary cARe AuDIt of Global risk Management (PARADIGM) Study. CanJ Cardiol. 2010; 26(Suppl D):66D.4. Network of Excellence in Simulation for Clinical Teaching: SIMone [Internet].SIMone – Ontario Simulation Network; c2011 [cited3-26-2011]. Availablefrom: http://www.simulation-network.ca.5. Association of American Medical Colleges: MedEdPORTAL [Internet].Associationof American Medical Colleges; c2010 [cited 3-26-2011]. Availablefrom: http://services.aamc.org/30/mededportal/servlet/segment/mededportal/information.6. The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada: Canadian HealthcareEducation Commons [Internet].The Association of Faculties of Medicine ofCanada; c.2011 [cited 3-26-2011]. Available from: http://chec-cesc.afmc.ca.7. Anderson RG. How science and technology will enhance medical educationand training by the year 2039. US