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Watsonand crick 4

Watsonand crick 4






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    Watsonand crick 4 Watsonand crick 4 Presentation Transcript

    • Watson and Crick: Discovery of DNA structureand DNA PropertiesBrooke Noble and Serena Patel
    • Who are Watson and Crick?James Watson and FrancisCrick collaborated touncover DNA structureJames Watson-Bornin 1928, Earned a PhDin Zoology, thenpursued his researchin molecular biology atthe CavendishLaboratory inCambridge.Francis Crick-(1916-2004) Earned adegree in Physics andlater a PhD inmolecular biology
    • Previous research that contributed to Watsonand Crick’s Discovery Friedrich Miescher- (1869) Swiss PhysiologicalChemistDiscovered the Nucleic Acid
    •  Phoebus Levene- (1905) Russian BiochemistDiscovered the order of aNucleotide: Phosphate-sugar-basePrevious research that contributed to Watson andCrick’s Discovery
    • Previous research that contributed to Watsonand Crick’s discovery Erwin Chargaff- (1950) Austrian BiochemistDiscovered the Total amountof Purines and Total Amountof Pyrimidines are equalPurines: Adenine and GuaninePyrimidines: Thymine andCytosine
    • Base CompositionIf one DNA strand is made up of 23%A, 17%T, 40%G,and 20%C, what is the other strand’s basecomposition?
    • Base CompositionAnswer: 17% A, 23% T, 40%C, and 20% G
    • Previous research that contributed to Watsonand Crick’s Discovery Rosalind Franklin- Biophysicist and X-rayCrystallographerX-Ray diffraction images of DNA structure
    • Watson and Crick in 1953 uncovered the three dimensional,double helical structure of DNAWatson and Crick’s Discovery: Helical DNAStructure
    • X-Ray Crystallography X-Ray Crystallography is an experimental techniquethat exploits the fact that X-rays are diffracted fromcrystals A 3-D structure can be determined by examining thediffraction patterns created by X-rays beamedthrough a crystal DNA= two strands wound togetherThe diffracted (X)pattern that RosalindFranklin found in herresearch
    • Overview of Major FindingsWatson and Crick’s predicted structure. The twistedribbons are the sugar-phosphate backbone. Theyare held by the horizontal bars which are the bases.Two helical chains coiled around axisEach chain made up of phospodiesterbondsPhosphate groups are on outside ofhelix and bases are insideTwo chains held together by purine andpyrimidine pairsChains run in opposite directions andare complementary
    • Building Blocks of Deoxyribonucleic AcidsNucleotides are madeup of 3 maincomponents: Five-carbon sugar Phosphate groups Nitrogen containingbase (adenine,thymine, cytosine, orguanine)
    • What Holds Bases Together?Two hydrogenbonds formbetween A-TpairsThreehydrogenbonds formbetween C-Gpairs
    • Which DNA Helix will require more energy toseparate?A. 5’-ATGATCATCATTA-3’3’-TACTAGTAGTAAT-5’ORB. 5’-CCGAGCTGCCAT-3’3’-GGCTCGACGGTA-5’http://www.basic.northwestern.edu/biotools/OligoCalc.html
    • Which DNA Helix will require more energy toseparate?A. 5’-ATGATCATCATTA-3’3’-TACTAGTAGTAAT-5’ORB. 5’-CCGAGCTGCCAT-3’3’-GGCTCGACGGTA-5’
    • Complementary Base Pairing Purines are made up of tworings (adenine and guanine) Pyrimidines consist of onering (thymine and cytosine) Two chains held together bypairs of purines andpyrimidines
    • If we know the base sequence of this strand,what is the sequence of the other strand?DNA strand: 5’-ATCGTACCATAGC-3’
    • AnswerDNA strand: 5’-ATCGTACCATAGC-3’Complementary strand: 3’-TAGCATGGTATCG-5’
    • Alternating Sugar Phosphate Backbone Remember thephosphates arenegatively charged… Hydrophilic, surroundedby water Can the sugar-phosphatebackbone be on theinside while the bases areon the outside? NO! The negativecharges will repel eachother
    • Antiparallel Strands and Polarity Nitrogenous base pairing requires two DNA strands torun in opposite directions The phosphate group is the 5’ end and the –OH group isthe 3’ end
    • What is the significance of complementary DNAbase pairing and polarity? There must be a way toreplicate (copy) DNA If strands can be pulled apart,then each original strand maybe copied knowing whichbases go together and thedirection of the strand Enzymes yet to bediscovered… DNA polymerase DNA topoisomerase DNA helicase
    • What’s next?? DNA Replication DNARNA RNAProtein