Types of mutations:• Point Mutations• Frameshift Mutations• Chromosomal Mutations
Point mutations:• Point mutations are single-base changesin a gene’s DNA sequence.• These include:-Missense mutations-Nonsense mutations-Silent mutations
Point mutations: Missensemutation• Missense mutation: Change in a singleamino acid within a protein.• This does change in protein.Example:Normal: THE DOG BIT THE CATMutated: THE DOG BIT THE CAR
Point Mutations: Nonsensemutation• Nonsense mutation: Nonsensemutations make a premature stop codonthat causing the protein to be shortened.• Nonsense mutation does change theresulting protein.Example:Normal: THE DOG BIT THE CATMutated: THE DOG BIT
Point Mutations: Silent mutation• Silent mutation: Silent mutations change theDNA sequence(not the amino acid sequence).• Silent mutation does not change the resultingprotein and no effect on an organism.Example:Normal: THE DOG BIT THE CATMutated: THE DOG BIT THE KAT
Frameshift Mutations• Frameshift Mutations: Frameshift Mutation isinsertion or deletion of one or more bases into or fromthe DNA sequence.• This effect on every amino acid in the protein and itmakes protein nonfunctional.Example:
Chromosomal Mutations:4 types of chromosomal Mutations:• Translocation: A chromosomal segment is transferredto a new position on the same or another chromosome• Deletion: the loss or absence of one or morenucleotides from a chromosome• Inversion: Part of a chromosome breaks out and isreinserted backwards• Insertion: Part of the chromosome is broken off andattaches to the sister chromatid.