From a GeneFrom a Geneto a Proteinto a ProteinTranscription andTranscription andTranslationTranslation
VocabularyVocabularyDNADNADeoxyribonucleic acid.Deoxyribonucleic acid.Double stranded helix madeDouble stranded helix madeup of A, T, C, and Gup of A, T, C, and Gnucleotides.nucleotides.RNARNARibonucleic acid. SingleRibonucleic acid. Singlestranded and made up of A,stranded and made up of A,U, C, and G nucleotidesU, C, and G nucleotidesmRNAmRNAMessenger RNAMessenger RNAtRNAtRNATransfer RNATransfer RNA
Central DogmaCentral Dogma
mRNA transcriptionmRNA transcription DNA code is the template that is transcribed into mRNA code. mRNA matches base pairs but uses U in place of T Transcription always moves in 5’ to 3’ direction adding onto 3’ end.
RNA PolymeraseRNA Polymerase Important enzyme in transcription Binds to unwound section of DNA Constructs RNA chains from the DNA template
To the CytoplasmTo the CytoplasmWhen transcription isWhen transcription isfinished the mRNAfinished the mRNAstrand is transferredstrand is transferredout of the nucleus.out of the nucleus.In the cytoplasm theIn the cytoplasm theribosomes initateribosomes initatetranslation of thetranslation of themRNA into an aminomRNA into an aminoacid chain.acid chain.
TranslationTranslation•Occurs in ribosomesOccurs in ribosomes•mRNAmRNA is translated into an amino acidis translated into an amino acidchain.chain.•Three nucleotide sequences that code forThree nucleotide sequences that code foran amino acid are called codons.an amino acid are called codons.•tRNA carries amino acid to the codon.tRNA carries amino acid to the codon.•Translation goes through initiation,Translation goes through initiation,elongation, and termination.elongation, and termination.
tRNA MoleculetRNA MoleculeForms hairpinForms hairpinstructurestructureBottom loop is calledBottom loop is calledthe anti-codon whichthe anti-codon whichbinds to the codon onbinds to the codon onthe mRNA.the mRNA.Top is where aminoTop is where aminoacid is bound.acid is bound.
Amino AcidsAmino Acids
After termination newly synthesized aminoAfter termination newly synthesized aminoacid sequence folds into a protein.acid sequence folds into a protein.
ReviewReviewTranscription occurs in the NucleusTranscription occurs in the NucleusDNA is transcribed into mRNADNA is transcribed into mRNAThe mRNA is transferred to the cytoplasmThe mRNA is transferred to the cytoplasmwhere it is translated in the ribosomes.where it is translated in the ribosomes.Condons match up with tRNA to link theCondons match up with tRNA to link theamino acids with the corresponding 3 letteramino acids with the corresponding 3 lettercode.code.http://youtu.be/lpb5s2F1pyMhttp://youtu.be/lpb5s2F1pyM