Tayo ay sinasabing bahagi noon pa man ng mainland Asia
a deep sea channel in central Indonesia that separates the fauna of west Indonesia (which is more Asian) from east Indonesia (more Australian). From the east side of the Wallace Line, these people reached New Guinea and Australia, which were also connected by land bridges
2. VOLCANIC THEORY
February 1976, Dr. Fritjof Voss, a German scientist who studied the geology of the Philippines, questioned the validity of this theory of land bridges.
scientific studies done on the earth’s crust from 1964 to 1967 showed that the 35-kilometer-thick crust underneath China does not reach the Philippines.
PACIFIC RING OF FIRE
MGA SINAUNANG TAO
Natagpuan sa Tabon cave, Palawan
Malamang ay babae
TABON CAVE, PALAWAN
2. Homo Erectus
No fossil but
Paleolithic tools and Pleistocene fauna
5000 - 2000 B.C. Mindanao island, Southern Philippines
This piece is an excellent example of a highly retouched flake tool. Found only in the Guri Cave of Lipuun Point, Palawan, central Philippines, this piece is a transitory tool type that breached the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods.
Grupo ng mga taong sinasabing pinagmulan ng mga taong nag-populate sa mga lugar sa SEA, mga isla sa Pasipiko at isla ng Madagascar sa Aprika
nagmula sa Indo-China
Patunay ang pagkakahawig ng mga wika at kultura sa mga lugar na nabanggit sa itaas
mula sa salitang BALANGHAY
Mula sa salitang balanghay o sasakyang pandagat
Pinamumunuan ng isang lider na kung tawagin ay datu, rajah, lakan,atbp.
Binubuo ng 30-100 pamilya
Pinuno na pinipili ayon sa mga ss na pamantayan:
namamana - Visayas
may tungkulin na pangalagaan ang kanyang nasasakupan
Staff: (based on Visayan society)
Atubang sa Datu – chief minister
Paragahin – collected and recorded tribute and crops
Bilanggo – sheriff or constable
Paratawag – town crier
Stages of Society
Hunting and Gathering – nomads
Agriculture – Horticulture, intensive agriculture
Trade and Commerce – domestic and Foreign
Trade and Commerce
Mediums of exchange: rice, salt and gold tahil
Domestic Trade: inter-barangay, inter-island
Staple food crops
Thread, cloth and clothing
International Trade: Atlantic to the Pacific
Maginoo and Datu
Timawa and Maharlika
Maginoo / Datu
Tagalog aristocracy or upper class who could claim noble descent
Family of ruling class
Non-slave followers of datu
Originally were the illegitimate offspring of datu/maginoo
Maharlika – technically less free than timawa
Bontoc Igorot chaklag , ca. 1900. His facial markings indicate his status as a warrior of the highest rank.
Visayan Pintados, Boxer Codex William Dampier, Giolo A New Voyage Round the World, 1697
Nahuli sa digmaan
Position of Women
Can own and inherit property
Has exclusive right to give names to her children
Male respect women, male walks behind women when he accompanies her
Marriage to the same class is not rigid
Legitimate wife is called ‘’asawa”
Other girls are called “kaibigan”
PAMUMULUNGAT or PAMAMALAE
- paninilbihan or bigay-kaya (dowry)
- panghimuyat – man gives certain amount of money to parents
Odd Numbers – follows the father’s social status
Even Numbers – follows the mother’s social status
Inheritance and Succession
- Achieved and Acsribed
Death and Burial
Graveyards outside the village limits, near upstream rivers or seacoasts
Small islands – Homonhon
Babies –reincarnated 9 times
Manunggul jar, found in Palawan
Hanging coffins, Sagada
2200 B.C. to A.D. 1521 Salansang, South Cotabato, Philippines
Pre-historic belief systems have influenced burial practices in pre-Hispanic Philippines when reverence given to the dead was of great importance. After a certain period of time, the remains of the deceased are exhumed, cleaned, and stored in such vessels. It was likely only the wealthy who could undergo secondary burials because the accompanying ceremonies were lavish.
Secondary Burial jar with cover
In the absence of written records, these urns are valuable testimonies to how society functioned then--their hierarchy, what they valued as commodities, and what they traded, among other practices.
While most burial jars found in the Philippines are made of fired clay, these urns are carved from limestone, which make these relatively rare specimens.
ca. 10th - 13th century Surigao del Sur, Philippines
During pre-Hispanic times, foreign merchants traded semi-precious stones in exchange for gold manufactured in Surigao province in the southern Philippines. This 22-carat bracelet inlaid with garnet and turquoise is an excellent specimen and bears witness to the trade networks that plied Island Southeast Asia.
Source: Boxer Codex
Gamelan’s traditional instrument
Indonesian Embassy in Canberra
Petroglyph on the Western coast of Hawaii
An ancient Austronesian manuscript known as Baybayin
Islam sa Mindanao
1380, an Arab teacher, Mukdum , arrived in Sulu from the Malay peninsula to preach Islam. He built the first mosque in Simunul, Sulu.
Around 1390, he was followed by Raja Baginda , a minor ruler of Menangkabaw, Sumatra.
1450, Abu Bakr , a Muslim scholar, came to Sulu and married Paramisuli, the daughter of Raja Baginda. After Baginda died, Abu Bakr established a sultanate form of government with himself as sultan. Islam then spread rapidly to all parts of Sulu.
Serif Kabungsuan was responsible for the spread of Islam in Mindanao. He led a force of Muslim Samals from Jahore that conquered the natives of what is now Cotabato and converted them to Islam. He also married into an influential family and founded the first sultanate of Mindanao, with himself as head.