Philippine History Part I
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Philippine History Part I

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Presentation from Prof. Ueseni Gunsi-Gabriel

Presentation from Prof. Ueseni Gunsi-Gabriel
(Peopling the Philippines & Pre-Colonial period)

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Philippine History Part I Philippine History Part I Presentation Transcript

  • PHILIPPINE HISTORY Its Roots and Development
  • Ano ang HISTORY/ KASAYSAYAN?
    • Chronological written record of the past
    • 2 uri
    • Tradisyunal
      • Nakasulat – document-based
      • Tungkol sa Politika lamang
    • Makabago
      • Artifacts, fossils, etc
      • Oral / local history
  • I. PREHISTORY
    • LANDBRIDGE THEORY
    • A land bridge is an isthmus or some other land-based connection between two otherwise disconnected islands or continents
    • lupang lumitaw noong panahon ng Pleistocene o matinding paglamig
    • Hal: Berring Land bridge (sinasabing nag-ugnay sa Asia at America)
  • SUNDA LAND
    • Implikasyon sa Pilipinas ng Sundaland:
      • Tayo ay sinasabing bahagi noon pa man ng mainland Asia
        • Taiwan route
        • Borneo route
  • WALLACE LINE
    • a deep sea channel in central Indonesia that separates the fauna of west Indonesia (which is more Asian) from east Indonesia (more Australian). From the east side of the Wallace Line, these people reached New Guinea and Australia, which were also connected by land bridges
    • 2. VOLCANIC THEORY
    • February 1976, Dr. Fritjof Voss, a German scientist who studied the geology of the Philippines, questioned the validity of this theory of land bridges.
    • scientific studies done on the earth’s crust from 1964 to 1967 showed that the 35-kilometer-thick crust underneath China does not reach the Philippines.
  • PACIFIC RING OF FIRE
  • MGA SINAUNANG TAO
    • TABON MAN
      • Natagpuan sa Tabon cave, Palawan
      • Homo sapiens
      • 22-25.000 BP
      • Malamang ay babae
    • Palawan map
  • TABON CAVE, PALAWAN
  • 2. Homo Erectus
    • Cagayan Valley
    • No fossil but
    • Paleolithic tools and Pleistocene fauna
    • 750,000 years
  • Stone tools
    • 5000 - 2000 B.C. Mindanao island, Southern Philippines
    • This piece is an excellent example of a highly retouched flake tool. Found only in the Guri Cave of Lipuun Point, Palawan, central Philippines, this piece is a transitory tool type that breached the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods.
    • Source:
    • www.AyalaMuseum.org
  •  
  •  
  • AUSTRONESIANS
    • Grupo ng mga taong sinasabing pinagmulan ng mga taong nag-populate sa mga lugar sa SEA, mga isla sa Pasipiko at isla ng Madagascar sa Aprika
    • nagmula sa Indo-China
    • Patunay ang pagkakahawig ng mga wika at kultura sa mga lugar na nabanggit sa itaas
  • II. PRE-COLONIAL
    • BARANGAY
    • mula sa salitang BALANGHAY
  • BARANGAY
    • Mula sa salitang balanghay o sasakyang pandagat
    • Pinamumunuan ng isang lider na kung tawagin ay datu, rajah, lakan,atbp.
    • Binubuo ng 30-100 pamilya
  • I. PULITIKA
    • DATU
      • Pinuno na pinipili ayon sa mga ss na pamantayan:
        • wisdom
        • Katapangan
        • Kayamanan
        • Karisma
        • namamana - Visayas
      • may tungkulin na pangalagaan ang kanyang nasasakupan
          • Executive
          • Legislative
          • Judicial
        • Privileges
          • Services
          • Agricultural produce
          • Respect
    • Staff: (based on Visayan society)
      • Atubang sa Datu – chief minister
      • Paragahin – collected and recorded tribute and crops
      • Bilanggo – sheriff or constable
      • Paratawag – town crier
  • EKONOMIYA
    • Stages of Society
      • Hunting and Gathering – nomads
      • Agriculture – Horticulture, intensive agriculture
      • Trade and Commerce – domestic and Foreign
      • Industry
      • Urbanization
    • Trade and Commerce
      • Barter system
      • Mediums of exchange: rice, salt and gold tahil
      • Domestic Trade: inter-barangay, inter-island
        • Staple food crops
        • Thread, cloth and clothing
      • International Trade: Atlantic to the Pacific
    • Industry
      • Ironworking
      • Woodworking
      • Boatbuilding
      • Pottery
      • Gold working
      • Weaving
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL
    • TAGALOG SOCIETY
    • Maginoo and Datu
    • Timawa and Maharlika
    • Alipin
      • Namamahay
      • Sa gigilid
    • VISAYAN SOCIETY
    • Datu
    • Timawa
    • Oripun
    • Maginoo / Datu
      • Tagalog aristocracy or upper class who could claim noble descent
      • Family of ruling class
    • Timawa
      • Non-slave followers of datu
      • Originally were the illegitimate offspring of datu/maginoo
        • Maharlika – technically less free than timawa
    • Bontoc Igorot chaklag , ca. 1900. His facial markings indicate his status as a warrior of the highest rank.
    Bontoc tattoo
  • Visayan Pintados, Boxer Codex William Dampier, Giolo A New Voyage Round the World, 1697
    • 3. Alipin
      • Namamahay
      • Sa gigilid
      • Namamana
      • Nahuli sa digmaan
      • Pagkakautang
      • Parusa
  • Position of Women
    • Can own and inherit property
    • Has exclusive right to give names to her children
    • Male respect women, male walks behind women when he accompanies her
  • Marriage Customs
    • Marriage to the same class is not rigid
    • Legitimate wife is called ‘’asawa”
    • Other girls are called “kaibigan”
    • PAMUMULUNGAT or PAMAMALAE
    • - paninilbihan or bigay-kaya (dowry)
    • - panghimuyat – man gives certain amount of money to parents
    • -
  • Mixed Marriage
    • Odd Numbers – follows the father’s social status
    • Even Numbers – follows the mother’s social status
    • Inheritance and Succession
    • - Achieved and Acsribed
  • RELIGION
    • Animism
    • Islam
      • Bathala
      • Diwata
      • Anito
      • Likha/Larawan
      • Babaylan/Katalonan
  • Death and Burial
    • Pag-uli
      • Graveyards outside the village limits, near upstream rivers or seacoasts
      • Caves
      • Small islands – Homonhon
    • Afterlife
      • Manunggul jar
      • For adults
      • Babies –reincarnated 9 times
    • Manunggul jar, found in Palawan
  • Hanging coffins, Sagada
    • 2200 B.C. to A.D. 1521 Salansang, South Cotabato, Philippines
    • Pre-historic belief systems have influenced burial practices in pre-Hispanic Philippines when reverence given to the dead was of great importance. After a certain period of time, the remains of the deceased are exhumed, cleaned, and stored in such vessels. It was likely only the wealthy who could undergo secondary burials because the accompanying ceremonies were lavish.
    Secondary Burial jar with cover
    • In the absence of written records, these urns are valuable testimonies to how society functioned then--their hierarchy, what they valued as commodities, and what they traded, among other practices.
    • While most burial jars found in the Philippines are made of fired clay, these urns are carved from limestone, which make these relatively rare specimens.
    • ca. 10th - 13th century Surigao del Sur, Philippines
    • During pre-Hispanic times, foreign merchants traded semi-precious stones in exchange for gold manufactured in Surigao province in the southern Philippines. This 22-carat bracelet inlaid with garnet and turquoise is an excellent specimen and bears witness to the trade networks that plied Island Southeast Asia.
    • Source:
    • www. AyalaMuseum.org
    GOLD
  •  
    • Source: Boxer Codex
  • Betel nut
    • Gamelan’s traditional instrument
    • Indonesian Embassy in Canberra
    • Petroglyph on the Western coast of Hawaii
    • An ancient Austronesian manuscript known as Baybayin
    Writings
  • Islam sa Mindanao
    • Muslim traders
    • Missionaries
    • Teachers
    • Sulu:
        • 1380, an Arab teacher, Mukdum , arrived in Sulu from the Malay peninsula to preach Islam. He built the first mosque in Simunul, Sulu.
        • Around 1390, he was followed by Raja Baginda , a minor ruler of Menangkabaw, Sumatra.
      • 1450, Abu Bakr , a Muslim scholar, came to Sulu and married Paramisuli, the daughter of Raja Baginda. After Baginda died, Abu Bakr established a sultanate form of government with himself as sultan. Islam then spread rapidly to all parts of Sulu.
    • Serif Kabungsuan was responsible for the spread of Islam in Mindanao. He led a force of Muslim Samals from Jahore that conquered the natives of what is now Cotabato and converted them to Islam. He also married into an influential family and founded the first sultanate of Mindanao, with himself as head.
    http://www.filipinoweb.com/thennow.html