Sanitary and phytosanitary measures


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various SPS majors taken for production of good quality food

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Sanitary and phytosanitary measures

  1. 1. FAO/WHO Codex Training Package Module 2.10 Codex Training Package June 2004 Dr.Babasaheb Nagurao Kumbhar M.V.Sc scholar College of veterinary sciences, Hyderabad
  2. 2. International trade influences: • Promotion of the economic development • Alleviation of poverty. SPS measures may influence on: • Many restrictions in international trade.
  3. 3. 3 SPS Measures Definition - Human or risks arising from additives, Animal Health contaminants, toxins or disease organisms in food, drink, feedstuff A measure taken to protect: Human Life plant- or animal-carried diseases Animal or pests, diseases, disease-causing Plant life organisms A country other damage caused by entry, establishment or spread of pests from from from from
  4. 4. Beneficiaries of the SPS Agreement: The consumers, The exporters of agricultural products, The importers of food & other agricultural products.
  5. 5. The SPS Agreement helps:  To ensure that consumers are being supplied with safe food to eat – ―safe‖ by the appropriate standards To provide greater choice of safe foods for consumers on the market To support international competition among producers regarding safer and healthier food production
  6. 6. The SPS Agreement helps:  To increase the amount of available information for consumers as a result of greater transparency in governmental procedures, To increase the amount of available information for importers and to eliminate unjustified border measures. To eliminate the unnecessary and unjustified trade barriers
  7. 7. FAO/WHO Codex Training Package Module 2.10 Codex Training Package June 2004 SPS Agreement recognizes..... The Codex standards, guidelines and recommendations relating to:  Food additives  Veterinary Drug and Pesticide residues  Contaminants  Methods of analysis and sampling  Codes and Guidelines of hygienic practice
  8. 8. FAO/WHO Codex Training Package Module 2.10 Examples of SPS measures  Inspection of products for microbiological contaminants  Fumigation treatments for products  Maximum residue limits for pesticide residues in foods
  9. 9. What type of measures? End Product criteria Quarantine measures Risk assessment methods Processing requirements Inspection Sampling & Testing Health-related labeling Certifications All measures with SPS purpose including: Other Types of Measures Protection of the environment Consumer interests other than health Animal welfare Not Covered by SPS Agreement but may be TBT Measures
  10. 10. FAO/WHO Codex Training Package Module 2.10 The SPS Agreement states:  Food safety measures necessary to protect public health should conform to Codex standards  National regulations consistent with Codex standards are presumed to meet the requirements of the SPS Agreement  Member countries should base their food safety standards on the standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission.  Codex is the reference point for standards pertaining to food safety harmonizing national food safety standards Linkages between Codex & SPS Agreement
  11. 11. Key Provisions of the SPS Agreement 1. Non-discrimination 2. Scientific justification • harmonization • risk assessment • consistency 3. Equivalence 4. Transparency 5. Technical assistance/special Treatment Control, inspection and approval procedures
  12. 12. NON DISCRIMINATION: Measures should not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate, where identical or similar conditions prevail.
  13. 13. Transparency : Achievement of greater degree of:  Clarity,  Predictability  Information regarding trade policy, rules and procedures of WTO There are three different fields of activities:  Publishing regulations,  Notifications,  Information.
  14. 14. Harmonization Harmonization means:  Establishment,  Recognition and  Application of Common SPS measures by different countries.
  15. 15. Standard-setting organizations Food Safety CODEX Plant Health IPPC Animal Health OIE (zoonosis) Codex = Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission OIE = World Organization for Animal Health IPPC = International Plant Protection Convention (FAO) Scientific justification Harmonization THREE International organizations responsible for harmonization & standard setting.
  16. 16. Risk assessment:  The evaluation of the likelihood of entry, establishment or spread of a pest or disease within the territory of an importing country according to association with potential biological or economic consequences  The evaluation of the potential for adverse effects on human or animal health arising from the presence of additives, contaminants, toxins or disease-causing organisms in food, beverages or feedstuffs.
  17. 17. Technical assistance • Aim is to adjust to & comply with SPS measures to comply with SPS requirements of importing country & expand market access opportunities Areas include Processing technologies Research & infrastructure Establishment of regulatory bodies Form of;  Advice,  Credits, Donations, Grants, Training, Equipment Source - bilateral or through international organizations
  18. 18. Enquiry points An office designated to receive and respond to any requests for information regarding the country’s SPS measures.
  19. 19. Problems In Implementation • Non representativeness of international standards • Absence of a national notification system • A general lack of awareness • Some aspects not very well developed – traceability, risk assessment, R&D, residues, data
  21. 21. 21 The right to protect human, animal or plant life or health Avoiding unnecessary barriers to trade TBTSPS
  22. 22. Scope of TBT Agreement Covers all technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures other that SPS measures Covers products, processes and services Covers all products, including industrial & agricultural products Covers all standards prepared by recognized standardization bodies
  23. 23.  Technical barriers to trade generally result from the preparation, adoption and application of different technical regulations and conformity assessment procedures.  The TBT Agreement is the Code of Good Practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards which is known as the WTO Code of Good Practice.
  24. 24.  If a producer in country A wants to export to country B,  he will be obliged to satisfy the technical requirements that apply in country B, with all the financial consequences this entails.
  25. 25.  Technical regulations and product standards may vary from country to country.  Having many different regulations and standards makes life difficult for producers and exporters.
  26. 26.  The provisions of the GATT 1947 contained only a general reference to technical regulations and standards.  After years of negotiations at the end of the Tokyo Round in 1979, 32 GATT Contracting Parties signed the plurilateral Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.
  27. 27. The Agreement on TBT tries to ensure that Regulations, Standards,  Testing and Certification procedures do not create unnecessary obstacles.
  28. 28.  The agreement also sets out a code of good practice for both governments and non- governmental or industry bodies to prepare, adopt and apply voluntary standards.  Over 200 standards-setting bodies apply the code.
  29. 29.  The agreement also encourages countries to recognize each other’s procedures for assessing whether a product conforms.  Without recognition, products might have to be tested twice, first by the exporting country and then by the importing country.
  30. 30.  The Technical Barriers to Trade Committee is the major clearing house for members to share the information and the major forum to discuss concerns about the regulations and their implementation.
  31. 31.  Technical regulations and standards in the TBT Agreement  Technical regulations and standards set out specific characteristics of a product — such as its size, shape, design, functions and performance, or the way it is labelled or packaged before it is put on sale.
  32. 32.  While conformity with standards is voluntary, technical regulations are by nature mandatory.  If an imported product does not fulfil the requirements of a technical regulation, it will not be allowed to be put on sale. In case of standards, non-complying imported products will be allowed on the market, but then their market share may be affected if consumers' prefer products that meet local standards such as quality or colour standards for textiles and clothing.
  33. 33. Scope of TBT Agreement Definitions Conformity Assessment • Conformity assessment procedures are technical procedures — such as testing, verification, inspection and certification — which confirm that products fulfil the requirements laid down in regulations and standards. • May include, among other things, procedures for: – sampling, testing & inspection – evaluation – verification & assurance of conformity – registration, accreditation, and approval
  34. 34. Protection of human safety or health  Safety in food, hygienically, free from any residues
  35. 35. Protection of animal & plant life or health  for example require that endangered species of fish reach a certain length before they can be caught.
  36. 36. Protection of the environment  for example, the re-cycling of paper and plastic products, and levels of motor vehicle emissions.
  37. 37.  Other objectives are quality regulations & technical harmonization/ simply trade facilitation.  Quality regulations — e.g. those requiring that vegetables and fruits reach a certain size to be marketable — are very common in certain developed countries.  Regulations aimed at harmonizing certain sectors, for example that of telecommunications and terminal equipment, are widespread in economically integrated areas.
  38. 38.  To encourage development of international standards  To promote international harmonization of national / regional regulations and standards  To prevent regulations and standards from creating unnecessary obstacles to trade
  39. 39. Differences between SPS and TBT Agreements SPS Based on risk assessment, Risk assessment from pests, diseases, additives, contaminants, toxins... Based on scientific evidence, TBT Based on legitimate objective: -national security, -prevention from deceptive practice, - environmental protection,
  40. 40. Difference Between SPS &TBT • Regulation regarding fertilizers SPS it relating to residues in food or animal feed (objective protection of human/ animal health TBT it related to quality or efficacy of the product or health risk to handlers • Labeling requirements for foods SPS it related to food safety TBT it the regulation concerns issues such as; positioning, letter size, nutrient content, grade, etc. Contd…
  41. 41. Difference Between SPS &TBT Regulation regarding containers for the shipment of grains SPS it relating to fumigation or other treatment of these containers, i.e., disinfection in order to prevent the spread of disease TBT it the regulation regards the size or structure of the containers
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