Abiotic stresses affecting crop-insect pestinteractions in the context of global climate                   change         ...
National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
Every life in nature is dependent on some               another life      National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
Agro-ecosystem environmentAbiotic                                                              Biotic          National In...
Agricultural yield losses due to abiotic and biotic stresses                      200                      180            ...
Climate change and global warming• An issue of global concern• Increasing levels of Global atmospheric                    ...
Climate change and India• 0.56°C rise in annual mean temperature over last 100 yrs•   Worst droughts yrs: 1971-72, 1999-20...
Contribution of different sectors in India to climate change            Energy                                   Land use ...
Contribution of Agricultural sectors to Climate change              Manure                 Rice cultivation           m an...
Overexploitation and misuse of natural resources forvarious anthropogenic developmental activities              • Increase...
YieldProductivityArea   National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
Minor pests                                        Major pests                                         Extinction of many ...
Climate change                       and InsectsImpact negatively the diversity and abundance of insect pestsIncreasing th...
Insect-pests in the era of climate change  •   Loss of ecological biodiversity  •   Expansion of geographic ranges  •   In...
1. Loss of ecological Biodiversity                                • Biological wealth of habitat                          ...
Insect Biodiversity   Most diverse group of animals (80%)   Integral component of ecological cycles   Very good indicat...
Indian Insect                               fauna                       Western Ghats in IndiaThe only habitat to many rar...
More than one-third of                                                              species in the world are at           ...
What are the implications ????                       Loss of biodiversity                              -ve impacts        ...
2. Expansion of geographic rangesRegional/      Growth, survival         Geographic distribution  local                   ...
Increased temperature Inhospitable conditions       Altitude wise shift in cultivation areas                   of crop pla...
Predicted range expansions with Global warming                                           The rise in temperature due to   ...
Predicted range expansions with Global warmingCorn earworms in USA      Heliothis zea (Boddie)      Helicoverpa armigera (...
3. Increased overwintering survival                      Insects (Poikilotherms)                   Limited ability of home...
Increased temperature            Summer                                                             WinterAccelerated meta...
Increased temperature   Accelerated rates of development, reproduction and survivalCapacity to complete more number of gen...
5. Impact on pest population dynamics and                 outbreaks Changes in climatic variables have led to increased fr...
Sugarcane wooly aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner (2002-03)      • Sugarcane belt of Maharashtra and Karnataka      • ...
Brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens in Rice (2008-09)                                               Hopper Burn symptom...
Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley   Major havoc to the cotton crop in    India: 2006-07   (Dhawan et al., 20...
Papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (2009-10)Major havoc to papaya growers in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka & Maharashtra      ...
6. Breakdown of host plant resistance to                  insects                                      Host Plant Resistan...
Temperature and water stress        Breakdown of resistance                           Transgene expression in Bt cotton (M...
7. Impact of increased CO2                    CO2 enriched environment                      Widening of C: N ratio.       ...
8. Reduced effectiveness of biological control                        agents             Natural enemies of crop pests : p...
9. Disruption of plant-pollinator interactions                                Entomophilies pollination:                  ...
Pollination is one of the major ecosystem services             currently under threat from mounting pressures             ...
Changing climate regimes           Temperature and water availability                            Impact on critical events...
Socio-economic impacts   National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
Implications for food security                                                Changing climate                            ...
Implications for farming community•   Need to take care of more types and more number of insects•   Reduced effectiveness ...
Challenges aheadBreeding climate-resilient varieties• To breed new varieties for improved resistance  to biotic and biotic...
Rescheduling of crop calendars• Certain effective cultural practices like crop rotation will be less or no  effective with...
Developing temperature based phenology models for pests & diseasesThe forewarning models for predicting insect arrival/ in...
Adaptation/ mitigation of agriculture to changing pest scenario                        due to climateStrengthen research f...
Sensitization of stakeholders about climate change and its impacts• Training and capacity-building of extension worker, fa...
Promotion of resource conservation technologies• Incentives to farmers for resource conservation and use efficiency (Bio- ...
Conclusions Is it possible to stop climate change ?????Most of the researchers agree that the current warming trendcan’t b...
Implications for India• Being a tropical country, more challenged with impacts of looming climate change• Differential imp...
National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Invited lecture to MPKV trainees

707
-1

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
707
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Invited lecture to MPKV trainees

  1. 1. Abiotic stresses affecting crop-insect pestinteractions in the context of global climate change Dr. Babasaheb B. Fand Scientist (Agril. Entomology) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  2. 2. National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  3. 3. Every life in nature is dependent on some another life National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  4. 4. Agro-ecosystem environmentAbiotic Biotic National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  5. 5. Agricultural yield losses due to abiotic and biotic stresses 200 180 Influencing crop growth 160 and productivity to the Yields (Qtls/ha) 140 Record yield 120 extent of 80% 100 80 Abiotic stresses 60 Biotic stresses These yield losses are 40 20 Average yield likely to be aggravated 0 with impending climate change Crops(Source: Buchanan, Gruissem & Jones, 2000: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants; American Society of Plant Physiologists,) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  6. 6. Climate change and global warming• An issue of global concern• Increasing levels of Global atmospheric Temperature : 0.80C CO2 : 370 ppm• Alarming signals about rapid environmental change• Profound effects on many biological systems• Serious effects on agricultural production & livelihood of farmers• Climate sensitive sectors : Agriculture Forestry Livestock Fisheries National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  7. 7. Climate change and India• 0.56°C rise in annual mean temperature over last 100 yrs• Worst droughts yrs: 1971-72, 1999-2000 & 2000-2002• Increased intensity of rainfall• Decrease in number of rainy days• Prolonged dry spells (IMD, 2006, 2007, 2009)• Phenomenal effect on incidence of major crop pests National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  8. 8. Contribution of different sectors in India to climate change Energy Land use 61% changes 1% Agriculture 28% Wastes Industrial 2% processes 8%Source: India’s Initial National Communication on Climate Change, 2004 National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  9. 9. Contribution of Agricultural sectors to Climate change Manure Rice cultivation m anagem ent 23% Crop residues 5% 1% Em ission from soils 12% Enteric ferm entation 59% Source: India’s Initial National Communication on Climate Change, 2004 National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  10. 10. Overexploitation and misuse of natural resources forvarious anthropogenic developmental activities • Increased urbanization • Deforestation • Industrialization Major drivers of Climate change National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  11. 11. YieldProductivityArea National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  12. 12. Minor pests Major pests Extinction of many Habitat alteration insect species Changes in cropping Suppression practices : Bt cotton of Competitor species Excessive pesticide Destruction Use of natural enemies Outbreaks
  13. 13. Climate change and InsectsImpact negatively the diversity and abundance of insect pestsIncreasing the extent of crop lossesUpsetting ecological balanceUnpredictable changes in the abundance of insect-pests andtheir existing and potential natural enemies (Ball, 1997; Rao et al., 2006; IPCC, 2007) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  14. 14. Insect-pests in the era of climate change • Loss of ecological biodiversity • Expansion of geographic ranges • Increased overwintering survival • Increase in number of generations per season • Impact on pest population dynamics and outbreaks • Breakdown of host plant resistance to insects • Impact of increased CO2 • Reduced effectiveness of biocontrol agents • Disruption of plant-pollinator interactions National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  15. 15. 1. Loss of ecological Biodiversity • Biological wealth of habitat • Species richness in an ecosystem India: - One of the 12 mega-biodiversity centres - Three out of 34 biodiversity hotspots • Plays a major role in climate regulation • Human pressure on ecosystem accelerating the rate of extinction of life on earth • Climate change- dominant direct driver of biodiversity loss by the end of century(Myers et al., 2000; UN-HABITAT, 2004; Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report, 2005; Murugan, 2006) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  16. 16. Insect Biodiversity Most diverse group of animals (80%) Integral component of ecological cycles Very good indicators of environmental change Play an important role in food chains Excellent pollinators for many of the economically important crops National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  17. 17. Indian Insect fauna Western Ghats in IndiaThe only habitat to many rare, endemic and exotic species of colourfulbutterflies in the worldMany butterfly species are under a real threat due to depletion of thenatural vegetation for various anthropogenic developmental activities About 6.83% of world insect species are inhabitant in India National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  18. 18. More than one-third of species in the world are at the risk of extinction Up to 50% of the Asia’s total biodiversity is at risk due to climate change Many other species could also be extricated as a result of the climate change and habitat fragmentation (Insects, nematodes, earthworms, crustaceans, spiders etc)Number of threatened animal species per group (Source: IUCN threat categories, 1994) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  19. 19. What are the implications ???? Loss of biodiversity -ve impacts Ecosystem Wildlife habitatStructure Composition Function Outbreaks of destructive insect-pests and diseases National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  20. 20. 2. Expansion of geographic rangesRegional/ Growth, survival Geographic distribution local and abundance of Reproduction climate organismsAltered temperature and rainfall regimes with thepredictable changes in climate will determine the futuredistribution, survival and reproduction of the species National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  21. 21. Increased temperature Inhospitable conditions Altitude wise shift in cultivation areas of crop plants Local extinctions Expansion of geographic range of insect-pests Increased abundance of tropical insect species Sudden pest outbreak Heavy losses in crop yieldNational Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  22. 22. Predicted range expansions with Global warming The rise in temperature due to global warming has shifted apple cultivation in Himachal Pradesh from Lower areas of Kullu & Mandi districts to higher altitude in Lahaul & Spitti Rana et al., 2008The associated insect-pests may also extend their geographic range along with the host plants National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  23. 23. Predicted range expansions with Global warmingCorn earworms in USA Heliothis zea (Boddie) Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (EPA, 1989; Diffenbaugh et al., 2008) Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) A major pest of cotton, pulses and vegetables in North India (Sharma et al., 2005; Sharma, 2010) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  24. 24. 3. Increased overwintering survival Insects (Poikilotherms) Limited ability of homeostasisAdaptation strategies to support life under thermally stressful environments Behavioural avoidance Diapause through migration (Physiological) -- Seasonal regulation of insect life cycles -- Survival under environmental adversities National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  25. 25. Increased temperature Summer WinterAccelerated metabolic activities Delay in onset of diapause Faster nutrient depletion low winter mortality Early termination of diapause Increased insect survivalEarly resumption of active growth Early infestations Increased population built-up Heavy losses in crop yield National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  26. 26. Increased temperature Accelerated rates of development, reproduction and survivalCapacity to complete more number of generations per year / season More crop damage National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  27. 27. 5. Impact on pest population dynamics and outbreaks Changes in climatic variables have led to increased frequency & intensity of outbreaks of insect-pests • Wooly aphid in Sugarcane • Brown plant hopper in Rice • Cotton mealybug • Papaya mealybug • Coconut mite National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  28. 28. Sugarcane wooly aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner (2002-03) • Sugarcane belt of Maharashtra and Karnataka • Resulted in 30 % yield losses (Joshi and Viraktamath, 2004; Srikanth, 2004; 2007; Tripathi et al, 2008; Rafee, 2010) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  29. 29. Brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens in Rice (2008-09) Hopper Burn symptoms • Northern rice growing region of India • Significant damage to high value Basmati rice • Affected rice crop over 33,000 ha IARI News, 2008. Brown plant hopper outbreak in rice. 24(Oct-Dec): 1-2. National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  30. 30. Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley  Major havoc to the cotton crop in India: 2006-07 (Dhawan et al., 2007; Gautam, 2007, 2008; Tanwar et al., 2007, Jhala et al., 2008; Bhosle et al., 2009)  Economic impact of P. solenopsis flare up on Indian Agriculture 30-40 % yield loss in cotton Pesticide sale over Rs 500 crores in Punjab Cost of plant protection increased by Rs 2500/ acre Mealybug took away the glory of Bt cotton Made another big hole in the pocket of the already distressed farmers (Dhawan et al., 2007; Gautam, 2007, 2008; Jhala et al., 2008) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  31. 31. Papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (2009-10)Major havoc to papaya growers in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka & Maharashtra NCIPM, 2009, 2010; NBAII, 2010 National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  32. 32. 6. Breakdown of host plant resistance to insects Host Plant ResistanceEnvironmental factors Temperature Sunlight Impact on secondary metabolic pathways Soil moisture (SA, JA) Air pollution Weakening of plants’ own defensive system Increased susceptibility to attack by insect pests Pest outbreaks and more crop damage National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  33. 33. Temperature and water stress Breakdown of resistance Transgene expression in Bt cotton (Midge Stenodiplosis sorghicola (Coq.) &Spotted stem borer Chilo partellus Swinhoe) Reduced production of Bt toxins Severe yield loss in sorghum Enhanced susceptibility of the cotton to Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Sharma et al., 1999; 2005) (Kaiser, 1996; Hilder and Boulter, 1999) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  34. 34. 7. Impact of increased CO2 CO2 enriched environment Widening of C: N ratio. Reduced nitrogen content of plant tissue Enhanced feeding by insects Slows down the insect development Increases the length of life stages More crop damage than the normal(Lincoln, 1984; 1993; Bazzaz and Fajer, 1992; Coviella and Trumble 1999, Hunter 2001)National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  35. 35. 8. Reduced effectiveness of biological control agents Natural enemies of crop pests : predators, parasitoids & pathogens Density responsive subjected to the action of abiotic components Tiny and delicate More sensitive to the climaticHost - NEs extremes like heat, cold, wind &Differential response to rainschanging climate Hosts escape at higher temperatures Reduced window of opportunity for parasitism Great set back to the survival and multiplication of parasitoids National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  36. 36. 9. Disruption of plant-pollinator interactions Entomophilies pollination: A fundamental process essential for the production of about one-third of the world human food Important insect pollinators Bees, flies, butterflies, moths, beetles, etc. Insect pollination, mostly by bees, is necessary for reproduction and formation of fruits and seeds in about 75% of crops (Ingram et al., 1996; Klein et al., 2007; Ricketts et al., 2008) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  37. 37. Pollination is one of the major ecosystem services currently under threat from mounting pressures exerted by growing population, depleting natural resource base and global climate change (Costanza et al., 1987; MEA, 2005; Sachs, 2008) -ve impacts of climate change on pollinators Declining population abundance Shift of geographic range Declining pollination activities (Klusser et al., 2007; FAO, 2008)National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  38. 38. Changing climate regimes Temperature and water availability Impact on critical events in the life cycle of plants (flowering, pollination, fruiting & seed set) Disruption of the synchrony between plant-pollinator relationships Impact on extent, quality & quantity of pollination Multiple implications for food security, species diversity, ecosystem stability and resilience to climate change (Cleland et al., 2007; (Kudo et al., 2004; Deustch et al., 2008; FAO, 2008) National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  39. 39. Socio-economic impacts National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  40. 40. Implications for food security Changing climate regimes Aggravating pest problems Disruption of the plant-pollinator interactions Intensification of the agricultural yield losses Reduced crop pollination Reduction in food production Threat to the food & nutritional security (Patterson et al., 1999; Gutierrez, 2000; Klein et al., 2007; FAO, 2008; IPCC, 2007; Chahal et al., 2008). National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  41. 41. Implications for farming community• Need to take care of more types and more number of insects• Reduced effectiveness of pest management strategies/ pesticides• Frequent pesticide applications• Increased cost of plant protection• Impact on livelihood of the rural poor• Increased food prices resulting from declining food production National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  42. 42. Challenges aheadBreeding climate-resilient varieties• To breed new varieties for improved resistance to biotic and biotic stresses• Considering late onset and shorter duration of winter, there is chance of delaying and shortening the growing seasons for Rabi/ cold season crops like wheat• Breeding varieties suitable for late planting and those can sustain adverse climatic conditions National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  43. 43. Rescheduling of crop calendars• Certain effective cultural practices like crop rotation will be less or no effective with changed climate• Global temperature increase may result in shrinking of crop growing seasons, hence there is need to change the crop calendar according to the changing crop environment• The growers of the crops have to change insect management strategies in accordance with the projected changes in pest incidence and extent of crop losses in view of the changing climate National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  44. 44. Developing temperature based phenology models for pests & diseasesThe forewarning models for predicting insect arrival/ infestations based on earlier climateprofiles need to be revised in accordance with location specific changes in climate inorder to provide precise and accurate forecast of the pest incidenceGIS based risk mapping of crop pests• Agro-ecological hot spot zonation• Delineation of future areas of pest risk Weather-based Apple fire blight risk mapping in GIS National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  45. 45. Adaptation/ mitigation of agriculture to changing pest scenario due to climateStrengthen research for enhancing adaptive capacity:• Pest surveillance for improved assessments in advance of outbreaks• Research focus on the search for more general forms of resistance against various classes of insects or diseases• Developing mechanisms for collection and disseminating information on insect- pest data in different environmental situations National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  46. 46. Sensitization of stakeholders about climate change and its impacts• Training and capacity-building of extension worker, farmers & other stakeholders involved in supply chain management• Development of learning material and support guides for different risk scenarios in the contexts of pest outbreaks in agriculture sector• Assist farmers in coping with current climatic risks through weather services, agro- advisories, insurance, community banks, etc National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  47. 47. Promotion of resource conservation technologies• Incentives to farmers for resource conservation and use efficiency (Bio- control, Integrated Pest Management)• Subsidies for adaptation of environmental conserving pest controlling technologies, pest based Agri-Insurance• Strategies for adaptation and coping could benefit from combining scientific and indigenous knowledge, especially in developing countries where technology is least developed• Further more study towards integrating indigenous adaptation measures in global adaptation strategies and scientific research National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  48. 48. Conclusions Is it possible to stop climate change ?????Most of the researchers agree that the current warming trendcan’t be stopped or reversed but that it can be slowed downto allow the biological systems and human society to adapt National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  49. 49. Implications for India• Being a tropical country, more challenged with impacts of looming climate change• Differential impacts of abiotic factors such as temperature, humidity &rainfall• Varied pest damage in different agro-climatic regions across the country• Intensification of yield losses due to potential changes in crop diversity and increased incidence of insect-pests• Serious environmental and socioeconomic impacts on rural farmers whose livelihoods depend directly on the agriculture• Urgent need to modify crop protection measures with changed climate in order to attain the goal of food security of the nation• Need for careful attention in planning and devising adaptation and mitigation strategies for future pest management strategies National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  50. 50. National Institute of Abiotic Stresses Management
  1. Gostou de algum slide específico?

    Recortar slides é uma maneira fácil de colecionar informações para acessar mais tarde.

×