Ethnographic method in  entrepreneurship research<br />A presentation by : BabakZarrinPanah<br />April , 2010<br />Assista...
Definition:<br />In normal usage the word ethnography refers to the research method used in cultural anthropology and also...
Definition :<br />Ethnography is the study of people in naturally occurring settings or ‘fields’ by methods of data collec...
Features of ethnography:<br />Behaviour is studied in everyday contexts, there are no unnatural or experimental circumstan...
Data collection : <br />Ethnographic research designs adopt cyclical patterns of investigation that accommodate ethnograph...
A typical cyclical design for an ethnographic study :<br />
Unit of analysis :<br />In discussing the selection of a project and the definition of its scope, Spradley describes how t...
Ethnography as a strategy <br />Because it can be multi-sited, ethnography is not limited to case studies of individual en...
disadvantages of choosing ethnography<br />Perhaps the disadvantages of choosing ethnography as a research strategy are th...
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Ethnographic methods in Entrepreneurship Research

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Ethnographic methods in Entrepreneurship Research

  1. 1. Ethnographic method in entrepreneurship research<br />A presentation by : BabakZarrinPanah<br />April , 2010<br />Assistant Prof. : Dr. Arabiun<br />
  2. 2. Definition:<br />In normal usage the word ethnography refers to the research method used in cultural anthropology and also to a written text used to report that research. Indeed, ethnography is often equated with cultural anthropology.<br />qualitative researchers such as David Silverman (2000) describe it simply as observational research in particular settings, but ethnography entails much more than mere observation, notably a level of participation in daily activities.<br />
  3. 3. Definition :<br />Ethnography is the study of people in naturally occurring settings or ‘fields’ by methods of data collection which capture their social meanings and ordinary activities, involving the researcher participating directly in the setting, if not also in the activities, in order to collect data in a systematic manner but without meaning being imposed on them externally .<br />
  4. 4. Features of ethnography:<br />Behaviour is studied in everyday contexts, there are no unnatural or experimental circumstances imposed by the researcher.<br />Observation is the primary means of data collection, although various other techniques are also used.<br />Data collection is flexible and unstructured to avoid pre-fixed arrangements that impose categories on what people say and do.<br />The focus is normally on a single setting or group and is small scale.<br />The data is analysed by attributing meanings to the human actions described and explained. (Ibid.: 1–2)<br />
  5. 5. Data collection : <br />Ethnographic research designs adopt cyclical patterns of investigation that accommodate ethnography’s flexible approach to data gathering, in contrast to a linear design that follows a predetermined path and requires a much more structured approach to gathering data.<br />This tendency for ethnographic research to follow a cyclical pattern of investigation rather than the more normal linear design is perhaps a key element in distinguishing ethnography as a research strategy.<br />
  6. 6. A typical cyclical design for an ethnographic study :<br />
  7. 7. Unit of analysis :<br />In discussing the selection of a project and the definition of its scope, Spradley describes how the social situations studied by ethnography are bounded by three elements: actors, activities and places. Although a particular place is seen as a key element of a social situation, he also acknowledges the possibility of studying clusters and networks of social situations occurring in a number of places .<br />
  8. 8. Ethnography as a strategy <br />Because it can be multi-sited, ethnography is not limited to case studies of individual enterprises and it is possible to use ethnographic methods as more than just a data-gathering technique for case studies of individual entrepreneurs or ventures. As a research strategy, ethnography’s cyclical and flexible approach to design and ability to link multiple sites makes it a methodology capable of accommodating complexity, detecting nuances and uncovering explanations within the social world.<br />
  9. 9. disadvantages of choosing ethnography<br />Perhaps the disadvantages of choosing ethnography as a research strategy are that researchers begin without the benefit of a clear linear path and the certainty of a conclusion, and must deal with complexity and makedesign choices as their research progresses.<br />

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