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Study Skills Handbook

Barbara Allan
Study Skills Handbook
(Seventh edition)
Barbara Allan
Published by Hull University Business School, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK
© Th...
Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction
Introduction ..............................................................................
Study Skills Handbook

Chapter 5: Making Notes
Introduction .................................................................
Chapter 10: Working in Groups
Introduction ..................................................................................
Study Skills Handbook

Chapter 1
Introduction

Introduction
The purpose of this manual is to provide you with general acad...
Aims and learning outcomes of the manual
The aim of this manual is to provide you with guidance on the academic skills
nee...
Study Skills Handbook

Other sources of help and support
The following information is correct for the 2010/2011 academic y...
Hull Campus
The Disability Office
Your first port of call for help and advice.
Based on the third floor of the students’ u...
Study Skills Handbook

Hull - Brynmor Jones Library

01482 466344

Scarborough - Room C17b

01723 357274

studyadvice@hull...
The library has numerous guidance leaflets for students (these are available from
the library and also through the univers...
Study Skills Handbook

Chapter 2
Studying at the University

Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce you ...
high marks are those who study relevant information sources, think critically
about their findings, discuss and debate the...
Study Skills Handbook

outlined in your Module Handbook. You may be asked to prepare for the
seminar by reading a particul...
On-line activities
You may be expected to take part in on-line activities for some modules. The
University provides access...
Study Skills Handbook

The material in this section
is adapted from Allan, B.,
Cook, M. and Lewis, R.
(1996) Developing
In...
Introduction

not very

very

a) How independent do you

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

think you are as a learner?
b) Ask a frie...
Study Skills Handbook

Section two: Managing
your learning

never

rarely

sometimes

always

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2...
Interpreting the results
1. Now add up the numbers you circled in sections one, two and three.
2. Write the number you sco...
Study Skills Handbook

Chapter 3
Time Management

Introduction
Time management is all about being in control of your life....
Claire is a part-time undergraduate student who is a single parent
with a full-time job.
Tim is a part-time MBA student wh...
Study Skills Handbook

Morning

Afternoon

Evening

Night

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday

Each ...
Study Advice Service can also help with time planning and meeting deadlines,
and they have a leaflet on this topic. It is ...
Study Skills Handbook

Sort out key documents and information
• Make sure you have your module handbooks
• Identify key da...
•
•

Identify each individual task.
Manage the tasks – establish your priorities, identify when you will work on it
and wh...
Study Skills Handbook

However, time management is not simply about organising your time in order to
complete all the task...
Chapter 4
Information Skills

Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to guide you to useful tutorials and resources o...
Study Skills Handbook

Sites such as Wikipedia can be very unreliable and of doubtful quality since they
contain unreferen...
Using subject information sources
Internet Business Manager – a tutorial on Internet information skills
for business manag...
Study Skills Handbook

Are there any other interpretations of this data?
What assumptions are made in this work?
Does the ...
Chapter 5
Making Notes

Introduction
Making notes is a skill that will help you to manage the information content of
your ...
Study Skills Handbook

Making notes

Taking notes

This involves making your own
record of key information and ideas.
You ...
BEWARE
Direct copying (verbatim)
or close paraphrasing
(putting into your own
words but still closely
following the struct...
Study Skills Handbook

•
•
•

how can this be backed-up?
do other researchers agree with this position?
what assumptions d...
•
•

Review your notes.
File your notes – be organised. It is no good discovering two
months later that you have lost them...
Study Skills Handbook

Closing comments
Making notes is a skill that you will develop as you progress through your
studies...
Chapter 6
Academic Reading Skills

Introduction
Academic reading skills are different from leisure reading skills. Academi...
Study Skills Handbook

Improving your reading skills
This involves the following processes
Purpose
Think about why you are...
Critical reading involves evaluating the information source and criticising it.
You may want to compare it with the work o...
Study Skills Handbook

See also Chapter 4

Closing comments
You will find that your reading skills develop with practise. ...
Chapter 7
Writing Skills

Introduction
The ability to write clear and logical assignments or reports is an essential
acade...
Study Skills Handbook

Analyse the task
Before you start any piece of written work you should ask yourself the following
q...
rush off trying to locate vast amounts of information without having a clear
understanding of what is being asked of you.
...
Study Skills Handbook

Evaluate

Examine
Explain
Explore
Illustrate
Interpret
Justify
Outline
Relate
Review
State
Summaris...
Identify key ideas and supporting evidence
As you work through your information sources you will need to identify key idea...
Study Skills Handbook

Reviewing your work
The first completed draft of an assignment will never be good enough to submit....
•
•
•
•

the grammar is correct
spelling is correct
the references are correct
the whole assignment is clearly written

It...
Study Skills Handbook

Presenting your work
Read the instructions that are provided in your module handbook or that are
av...
that you leave yourself plenty of time to meet the deadline. Remember that there
may be many other students also queuing u...
Study Skills Handbook

BEWARE
Direct copying (verbatim)
or close paraphrasing (put
into your own words but
still closely f...
include a few short quotations to support your findings and these also
demonstrate your use of different information sourc...
Study Skills Handbook

Writing reports
Report writing is a key skill that you need to develop; you are likely to be asked
...
•
•

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Executive summary (a brief summary of the report e.g. a single page of A4,
written for busy executives...
Study Skills Handbook

Chapter 8
Referencing, Bibliography and
Plagiarism

Introduction
This is one of the crucial areas t...
If you are unsure whether the information that you have provided should be
referenced or not, then it is better to provide...
Study Skills Handbook

If you refer to a
specific fact or
piece of
information

Between 1979 and 1999,
the number of women...
include the page number in the format; author, date, page number, e.g.
(Johnson, 2007, 32).
This information directs reade...
Study Skills Handbook

arguments e.g. Orshansky, M. (1965) Counting the poor: another look at the
poverty profile, Social ...
Common questions
What if the source has no named author?
Use the corporate author, if there is one – for example, BBC News...
Study Skills Handbook

How do I reference an email?
The appropriate format is:
Allan, B., (barbara.allan@hull.ac.uk) 20 Ma...
What do I do if I want to quote something that contains something
that is inaccurate, grammatically incorrect or misspelle...
Study Skills Handbook

Armstrong, Gary and Kotler, Philip, (1999), Marketing: An Introduction, 5th
edn, New Jersey, Prenti...
You do not need to put a page reference for any particular detail or quotation in
your list of references. However, when y...
Study Skills Handbook

Both the Study Advice
Service and Library
provide handouts and
information on how to
present the di...
Plagiarism and unfair means
The University has had a Code of Practice on the Use of Unfair Means since
February 2000. You ...
Study Skills Handbook

previously by another student. It is then unclear who has written a piece of work
and this will be ...
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
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Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
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Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
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Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
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Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
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Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
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Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
Barbara allan   study skills-handbook
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Transcript of "Barbara allan study skills-handbook"

  1. 1. Study Skills Handbook Barbara Allan
  2. 2. Study Skills Handbook (Seventh edition) Barbara Allan Published by Hull University Business School, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK © The Authors and The University of Hull All intellectual property rights, including copyright, in this publication are owned by the authors and The University of Hull. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or in any country without prior written consent. Any breach of ownership shall result in legal proceedings, such proceedings being determined by the UK courts and under UK law. Seventh edition produced August 2010 Acknowledgements Many staff within the University have been involved in the writing or editing of this Study Skills Handbook. Their time and effort is much appreciated. Special mention must be made of colleagues within the Business School and, in particular, Ray Barker, Ian Pownall, Wendy Robson and Steve Trotter. Amy Cowling produced Appendix A, English Grammar, using text provided by the Study Advice Service. A big thank you to colleagues from the Study Advice Service for their suggestions and ideas. In addition, I want to acknowledge the work of Julia Cook who co-authored the first edition of this handbook, Sarah Clark who provided the material for the sections on Personal Development Planning and Your future career, and Nora O’Hara who provided material for parts of Chapter 9. Finally, thanks to all those students whose queries and comments have helped to inform the fifth edition of this handbook.
  3. 3. Contents Chapter 1: Introduction Introduction ...................................................................................................... 6 Aims and learning outcomes of the manual .................................................... 7 Other sources of help ........................................................................................ 7 Disability issues ................................................................................................ 8 Chapter 2: Studying at the University Introduction .....................................................................................................12 Approaches to learning and teaching .............................................................. 13 Becoming an independent learner .................................................................. 15 Closing comments............................................................................................19 Chapter 3: Time Management Introduction .................................................................................................... 20 Key factors in managing your time................................................................. 23 Key factors in completing specific tasks ......................................................... 24 Closing comments........................................................................................... 25 Chapter 4: Information Skills Introduction .................................................................................................... 27 Finding your way around the library .............................................................. 28 Introduction to the Internet ........................................................................... 28 Using subject information sources ................................................................. 29 Evaluating information sources ..................................................................... 29 Closing comments........................................................................................... 30 Hull University Business School 3
  4. 4. Study Skills Handbook Chapter 5: Making Notes Introduction .................................................................................................... 31 Making good notes .......................................................................................... 32 Working with others........................................................................................ 35 Referencing your notes and plagiarism .......................................................... 35 Closing comments ........................................................................................... 36 Chapter 6: Academic Reading Skills Introduction .................................................................................................... 37 Improving your reading skills .........................................................................38 Strategies for effective reading: ...................................................................... 39 Closing comments .......................................................................................... 40 Chapter 7: Writing Skills Introduction .................................................................................................... 41 Writing assignments ....................................................................................... 41 Feedback on assignments ...............................................................................49 Essays .............................................................................................................49 Writing reports ............................................................................................... 52 Closing comments ........................................................................................... 53 Chapter 8: Referencing, Bibliography and Plagiarism Introduction .................................................................................................... 54 Referencing...................................................................................................... 56 Common questions.......................................................................................... 59 Bibliography .................................................................................................... 62 Working in groups ...........................................................................................64 Plagiarism and unfair means .......................................................................... 65 Closing comments ........................................................................................... 67 Chapter 9: Presentation Skills Introduction ................................................................................................... 68 Preparing a presentation ................................................................................ 68 Rehearsing ....................................................................................................... 71 Giving a presentation ...................................................................................... 71 Closing comments ........................................................................................... 73 4 Hull University Business School
  5. 5. Chapter 10: Working in Groups Introduction .................................................................................................... 74 What is an effective student group? ............................................................... 74 First meet-up .................................................................................................. 76 The organisation of meetings ......................................................................... 76 Managing group work ..................................................................................... 78 Common problems in group work.................................................................. 79 Closing comments........................................................................................... 80 Chapter 11: Making effective use of eBridge Introduction .................................................................................................... 82 What is available on eBridge? ........................................................................ 82 Introduction to on-line learning and teaching ............................................... 84 Closing comments........................................................................................... 86 Chapter 12: Examination Skills Introduction .................................................................................................... 87 Information about examinations ................................................................... 87 Revision........................................................................................................... 89 Sitting examinations ........................................................................................91 Practical tips and advice ................................................................................. 92 The use of unfair means.................................................................................. 93 Closing comments........................................................................................... 94 Chapter 13: Reflection Introduction .................................................................................................... 95 What is a reflective learner? ........................................................................... 96 Getting started in reflection............................................................................ 96 Learning journals ............................................................................................ 98 Personal Development Planning .................................................................... 99 Your future career ......................................................................................... 106 Closing comments..........................................................................................107 Chapter 14: Conclusion Feedback ....................................................................................................... 108 Closing Comments ....................................................................................... 108 Resources and Bibliography .............................................................................. 109 Appendix A: English grammar and punctuation Hull University Business School 5
  6. 6. Study Skills Handbook Chapter 1 Introduction Introduction The purpose of this manual is to provide you with general academic support. It is written for all students studying within Hull University Business School (HUBS). This manual is one of the many ways in which the Business School and the University provide support and guidance to students. This manual is written as a reference guide. We suggest that you read this chapter and then skim through the rest of the manual. You can then choose when to read individual chapters in depth. The manual is written so that you can read and work through individual chapters in any order. This means that you can relate your reading to the academic demands of your programme of study. This is your manual. Make it your own by writing your name, Student ID number and programme of study on it. Use the margins or the blank pages to make notes, write down questions or mark areas that you think you require further information on. Use a highlighter pen to mark out sections that are of particular interest to you. Study Skills Handbook Learn from it Use it Keep it safe 6 Hull University Business School
  7. 7. Aims and learning outcomes of the manual The aim of this manual is to provide you with guidance on the academic skills needed for success on your programme of study. As a result of reading and working through this manual you should be able to • • • • • • • • manage your time and balance your academic studies with other aspects of your life identify, evaluate and use a wide range of information sources produce essays and reports that meet the required standard work in groups take full advantage of a virtual learning environment make a formal presentation supported by appropriate visual aids prepare for and take examinations reflect on your current academic skills and identify an appropriate action plan Other sources of help This manual is a starting point to help you with your studies. Many students will complete a module that provides detailed guidance on academic skills, for example, the undergraduate module called Academic and Professional Skills or similar postgraduate modules. Other students may be introduced to these topics as part of an induction programme or research methods module. It is important to remember that as a student in HUBS you will have access to help and support from a number of different sources and these are outlined in the following section: Personal Supervisor Name: Phone number: Office location: Email address: Hull University Business School 7
  8. 8. Study Skills Handbook Other sources of help and support The following information is correct for the 2010/2011 academic year. If you are using this manual after 1 August 2011 then please check the most recent edition (available on the school’s website and eBridge) for up-to-date information. Programme Leader Name: Phone number: Office location: Email address: Disability issues The school’s Disability Officer is Graeme Reid who may be contacted on 01482 463091 or g.c.reid@hull.ac.uk or Wharfe building Room 106. Disability Services offer advice and support to all students and staff on a full range of disability issues including • • • • • • • • • 8 arrangements for support in the classroom – for example, note-takers and readers alternative examination arrangements advice and assistance with applying for a Disabled Students’ Allowance specialist equipment advice on accommodation information on the Disability Discrimination Act Access to Work scheme for staff referral for an assessment for dyslexia with a psychologist referral for individual and group dyslexia study support sessions Hull University Business School
  9. 9. Hull Campus The Disability Office Your first port of call for help and advice. Based on the third floor of the students’ union building, which is accessible either by staircase or lift. The Miriam Hebron Centre Based on the ground floor of the Brynmor Jones Library. The Centre is equipped with specialist equipment to assist students with disabilities. To contact the Hull office you can visit in person or call on (46)6833. Scarborough Campus Students on the Scarborough Campus should contact Rosemary Laidlaw, either through Office Services or by email on r.laidlaw@hull.ac.uk. The Disabilities Officers can also be reached by mail The Disabilities Officers Disability Services The University of Hull Hull, HU6 7RX Rosemary Laidlaw Disability Support Advisor The University of Hull Scarborough Campus Filey Road Scarborough, YO11 3AZ Study Advice Service This service provides advice and guidance to support your academic studies. The service covers the following topics: study skills, academic writing, and mathematics. Individual or small group appointments may be made with experienced tutors. The service also offers taught workshops and drop-in sessions. Hull University Business School 9
  10. 10. Study Skills Handbook Hull - Brynmor Jones Library 01482 466344 Scarborough - Room C17b 01723 357274 studyadvice@hull.ac.uk General email queries www.studyadvice.hull.ac.uk This website provides lots of useful information on study skills. It includes leaflets, quizzes and video clips. You are advised to explore this website. Language Support The Language Institute provides support and learning activities to help members of the university develop their language skills. The Language Learning Advisers guide students towards suitable resources to match their needs. In addition, they manage the Tandem learning scheme which teams non-native students with a native speaker who is studying the foreigner’s native language for mutual advantage. If English is not your first language then you may benefit from additional support. You will find it useful to discuss your requirements with your Personal Supervisor. The Language Institute within the University offers numerous English language programmes and training courses. You are advised to contact them as soon as possible to find out how they can help you with developing your language skills. The Language Institute Ferens Building The University of Hull HU6 7RX Telephone: +44 (0)1482 465900 (Reception) Fax: +44 (0)1482 466180 E-Mail: langc@hull.ac.uk Library You are strongly recommended to spend time learning how to use the library and also how to access both printed and electronic information sources. 10 Hull University Business School
  11. 11. The library has numerous guidance leaflets for students (these are available from the library and also through the university website). The library also runs specialist workshops in advanced information searching skills. The library website is available at http://www.hull.ac.uk/lib/. Members of library staff are always available to help students, especially those in their early days at the university, so do not be afraid to ask for help. Chapter 4 in this manual includes a general introduction to information skills Hull University Business School 11
  12. 12. Study Skills Handbook Chapter 2 Studying at the University Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to introduce you to studying at university and to help prepare you for the different approaches to learning and teaching used in the Business School. If you are an international student, then you may find the Study Skills Guide for international students useful. It is available from the International Office. Many students find that studying at university involves new ways of learning and relating to others. Some students come to the school having experienced traditional and perhaps very formal education systems where the tutor’s role is to transmit information to the student who is then expected to learn and then repeat this information in assignments, dissertations or examinations. This is not the way in which learning takes place at the University of Hull. At this university you are expected and encouraged to critically think about ideas and then discuss and debate them with your peers and tutors. Students who achieve 12 Hull University Business School
  13. 13. high marks are those who study relevant information sources, think critically about their findings, discuss and debate them, and then construct their own valid perspective. The first section in this chapter explains the different types of learning and teaching activities within the school, and what you can expect in them. During your programme of study you are expected to develop your skills as an independent learner and the second part of this chapter provides you with guidance on developing these skills. Approaches to learning and teaching In HUBS you will experience a number of different approaches to learning and teaching. Typically these will include • • • • • • lectures seminars group and team activities tutorials on-line activities independent research Lectures In lectures you are likely to be in a large group of students listening to a member of staff (tutor or lecturer) giving a talk on a specific topic. Lectures are often used to provide an overview of a subject and to identify key themes and issues. The lecturer will normally use audio visual aids or provide a handout to identify the key points. There may be opportunities to ask questions. During a lecture you will normally make notes. See Chapter 5 for more guidance on note-taking Seminars Seminars involve smaller groups of students coming together with a tutor. Seminars normally focus on a particular topic and issue, and these are often Hull University Business School 13
  14. 14. Study Skills Handbook outlined in your Module Handbook. You may be asked to prepare for the seminar by reading a particular article or book, working on a case study, or by making a short presentation to the group. Seminars are very important as they give you the opportunity to discuss and debate ideas with your tutor and peers. The UK university system encourages debate and discussion; you will find it invaluable in helping you to sort out ideas and the evidence that supports them. If you prepare for seminars by reading the relevant information sources then you will find it easier to become an active participant. Group and team activities Many modules include group and team activities in which you will work with a number of other students on a specific task. This is an important part of the learning process as it enables students to get to know each other, learn more about a particular topic, learn from each other and also develop their team working skills. The ability to work in teams is an important skill that everyone needs for working on projects and in organisations. Chapter 10 provides more information and advice about working in groups When you are working in small groups or teams, it is important to spend time getting to know each other and organising yourselves. Decide how you are going to communicate with each other. Decide how you are going to carry out the task. Make sure that everyone knows what is required to complete the task. If you have problems within your group or team that you cannot resolve, then talk with your tutor. Tutorials Tutorials are meetings between you, other students and your tutor. The focus of these meetings may be specific academic issues, for example, feedback on an assignment, or they may be about more general matters such as module choices, or a study tour. 14 Hull University Business School
  15. 15. On-line activities You may be expected to take part in on-line activities for some modules. The University provides access to a range of computer-based learning packages, for example in statistics, and these are available on the University computer system. You may also be involved in working and communicating with others in an online environment using bulletin boards and discussion groups. This will involve accessing an on-line learning environment such as eBridge (available at https://ebridge.hull.ac.uk/portal). You will be given specific instructions about gaining access to and using on-line learning environments from your tutor. Independent research University studies involve independent study which is when you research and evaluate information from a wide range of sources. This is covered in Chapters 4–6 of this manual Becoming an independent learner During your time in the Business School you will develop your skills as an independent learner. What is an independent learner? Independent learners are motivated to learn. They accept responsibility for their own learning and have the confidence to approach others for help if they need it. Independent learners manage their learning processes effectively. This includes • • • • • identifying what they want to learn, for example, reading the learning outcomes in the module handbook identifying how they are going to learn, for example, individual study, working with a friend, asking for help managing time, stress and other commitments using a wide range of learning opportunities and resources, for example, using appropriate printed and electronic sources adapting the learning process to make use of new opportunities Hull University Business School 15
  16. 16. Study Skills Handbook The material in this section is adapted from Allan, B., Cook, M. and Lewis, R. (1996) Developing Independence in Learning, Hull, University of Lincoln Independent learners are able to monitor and reflect critically on how and what they learn. Through this they develop an awareness that helps them to learn with increasing effectiveness. They also demonstrate a more questioning attitude to what they are learning. The last point is an important one. In the UK education system students are expected to discuss and debate ideas with their tutors; you are not expected to accept passively the ideas and concepts presented by your tutor. Learning is an active process and you are expected to engage in it during seminars, tutorials and private study sessions. The following questionnaire will help you to identify and think about your approach to study. Please complete this questionnaire and then reflect on your findings. How can you help yourself to develop as an independent learner? Developing yourself as an independent learner The aim of this questionnaire is to help you to think about your approach to learning. When answering these questions you might like to think about a particular learning situation, e.g. learning a particular subject, or you may answer them in relation to how you generally approach learning. Everyone is unique and there is no ‘right’ approach to learning. By learning how we learn and by exploring new and different approaches to learning it is possible to become even more effective learners. We hope that this questionnaire will help stimulate your learning. 16 Hull University Business School
  17. 17. Introduction not very very a) How independent do you 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 think you are as a learner? b) Ask a friend for an estimate of how independent you are as a learner. c) How would you define ‘independent learning’? Here is some space for you to write your thoughts. Section one: Motivation not very very 1 How interested are you in your studies? 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 2 How keen are you to succeed in your studies? 3 How keen are you to become a better learner? 4 4 Please write any comments on section one here. Hull University Business School 17
  18. 18. Study Skills Handbook Section two: Managing your learning never rarely sometimes always 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 4 Before a class/workshop/study session, are you clear about what you hope to learn? 5 Do you plan how and when you are going to learn something? 6 Do you ask for help if you are having difficulty learning something new? 7 If you come across new study methods do you try them? Please write any comments on section two here Section three: Reflection 8 Do you question what you are told e.g. by tutors, in books? 9 When you have finished learning about something do you think back about how effective your learning process was? 10 Do you change the way you go about learning new things as a result of thinking about past learning situations? Please write any comments on section three here 18 Hull University Business School
  19. 19. Interpreting the results 1. Now add up the numbers you circled in sections one, two and three. 2. Write the number you score in the TOTAL SCORES column. 3. Circle the numbers you scored in the adjacent row. 4. Add up your total scores and circle your FINAL SCORE in the last row. Low Moderate High TOTAL independence independence independence SCORES Section one: Motivation Q1– 3 345 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Section two: Managing your learning Q4–7 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Section three: Reflection Q8– 10 345 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 FINAL SCORE 10-19 20-30 31-40 This questionnaire gives an indication of how independent you are as a learner. If you rate yourself as having low or moderate independence, you could probably benefit from working at increasing your level of ‘learner independence’. You might like to discuss this with your peers or tutor. A good starting point for developing your independence in learning is to work through this study skills manual. Closing comments You will find that different learning and teaching activities such as lectures, seminars and tutorials take place within your programme of study. If you are not experienced in these approaches to learning then you will find that you will need to spend a little time with your peers and tutors adapting to new ways of thinking and behaving. During your time at HUBS you are expected to develop and become an independent learner. This involves actively engaging with new information and ideas, discussing and exploring them, and then developing a valid perspective or viewpoint. This manual provides a good starting point. Hull University Business School 19
  20. 20. Study Skills Handbook Chapter 3 Time Management Introduction Time management is all about being in control of your life. It involves organising your time – both study and personal – into manageable sections that will allow you to complete your programme of study. It is worthwhile investing a small amount of time into thinking about time and how you prioritise and organise your study schedule. As you progress through your programme you may need to re-visit your approach to time and change the balance to take into account your changing circumstances. All students have different pressures on their time and they need to take these into account when they are planning their work. Here are some typical examples of the different pressures students face: James is a first-year full-time undergraduate student. He has a part-time job (three evenings per week) and likes to play football at least twice a week. Anisha is a part-time distance taught student and she has a fulltime job plus family commitments – three children under the age of 7 years. 20 Hull University Business School
  21. 21. Claire is a part-time undergraduate student who is a single parent with a full-time job. Tim is a part-time MBA student who runs his own company. He is single and likes to spend as much time as possible skiing. Setava is a final-year full-time student who is also busy applying for employment after she has completed her studies in HUBS. She has a part-time job in a local store. Willie is a full-time MSc student who is settling into his studies in the UK. He has serious family problems and has recently had to return home for a week to help support his ageing and very poorly father. The annual workload for a full-time student is approximately 40 hours per week during the two 15week semesters When you think of your own situation you will need to be practical. One approach to planning your time is to start by keeping a time log for a week. This will enable you to identify exactly how you are spending your ‘spare’ time. It usually surprises students when they realise how much time they fritter away! You will then be able to identify how you can organise your time. Planning your studies You may find it helpful to complete the following type of chart and to identify • • • the times you will be attending taught sessions. times you will be able to study (from printed materials) best times for you to use a computer (at home, work or in university) Hull University Business School 21
  22. 22. Study Skills Handbook Morning Afternoon Evening Night Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Each credit of study corresponds to a notional 10 hours of student learning, and you should therefore expect to spend around 200 learning hours on a 20-credit module. This includes taught sessions, seminars, tutorials, independent learning activities, and revision and assessment. Full time students who also take part-time work may find there is a conflict between their university requirements and their paid employment. You will have to find a sensible balance between the different pressures on your life. If you find that you have problems with your time management, for example, as a result of part-time work or a change in your personal situation, you should raise this with your Personal Supervisor. Your Personal Supervisor may advise you to speak to a member of the Counselling Service if you require more specific support or support of a personal nature. 22 Hull University Business School
  23. 23. Study Advice Service can also help with time planning and meeting deadlines, and they have a leaflet on this topic. It is available at www.hull.ac.uk/studyadvice. Key factors in managing your time Good time management is about being able to identify what you need to do and then to set priorities. When you are thinking about time management you need to consider activities such as • • • • • • attendance at lectures and seminars independent study time for accessing resources and materials, for example, information searching, visiting the library paid employment or voluntary work sports and social activities personal and family time The following factors are all useful tips to becoming an effective time manager: Identifying goals • The first step is to identify short-term and long-term goals Getting organised • Buy and use a diary or wall planner – whichever you prefer • Keep a to-do list – daily, weekly, for the semester • Organise your study space • Make sure you have the right equipment and stationery • Set up and organise simple filing systems • Invest time in learning how to use a computer • Invest time in learning how to access and use information sources • Identify useful support and help services within the University Hull University Business School 23
  24. 24. Study Skills Handbook Sort out key documents and information • Make sure you have your module handbooks • Identify key dates, including examination dates or submission dates for assignments; make a note in your diary of all such dates, or put them all onto your wall planner Module leaders and tutors are not expected to answer questions about personal timetables and schedules. This information is provided by the appropriate HUBS administrative office. Produce a work schedule • Many people find it helpful to work backwards from key dates and to work out a schedule of study times Keep up-to-date • Check your University email address, eBridge, notice board etc. on a regular basis for any changes to teaching timetable, assessment submission dates etc It is up to you to keep upto-date – your lecturers and the support staff do not have time to track you down to give you specific information personally Key factors in completing specific tasks Once you have created your framework for good time management you can begin to look at the individual tasks. You will now have your list of tasks for the semester, you will have noted them in your diary and on your wall-planner, and so you can begin to tackle each individual task. The following is a list of factors to help you in your day-to-day management of time. 24 Hull University Business School
  25. 25. • • Identify each individual task. Manage the tasks – establish your priorities, identify when you will work on it and when it will be completed. Record this in your diary or wall planner. Always build in some flexibility to allow for the unexpected. • Break down the tasks into smaller parts and think about how you will complete them. Identify activities that involve working with other people and those which involve accessing information resources. Be aware that you need to build in additional time to allow for materials not being available or delays in meeting up with people. • Many students find it useful to prioritise their tasks. One way of doing this is to identify the • urgent tasks • important tasks • • • • Another approach is to identify • must do • need to do • nice to do Whenever you are carrying out a task be really clear about what you are trying to achieve. Keep a detailed record of what you do and resources that you have used. This is essential in the write-up stages of your work. Allow time for technical failures e.g. print out your work well in advance of the hand-in time so that you are not caught out by last minute technical problems. Review your work and schedule. There will be times during your studies where prioritising itself becomes a priority – do not be afraid of spending an hour of your precious time reviewing your time management plans. Reflect on your experiences and learn from your mistakes. Closing comments Time management is a skill that you only need to perfect once – once learnt it will stay with you and will be a skill that you will use throughout your working and personal life. It is worthwhile spending some time learning how to manage your time. Different techniques work for different people and we suggest that you explore and use a range of techniques until you find the one that suits your working style. Hull University Business School 25
  26. 26. Study Skills Handbook However, time management is not simply about organising your time in order to complete all the tasks required of you by the University. It is also about ensuring you have ample time for rest and relaxation, sports and other activities, for socialising with newly-made friends, or spending time with your family. 26 Hull University Business School
  27. 27. Chapter 4 Information Skills Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to guide you to useful tutorials and resources on finding and evaluating information. It provides information on starting points for finding out more about information sources available from the University library and the Internet. It also provides guidance on evaluating information sources. During your time as a student you will need to use a wide range of printed information sources including books, journals and reports, as well as electronic sources, including e-journals, databases and websites. You may also need to contact organisations or individuals for specific information. You may be quite experienced in using and navigating the Internet and while this may be useful for general searching you will find that your university studies require you to develop advanced information skills so that you can identify and use reliable and credible academic information sources. Our experience is that students often think that they are effective Internet searchers because they can use Google. However effective searching involves more skills than the ability to use Google or Google Scholar, so you are advised to spend some time developing the more sophisticated Internet searching skills that are required for academic study. The key skill that you should develop here is that of judgement – can you trust this source? Is it reliable? Is it credible in the context of academic study and research? Hull University Business School 27
  28. 28. Study Skills Handbook Sites such as Wikipedia can be very unreliable and of doubtful quality since they contain unreferenced articles which are not peer-reviewed. DO NOT USE WIKIPEDIA IN YOUR ACADEMIC STUDIES. The Internet is a source of two different kinds of information: firstly, it is used to distribute information that has previously been published in another source; and secondly, it is used to disseminate information that is only available on the Internet. It is very important that you take the trouble to find the proper reference for materials that have been obtained through the Internet. This is outlined in Chapter 8. In the second case i.e. material that is only available through the Internet you need to be concerned about the quality and validity of the information. This is considered in the section on Evaluating Information Sources. Finding your way around the library The library provides access to information resources in both physical and virtual formats. As a new student you will find it helpful to visit and explore the library. The staff provide many leaflets to guide you to relevant information sources. There is a physical Enquiry desk on the ground floor of the library and you will find the staff here responsive and helpful. The University Library site is available at www.hull.ac.uk/lib/. Guidance on information skills with relevant handouts is available at www.hull.ac.uk/lib/infoskills/. Information about Information skills courses is available at www.hull.ac.uk/lib/infoskills/courses.html. Introduction to the Internet TONIC – an introduction to the Internet www.netskills.ac.uk/onlinecourses/tonic. 28 Hull University Business School
  29. 29. Using subject information sources Internet Business Manager – a tutorial on Internet information skills for business management students www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/business-manager. Internet Economist – a tutorial on Internet information skills for economics students www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/interneteconomist. Internet for Leisure Sport and Recreation – a tutorial on Internet information skills: www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/sport Internet for Travel and Tourism – a tutorial on Internet information skills www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/travel Electronic information sources Access to the University’s electronic information resources is available at www.hull.ac.uk/lib/ Evaluating information sources Once you have identified relevant information sources it is important to evaluate them. This will help you to make sure that you provide accurate, reliable and upto-date information in your assignments. Checklist for evaluating information sources Is the information accurate? What evidence is it based on? How up-to-date is the information? Does the information source repeat information available in other reputable sources? What topics are covered? Are there any omissions? Is coverage of the material superficial or thorough? Are the explanations and arguments logical and coherent? Have any steps or discussion points been omitted? Hull University Business School 29
  30. 30. Study Skills Handbook Are there any other interpretations of this data? What assumptions are made in this work? Does the author identify the weaknesses in their work? Who is the author? What is the author’s background? Is the author a credible source? Who has sponsored the information resource? Is this likely to result in bias in the information? Closing comments Learning how to identify and access relevant information sources will help you to be successful in your university studies. It is also an important life skill and you will find that you will use your information skills during your working life too. If you are having problems finding information then contact the university library either in person or through the online reference desk at http://www.acstest.hull.ac. uk/lib/libhelp. Alternatively ask your tutor, supervisor or programme leader for help. 30 Hull University Business School
  31. 31. Chapter 5 Making Notes Introduction Making notes is a skill that will help you to manage the information content of your programme of study. Making notes is something that you will do in many different situations: lectures; seminars; tutorials; reading a book or journal; surfing the Internet; watching television or a video. It is a very important practical skill and your notes will help you to • identify and understand key ideas • learn key ideas and information • keep a record of information for future use • prepare for examinations The purpose of this chapter is to provide help and guidance on making notes. The following table shows the difference between making notes and taking notes. Hull University Business School 31
  32. 32. Study Skills Handbook Making notes Taking notes This involves making your own record of key information and ideas. You will use your own words. You may add your own ideas or questions, or make links to the work of others. Used during lectures or reading. This involves copying information ‘word for word’ from another source e.g. tutor, book, handbook. Used when copying specific information, for example, advice on an assignment, details about room changes. Making good notes During your university career you will make notes from a variety of sources, including lectures, books, and the Internet. Making good notes is about identifying and selecting relevant information. Think about why you are making notes. • • • • Do you want an overview of the subject? Do you want to record extremely detailed information? Will you be sharing your notes with a friend? Are you looking for a specific piece of information? This is important as it will affect how you make notes. There are different ways of making notes. You can • • • • 32 list main headings and topics – keyword notes draw a Mind Map or spider diagram use software such as Inspiration copy out specific details, for example, a quotation from a book, or factual information Hull University Business School
  33. 33. BEWARE Direct copying (verbatim) or close paraphrasing (putting into your own words but still closely following the structure and argument contained in the text) may lead to plagiarism in assessed work. Always keep notes of your sources, for example, book details, so that you can reference them. This is covered in Chapter 8. It is usually impracticable to try and copy all the information presented to you during a lecture. Instead, listen to what the lecturer is saying, read any visual aids, and make notes from your understanding. This will be a summary, the key points, or details about the original source. Spend some time after the lecture, or after you have finished reading an article, reviewing your notes. Ask yourself some questions. • • • Is there anything you can add? Is there something that you might benefit from discussing with a fellow student? Should you do some additional reading on the topic? To engage fully in the process of making good notes it is a good idea to ask questions within your notes and to consider the accuracy and relevance of what you are reading. Useful questions to start off this process include • • so what? how can this be verified? Hull University Business School 33
  34. 34. Study Skills Handbook • • • how can this be backed-up? do other researchers agree with this position? what assumptions does the author make? Finally, you may find that in the early days of your study programme you make copious notes, but as you become more experienced you might make fewer, but more specific, ones. Different people make notes in different ways. Do not be distracted during a lecture by people making different types of notes to you – everyone develops their own style. What is important is that you find and use a method that works for you. Advice on how to make notes • Start with background details, for example, lecture notes should include the module title, the date, the title of the lecture, and the lecturer. • Make sure you can read your notes. • Only use one side of the paper. This makes it easier to organise your notes for planning or revision. • Leave spaces for additional notes or comments. • Use arrows, symbols, diagrams. This will speed up the note-making process. • To help avoid unintentional plagiarism make notes in your own words. DO NOT COPY WORD-BY-WORD when making notes from books, journals, Internet. • Try reading a relatively long section, CLOSE THE BOOK OR SWITCH OFF THE COMPUTER SCREEN, and then make the notes in your own words without looking at the original source. This checks your understanding and avoids intentional plagiarism. • Use highlighter pens or a colour-coding scheme to distinguish different sections of notes. • Notes should be concise, clear and consistent. 34 Hull University Business School
  35. 35. • • Review your notes. File your notes – be organised. It is no good discovering two months later that you have lost them. Working with others Some students find it helpful to work with others and to exchange notes and discuss their subject. This is a good idea as it improves learning and enables you to exchange and share ideas. A word of warning. Beware of collaborative working on assignments as this may lead to accusations of plagiarism. DO NOT work together as a group and produce a ‘model’ answer that you individually present in an assignment or exam. This type of collusion may lead to accusations of plagiarism or unfair means. The safest idea is to work collaboratively while you are learning a subject and to produce your assignments independently. See page 65 for further information about avoiding collusion in assessment. Referencing your notes and plagiarism It is very important to keep full details of the information sources you use when making notes. You will need to include this information in your list of references. If you do not include this information in your assessed work then you may find that you fall foul of the Code of Practice on the Use of Unfair Means. You should also keep your notes after you submit your work. They may be helpful in your defence if an accusation of plagiarism is made against you. In addition, you may find them helpful for revision as well as other learning and teaching activities. More about this is in Chapter 8 Hull University Business School 35
  36. 36. Study Skills Handbook Closing comments Making notes is a skill that you will develop as you progress through your studies. Like time management, making notes is a personal matter and you may develop a method totally different to that of your friends. Providing your method works for you, do not worry if it differs from that of other people. 36 Hull University Business School
  37. 37. Chapter 6 Academic Reading Skills Introduction Academic reading skills are different from leisure reading skills. Academic reading involves identifying new ideas, understanding different perspectives and developing your understanding about a particular topic. Many students groan when they receive a reading list and wonder how they will ever read all the books on it. You don’t normally need to read every book or indeed whole books. What you need to do is to identify and follow up key ideas. There are different approaches to reading that will help you to read effectively and stay focused on your studies. It is worthwhile spending some time on developing your academic reading skills as this will help you to focus your reading and will save you time. Hull University Business School 37
  38. 38. Study Skills Handbook Improving your reading skills This involves the following processes Purpose Think about why you are reading. Ask yourself why you are reading. Is it to • explore and understand the subject in greater depth? • obtain specific information? • complete an assignment? Identify relevant information sources Identify key information sources. The reading list in your module handbook provides a good starting point. Your lecturers may provide you with additional reading materials during a lecture or through eBridge. Carry out an information search (see Chapter 4). Reading techniques There are a number of different approaches to reading. Scanning involves looking at the item to decide whether or not it is relevant. Check the introduction, conclusions, contents pages, look at pictures and diagrams, and the index. This means you can quickly assess the content and decide whether or not it is relevant for your purpose. Skimming enables you to identify specific information that may be useful to you. Skimming involves using the index to check the contents of the information sources and then surfing through specific sections or chapters. Deep reading involves reading whole sections, chapters or a complete book and is an active process. You may be making notes or a mind map. As you are reading you may be thinking about how your findings relate to a question raised in a tutorial session or in an assignment. If you are reading your own materials you may mark relevant passages with a highlighter pen or post-it notes. But you should never make any marks on library materials. 38 Hull University Business School
  39. 39. Critical reading involves evaluating the information source and criticising it. You may want to compare it with the work of other authors, assess the methodology, or criticise it in the light of your own experiences. Critical reading is time consuming and it is worth spending time developing this approach to reading – students who are critical readers often do well in assignments! Strategies for effective reading Here are strategies that will help you develop your academic reading skills. • • • • • • • Be active. Think about why you are reading and what you want to gain from the information source. Choose the right time. You might find that you are more alert during the morning and that, by evening, your attention span is short. Read at times when you are most alert. If you are not in the mood for actively reading something – do not do it. Place the book to one side and tackle another task until you feel ready to read the material more effectively. Work in the right environment. You should be somewhere quiet where you feel comfortable. Choose a place where you will not be interrupted. Make sure that you are able to make good notes during the reading process. Reduce distractions. Turn off the television and your mobile phone. Be selective. Do not think that you should read everything in depth. Time will not allow you scope to approach in this way every book, journal, newspaper, or lecture hand-out that you will see during your period of study. Don’t be afraid to experiment. Pick a journal article and read it, adopting each of the techniques to demonstrate to yourself what can be achieved from each strategy and if, in fact, there was much more to be gained from a more detailed reading than a skimmed reading. Use a wide range of sources. Relevant sources may include: friends or members of staff, watching a relevant television programme, keeping up to date with current affairs information, printed books and journals, resources on the Internet, market research reports, company annual reports, etc. Hull University Business School 39
  40. 40. Study Skills Handbook See also Chapter 4 Closing comments You will find that your reading skills develop with practise. New undergraduate students will have time to practise their new skills before any formal assessment takes place. It is expected that postgraduate students will already have achieved a certain level of skill from their previous studies; although you may find that these skills need refreshing. 40 Hull University Business School
  41. 41. Chapter 7 Writing Skills Introduction The ability to write clear and logical assignments or reports is an essential academic skill and it is also an essential professional skill. Individuals who can present well-written reports containing ideas that are clearly backed up by evidence are able to influence the thinking of their colleagues. Written assignments are a very common method of assessment as they provide your tutors with an opportunity to assess your knowledge and understanding of a subject area. Writing is a form of active learning; if you can explain something to another person in writing then it clearly demonstrates that you understand it. In fact struggling to find the right words often helps to make the ideas clearer in your mind – writing is, in itself, a way of learning. Written assignments will cover all or some of the learning outcomes of a module. The specific requirements for each module are explained in the module handbook. Writing assignments The following general guidelines may be used for carrying out any piece of assessed work and they are particularly relevant for writing reports or essays. If you are writing a dissertation then you will be provided with additional guidance. Hull University Business School 41
  42. 42. Study Skills Handbook Analyse the task Before you start any piece of written work you should ask yourself the following questions. • • • • • What is its purpose? Who is it for? What are my aims? Which form of writing will best accomplish these aims? What structure will best suit the purpose and aims of this piece of writing? The main factors that will determine what mark you receive for a piece of written work will be: • • • • Did you actually answer the question? To what extent did you critically respond to the question and not just regurgitate other people’s knowledge? Did you keep to the point and use relevant information and evidence to support your arguments? How is your work distinguished – does it stand out from the mundane, is it original, does it stretch the boundaries of knowledge? Assignments that receive a poor mark often demonstrate the following characteristics • • • • • • • • badly researched lack an introduction and conclusion lack focus do not answer the question set by the tutor do not provide supporting evidence poor grammar and spelling lack references or contain incorrect references do not satisfy the required word limit Terminology of assessment questions It is worthwhile spending time analysing the assessment question(s) in an assignment, an examination, or a presentation. Do not glance at a question then 42 Hull University Business School
  43. 43. rush off trying to locate vast amounts of information without having a clear understanding of what is being asked of you. Spend time identifying the key words of a question. Look at the verbs as these will indicate both what the content of your answer should be and the process or method you should adopt to provide that information. Underline them. Spend time thinking about exactly what is being asked of you. If you are unclear about anything, you should consult your tutor before starting work on an assignment. The following verbs are frequently used by tutors in assessment questions: Words used by tutors in assignments, examinations and presentations Account for Analyse give reasons for, explain the causes of break up into parts, examine in detail the elements or structure of, investigate, a combination of criticise and evaluate Assess how successful/unsuccessful, important/unimportant, consider the points for and against Comment on give your own point of view with supporting evidence Compare what are the similarities/differences, which is best/worst, provide a conclusion as to which is preferable Consider weigh up the advantages/disadvantages, pros and cons, think carefully about, discuss Contrast consider both similarities and differences but emphasise the differences between Criticise make a judgement using evidence to support it, consider all the positive and negative aspects of the topic Define give the meaning/s of Demonstrate show how, use examples Describe give a detailed or graphic account of, write in detail about the characteristics of Differentiate/distinguish explain the differences between Discuss give reasons for and against, examine by argument, examine the implications look at the wider ramifications of Hull University Business School 43
  44. 44. Study Skills Handbook Evaluate Examine Explain Explore Illustrate Interpret Justify Outline Relate Review State Summarise Trace give your judgment about the merit or importance of something, back up your judgment by discussing evidence, make an appraisal of the worth of something consider in close detail, in depth examine and give reasons for; interpret and account for; examine thoroughly, consider from various viewpoints give examples that make the point clear decipher the meaning of, make clear and explicit give reasons to support an argument or action indicate the most important aspects, ignoring the minor detail narrate or tell, show the connections between things make a survey of, examine the subject carefully write briefly and clearly the main points of give a concise account of the main points omitting detail and examples show how something has developed from start to finish, provide an overview of the development of something Plan your assignment Work out a general structure or framework for your work. Some students prefer to write out a list of headings and sub headings while others prefer to produce a diagram, for example, mind map or spider diagram. This is a draft overview and you may find that you need to make changes as you work on the assignment. Guidance on information skills is covered in more detail in Chapter 4 Identify and use a range of information sources You will need to identify and use a range of academic information sources. Remember to allow time for this – you may need to recall items from the library or obtain them from a range of different sources. 44 Hull University Business School
  45. 45. Identify key ideas and supporting evidence As you work through your information sources you will need to identify key ideas and also supporting evidence. Make notes and keep a record of all relevant information sources, for writing your references. Write your first draft This involves working with your general structure or framework and starting to write notes under each topic. It is often best to leave writing the introduction and conclusion until the end. There are two approaches to academic writing. The first, or traditional, approach is to use a serious and formal impersonal tone. It involves presenting different ideas and the evidence to support them. This means not writing in the first person (not using ‘my’, ‘I’, ‘we’) and presenting an objective and depersonalised approach. You should always use language that is clear, concise, and unambiguous. One method of identifying an appropriate style is to look at textbooks recommended by your tutors. The second approach is to use a more personal style. This involves writing in the first person, using ‘I’. This approach is often used in learning journals or workplace projects. It is increasingly used in academic writing in the discipline of management. If you are in doubt whether to use an impersonal or a personal style then ask your tutor. See the Study Advice Service leaflet ‘How to write academic English’, available online at www.hull.ac.uk/studyadvice Hull University Business School 45
  46. 46. Study Skills Handbook Reviewing your work The first completed draft of an assignment will never be good enough to submit. It is important to review your work and to check the content making sure that • • • • • • you have met the assessment requirements your introduction clearly introduces your work and also the topic the ideas are presented in a logical order the ideas are supported by evidence your conclusions follow on from the ideas and evidence that you have presented your work is based on a good range of relevant and up-to-date references If time permits it is a good idea to leave a piece of work for a day or two and then come back to it. This will help you to see new ways to improve the work. If you are unclear about the correct use of English, you can look at the appendix of this handbook. Alternatively, ask for help at the Study Advice Service. You may find that you need to re-write parts of your work. You may see that you have skimmed over an important topic and that you need to do some more research so that you provide a well balanced account. Time spent reviewing your work is likely to earn you additional marks as it will improve the quality of the final assignment. Editing your work Editing involves checking the presentation of your assignment. Remember to double check any assignment requirements provided for you by your tutor. If you are writing a dissertation then it is important that you double check the presentation requirements given in your handbook. Whatever your assignment you will need to make sure that • • • • 46 it includes a title, date and your Student ID number you have met the word count requirements (you are normally allowed the word count identified in the module handbook plus 10% or minus 10% – any greater variation may result in a loss of marks) if you use headings and sub-headings then these are meaningful and consistent there are no missing or duplicate words Hull University Business School
  47. 47. • • • • the grammar is correct spelling is correct the references are correct the whole assignment is clearly written It is best to edit your work at least twice as this will help you to identify different areas for improvement. Study Advice Service The Study Advice Service offers assistance in helping students to develop their writing skills, and for nonEnglish speaking students, the Language Institute will provide more specific guidance. All students should check their work for spelling and grammar before submission. It is not wise to place your trust blindly in spell or grammar checkers provided with your word processor. A student’s work will not, however, be penalised if their style or their use of the English language is not 100% perfect. Hull University Business School 47
  48. 48. Study Skills Handbook Presenting your work Read the instructions that are provided in your module handbook or that are available from the undergraduate or postgraduate offices. Here are some general guidelines • • • • • • • • • • Your work should be word processed. Use fonts ‘Times New Roman’ or ‘Arial’. Use font size of 11 or 12. Use 1.5 line-spacing. Leave an adequate margin on all four sides of the piece of paper. Do not indent paragraphs but leave an extra space between them. Long quotations should be in single line spacing and indented at both sides. References should be in single line spacing and with a space between each separate reference and formatted with a hanging indent in order to distinguish between items. Assignments should be stapled in the top left hand corner. Ensure your assignment has a cover sheet that states your Student ID number, programme of study, module title and tutor, assignment title, submission date. Do NOT include your name on the assignment but make sure that your Student ID is clearly visible. Make sure your name is not in a running footer either. Submission You will be given instructions on when and where to submit your assignment. Students are required to submit their assignments in two forms • • a bar-coded paper submission (one copy with a cover sheet), and an electronic submission to Turnitin It is important that you follow the submission guidelines. If you fail to submit your work correctly, e.g. you do not use Turnitin correctly, then you may be penalized. Allow plenty of time, at least three hours, to use Turnitin and submit your work correctly. There are very few excuses that will be accepted for late or non-submission of assignments (see your Programme Handbook or ‘Guidelines for Mitigating Circumstances and Absence from Examinations and Coursework Extensions with Good Cause’ available in the University Student Handbook). Make sure 48 Hull University Business School
  49. 49. that you leave yourself plenty of time to meet the deadline. Remember that there may be many other students also queuing up to submit their assignment! Normally computer failure is NOT accepted as a reason for late submission. Make sure that you keep back-up copies of your work and print your work early. In your time management allow for technology breakdowns! Feedback on assignments You should read carefully the feedback you receive on your assignment. Your tutor will provide guidance on the strong points of your work and also areas where it could be improved. You can use the suggestions for improvement as a means of gaining a better mark in your next assignment. However, please be aware that work achieving a poor mark cannot be resubmitted for a better grade later in the year. You should also check for any generic feedback through eBridge. Essays A good, well-ordered, easy to read, logical essay should comprise the following components: Introduction The introduction should state your interpretation of the title and demonstrate that you understand it by outlining the way in which you intend to answer it. It should prepare the reader for what will follow. Hull University Business School 49
  50. 50. Study Skills Handbook BEWARE Direct copying (verbatim) or close paraphrasing (put into your own words but still closely following the structure and argument contained in the text) may lead to plagiarism in assessed work. Always keep notes of your sources, for example, book details, so that you can reference them. This is covered in Chapter 8. The introduction should also provide a brief outline of the information and arguments that you are going to consider and why you have chosen that approach. However, be wary of being repetitive or simply providing a list of what your assignment contains and do make sure that the essay actually does contain what you say it will. Many pieces of work lose the marker’s interest within the first few sentences, so spend time making sure that your introduction is distinguished and captivating. It is often easier to write the introduction last. Main body of essay The main body forms the substance of a piece of work. It will present your arguments with supporting evidence that you have prepared in response to the question that was set. Ensure that each paragraph makes a specific and necessary point, usually with the first line of each paragraph presenting the point that you intend to discuss within that paragraph. Your essay must flow from one paragraph to another and use linking comments to provide continuity between the paragraphs. Maintain a clear focus and be careful not to digress from the particular topic under discussion. It is important to ensure that you provide evidence to justify your claims. It is a good idea to 50 Hull University Business School
  51. 51. include a few short quotations to support your findings and these also demonstrate your use of different information sources. Providing relevant examples that illustrate the points you make can bring your writing to life and show that you understand your material. Conclusion The conclusion should provide a summary of the key ideas or issues, and your concluding thoughts that either answer or respond to the main question. Your conclusion should not include new ideas or evidence. Similar to the introduction, it helps if the conclusion is not repetitive but gives a reflective overview of the issues discussed and ends with a snappy sentence or two that maintains the marker’s interest to the very end. Bibliography At the end of your assignment you need to include a bibliography or list of references. It is important to use the title Bibliography for this section of your work as this will mean this section is ignored by Turnitin. Remember to include all the items that you referred to in the assignment in your bibliography. Chapter 8 provides examples of the format the bibliography should take The bibliography is a vital and essential part of any piece of written work. It serves to provide the reader with a comprehensive list of the sources and material that you have referred to or quoted from in your essay. It further provides sufficient information to enable the reader to locate them if they want to clarify a point or seek further information. Tutors will use it to check on your information sources and they may also alert you to an important reference that has been omitted from your work. If you do not use a particular source then do not include it in your bibliography. Your tutor will be able to identify from the content of your assignment whether or not you have referred to that source. Trying to convince the reader you have undertaken more research than you have actually done is deceitful. Hull University Business School 51
  52. 52. Study Skills Handbook Writing reports Report writing is a key skill that you need to develop; you are likely to be asked to write reports when you work in businesses or other organisations. A report is a formal and structured document normally used to present factual findings following some specific research. It differs from an essay in that it has a formal structure with headings and subheadings. Essays also usually include your opinions while essays do not. Reports tend to have a standard format. However different companies or academic departments might use different formats so you should ensure you are aware of the necessary format before embarking on the compilation of a report. Below we have provided you with two standard formats. Short report format This format is useful for relatively short pieces of work e.g. up to 3000 words long. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Title Summary Contents page (if appropriate) Introduction (introduces topic, context, scope, audience) Methodology (if appropriate) Theme 1 (presents the first theme or topic using an appropriate heading) Theme 2 (presents the second theme or topic using an appropriate heading) Theme 3 (presents the third theme or topic using an appropriate heading) Discussion (interpretation or analysis of your findings) Recommendations (if appropriate) Conclusions Bibliography Appendix (if appropriate) Long report format This format is used for reports in many businesses and other organisations. • • • 52 Title Abstract / summary Contents Hull University Business School
  53. 53. • • • • • • • • • Executive summary (a brief summary of the report e.g. a single page of A4, written for busy executives) Terms of Reference / Introduction (statement of what you were asked to investigate, by whom, your aims and objectives, what date the report is required by) Procedure / introduction (what you did to gather facts, sources of information used, methodology of research) Findings / results (report your findings but do not discuss them, use graphic illustrations if necessary) Discussions (interpretation or analysis of your findings) Conclusions / Recommendations (the main points for consideration drawn from your findings, do your findings prove or disprove your hypothesis?) Date / Signature Appendix Bibliography Closing comments Tutors will tell you that they find it enjoyable reading an interesting and challenging piece of work. If you can satisfy a marker’s expectations of what they wanted the student to fulfil in an assignment then you will gain a good mark. Remember that many of the Business School modules have large numbers of students taking them, and if you make an effort to produce something that stands out from the rest, you will receive a mark that will reflect this. Don’t forget to look at Appendix A for guidance on English grammar. It is worth mentioning again that the Study Advice Service offers assistance in helping students to develop their writing skills, and for non-English speaking students, the Language Institute will provide more specific guidance. All students are advised to check the spelling and grammar of their work before submission. It is not wise to place your trust blindly in spell or grammar checkers provided with your word processor. The Study Advice Service does NOT edit or proof read whole assignments. However, they will look at a section of your work, e.g. one page, and also answer specific questions. Hull University Business School 53
  54. 54. Study Skills Handbook Chapter 8 Referencing, Bibliography and Plagiarism Introduction This is one of the crucial areas that any student – experienced or novice – must fully understand. All Business School students should make time to read this chapter, noting its contents, and implement its advice and guidance in all pieces of assessment that they undertake whilst at the University of Hull. Referencing means acknowledging the sources you have used and proves that you are not attempting to pass the work of others off as your own. It is important to reference your work as this will • • • give your work academic credibility demonstrate how your work links into your subject area prevent accusations of stealing other people’s ideas or words (plagiarism) Credit must be given when quoting, citing, or paraphrasing (that is, summarising someone else’s idea and reproducing it in a shortened form, in your own words) the work of other people. There are no exceptions to this rule. Failure to acknowledge the sources you have used in writing your assignment is likely to result in an allegation of plagiarism being made against you. 54 Hull University Business School
  55. 55. If you are unsure whether the information that you have provided should be referenced or not, then it is better to provide one to be on the safe side. The consequences of providing too many references are far less severe than those of not providing them at all or providing a list full of omissions. You do not need to reference common knowledge e.g. Tony Blair was the prime minister of the UK in 2004. Overview: how to reference Your essay or report should contain a reference to other people’s work. This indicates to the reader that you are using other people’s ideas. Here are some standard ways of referencing in your text: You need to reference other people’s work: Example Explanation If you quote another author ‘word for word’ David McConnell suggests that “students in cooperative environments perform at a higher level than those working in competitive or individualistic environments.” (2002, 19). Date only, because the author’s name is already clearly given; and page number because it is a direct quotation. If you are using someone’s ideas, theories or models - using your words rather than their words. David McConnell (2002) provides an overview of collaborative and cooperative learning and he identifies the following benefits: This sentence is ‘paraphrased,’ that means the student has used their own words, and they mention the source of these ideas by including the author’s surname and date. Hull University Business School 55
  56. 56. Study Skills Handbook If you refer to a specific fact or piece of information Between 1979 and 1999, the number of women in employment has risen by 6% (DfEE 2000). The student provides the source of this fact and the date of publication. This means that the readers can check the fact for themselves. If you use someone’s ideas that are described in another book McConnell (2002) describes the work of Johnson and Johnson (1999) who.... The student hasn’t read the work of Johnson and Johnson (1999) and doesn’t want to mislead the reader, so it is made clear where the ideas of Johnson and Johnson have come from i.e. the work of McConnell. The details of all the work you refer to in your assignment are then given in a list at the end of your written work. The title for this section is Bibliography. If you use this heading then the plagiarism detecting software, Turnitin, will ignore the section. Example bibliography DfEE (2000), Labour Market and Skill Trends, London, HMSO. McConnell, D. (2002), Implementing Computer Supported Cooperative Learning, London, Kogan Page. Referencing There are several different ways of referencing. The Business School’s preferred style is the Harvard System, often called the ‘author date’ system and used in the examples above. In this system the text reference is kept as brief as possible and contains the author’s surname plus date. If there is more than one author then it is presented as author1, and author2, date, e.g. (Smith and Jones, 2007). If you are using a verbatim quotation (the words of the author) then you will need to 56 Hull University Business School
  57. 57. include the page number in the format; author, date, page number, e.g. (Johnson, 2007, 32). This information directs readers to your bibliography at the end of your work. This will be arranged in alphabetical order so that they can find the full reference for the work. They will then be able to obtain a copy of that work and read it for themselves. You are therefore strongly recommended to familiarise yourself with the Harvard System and to use it consistently in any piece of work that you produce for an assessment. You are urged not to use footnotes in any of your written pieces of work When you are working on your assignments and reading your course materials you are advised to keep a record of all the items and the basic information needed which will allow your reader to find the original to which you refer. This is outlined here: For books The name of the author (surname + initials); date i.e. year of publication; the title of the text; the edition (unless it is the first edition); and any further details necessary to track down the source – publisher’s details (name and place), e.g. Cottrell, Stella. (2003) Skills for success: the personal development planning handbook, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. For journals The name of the author (surname + initials); date i.e. year of publication; the title of the paper; the title of the journal and volume, issue and spread of pages over which the article is found. Many journals and reports are now available from gateway services such as JSTOR and Business Source Premier. In this situation the web address alone is an insufficient reference, because it shows only the access mechanism used to get the material and does not properly identify the source of the ideas or the Hull University Business School 57
  58. 58. Study Skills Handbook arguments e.g. Orshansky, M. (1965) Counting the poor: another look at the poverty profile, Social Security Bulletin, 28 (January), pp.3-29. For electronic journals The name of the author (surname + initials); date i.e. year of publication; the title of the paper; the title of the journal and volume, issue and spread of pages over which the article is found; web address plus date accessed e.g. Harnack, A and Kleppinger, E. (1997) Creating models for electronic citations, Ariadne [online], 7. Available: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue7/kairas/ [Accessed 15 August 2008] For websites The name of the author (surname and initials) or organisation; date i.e. year of publication; the title of the page or paper; web address plus date accessed e.g. Shields, G and Walton, G. (2001), ‘Cite them right’ How to organise bibliographical references [online], Newcastle, University of Newcastle, Available: http://www.unn.ac.uk/central/isd/cite/ [Accessed 25 February 2005] For chapters in an edited book (a book edited by an editor, which consists of chapters written by several different authors) The name of the author(s) of the chapter (surname + initials); date i.e. year of publication of the book; the complete title of the chapter, including any subtitle(s); the word “In” followed by a colon; the name of the editor(s) of the book in which the chapter appears (surname + initials) – followed by the word ed(s); the complete title of the book, including any subtitle(s); the place of publication; the name of the publisher; the inclusive page numbers of the chapter within the book. Law, D. (1986) Doctors and books. In: Baker, D., ed. Student reading needs. London: Library Association. pp.88-98. 58 Hull University Business School
  59. 59. Common questions What if the source has no named author? Use the corporate author, if there is one – for example, BBC Newsnight, or the name of the newspaper or magazine where the article you are quoting from or citing is not signed. If the information comes from a government department and you cannot identify the individual author then give the name of the government department. If there is no corporate author given, consider whether this source is credible enough to be used in an academic assignment. Anonymous information is not always reliable. If you do decide to use it, identify this source with the author name of ‘Anon’ and provide the full reference in the list of references under the name Anon. How do I reference my own work? Students rarely need to reference their own work e.g. another assignment. If you do need to reference another assignment then use the general guidelines for books (top of p.56). BEWARE: If you use the same information and text in more than one assignment then you may be guilty of a special form of plagiarism – ‘autoplagiarism’ or ‘self-plagiarism’. Self-plagiarism is treated as seriously as other forms of plagiarism. It is quickly identified by Turnitin. Make sure you do not auto-plagiarise. What if the book or article has two authors? If there are two authors to one text then give both surnames, e.g. (Smith and Jones, 1999). If there are more than two authors to one text then give the first surname followed by ‘et al.’ e.g. (Brown et al, 1995). What if I want to keep referring to the same text? You will often be able to do so without repeating the same reference several times. Where you do need to repeat the reference, do repeat it. This is preferable to using the Latin ibid that used to be common practice. What if I want to refer to two books by the same author? If an author has written two books in the same year and you want to refer to each of them, then indicate the different texts using alphabet numbers. e.g. Smith (1997a) and Smith (1997b). Hull University Business School 59
  60. 60. Study Skills Handbook How do I reference an email? The appropriate format is: Allan, B., (barbara.allan@hull.ac.uk) 20 May 2005. Writing Essays. 20 May. Email to: Sheena Another (s.another@hull.ac.uk). How do I reference lecture notes? You are advised NOT to quote lecture notes in your assignments. Lectures provide a general guide to a subject or topic. You are expected to find and refer to the original sources, e.g. journal article or textbook, the lecturer has used in preparing the lecture. How do I present a short quotation? Place double quotation marks (“ ”) around all words that are being quoted. You should also include any particular punctuation, spelling or italics of the original. You must give as reference for your quotation the author’s surname, year of publication and the page number(s). Place these details in the text in rounded brackets, e.g. (Smith, 1987, 15). Note that the page number is not preceded by ‘p’ or ‘pp’ or ‘pg’. “Students in cooperative environments perform at a higher level than those working in competitive or individualistic environments.” (McConnell, 2002, 19) You should not give the page numbers of a quotation in your list of references. How do I shorten a quotation? If you do not want to include a full sentence from the source you are quoting, you can shorten a direct quotation by the use of omission marks (…) However, the quotation must still make sense in its shortened form so it might be necessary to add an extra word or two into a quotation to ensure it reads correctly. These extra words should be contained within square [ ] brackets. How do I know if a source is appropriate to use as an academic reference? This can be particularly a problem with online sources and weblogs. Consider whether the person you are quoting is credible. 60 Hull University Business School
  61. 61. What do I do if I want to quote something that contains something that is inaccurate, grammatically incorrect or misspelled? Use the indication [sic] within a quotation if it contains a claim or phrase that you feel is incorrect, outdated, or unacceptable, or a word or phrase that is grammatically incorrect. It should be inserted directly after the phrase to which it refers e.g. Jane Smith said “I got mad [sic] with the worker.” How do I set out quotations? Short quotations (a few words only, less than one line of print) can be incorporated within the body of your argument. Make sure the sense flows properly between the quotation and surrounding text. Use quotation marks. Place the reference details at the end of the sentence in which the quotation occurs. For example: Within the Gillette company, out of every forty-five carefully developed new-product ideas, three make it into the development stage but “only one eventually reaches the marketplace” (Armstrong and Kotler, 1999, 263). Always use quotation marks at the start and end of ALL quotations Longer quotations should be separated from the body of your essay by a space before and after the quotation. The quotation, with quotation marks, should be indented on either side, and the reference should appear in brackets on the line immediately below. Use single spacing for the quotation. “Dupont has found that it can take as many as three thousand raw ideas to produce just two winning commercial products, and pharmaceuticals companies may require six thousand to eight thousand starting ideas for every successful commercial new product” (Armstrong and Kotler, 1999, 263). Continue your essay using normal spacing. The full reference for the above quotations would appear in your list of references as: Hull University Business School 61
  62. 62. Study Skills Handbook Armstrong, Gary and Kotler, Philip, (1999), Marketing: An Introduction, 5th edn, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. How do I reference information from the Internet? The Internet is a source of two different kinds of information: firstly, it is used to distribute information that has previously been published in another source; and secondly, it is used to disseminate information that is only available on the Internet. It is very important that you take the trouble to find the proper reference for materials that have been obtained through the Internet. The first case, i.e. material that has been published elsewhere, is shown in the following two examples: Nentwich, Michael, (1996), ‘Opportunity structures for citizens’ participation: the case of the European union’, in European Integration online Papers (EioP), Vol. 0 (1996) no.1, <http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/1996-001a htm>, accessed 5/11/99. Smith, F. (1994), ‘Is there life on Mars?’, The Telegraph, 14th March, <http: //www.telegraph.co.uk>, accessed 8/6/95. In the second case i.e. material that is only available from the Internet then you will reference the material in the following manner: BBC (2005), ‘Healthy eating in schools’, http://www.bbc.co.uk, accessed on 3/9/05. Bibliography A bibliography should appear at the end of your work and it should contain details of all the information sources that you actually refer to or cite in your text. Therefore, you must ensure that every piece of written work that you submit for marking has a list of references that contains details of each and every source that you have mentioned in your work. The references should be listed alphabetically by author’s surname. Use single line spacing, using hanging indents to distinguish each separate reference or with an extra space left between each reference. This is illustrated below. 62 Hull University Business School
  63. 63. You do not need to put a page reference for any particular detail or quotation in your list of references. However, when you give details for an article in a periodical, you should give the page numbers of the first and last pages. Examples of the correct format for entries in a bibliography are given below. In the sample below you will be able to see how to correctly reference books, articles in periodicals (i.e. any form of publication that comes out regularly, such as an academic journal, a professional magazine or a newspaper) and websites. Example bibliography Galliers, R. D. & Baker, B.S.H., (1995), ‘Strategic information management’, in Jackson, T. (ed.), Cross-Cultural Management, Oxford, ButterworthHeinemann. Handy, Charles, (1991), The Age of Unreason, 2nd edn, London, Arrow Books. Keble, J., (1989), ‘Management development through action learning’, Journal of Management Development, 8, no.2: 77-80. Nixon, B. & Pitts, G., (1991), ‘W.H.Smith adopts a new approach to developing senior managers’, Industrial and Commercial Training, 23, no.6: 3-10. Nutt, P., (1984), ‘Types of organisational decision processes’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 29: 414-52. Noakes, Stephen, (1997), ‘Consumer spice’, Logistics Manager, (Nov. /Dec.), 67. Nentwich, Michael, (1996), ‘Opportunity structures for citizens’ participation: the case of the European union’, in European Integration online Papers (EioP), Vol. 0 (1996) no.1, <http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/1996-001a htm>, accessed 5/11/99. Payne, R. and Pugh, D.S., (1971), ‘Organisations as psychological environments’, in Warr, P.B. (ed.), Psychology at Work, Harmondsworth, Penguin. Peters, T.J. and Waterman, R.H., (1982), In Search of Excellence, London, Harper & Row. Rowntree, D., (1996), ‘Making open and distance learning work’, The Implementation of Open and Distance Learning, England, Open University <http: //www-iet.open.ac.uk/pp/D.G.F. ROWNTREE/MBL.htm.MOADLW.htm>, accessed 7/4/99. Smith, F. (1994), ‘Is there life on Mars?’, The Telegraph, 14th March, <http: //www.telegraph.co.uk>, accessed 8/6/95. Hull University Business School 63
  64. 64. Study Skills Handbook Both the Study Advice Service and Library provide handouts and information on how to present the different sources that you use in a list of references (see Chapters 1 and 4) Working in Groups Some of your assessment activities will involve group work, that is, a group presentation or a group project. In these cases, it is acceptable to produce a piece of work that is a culmination of a joint effort, or includes work, ideas and thoughts of both you and your colleagues working in the same group. The principle behind group assessment activities is to give you some experience in being part of, or perhaps leading, a team. It provides opportunities for you to develop and demonstrate transferable skills such as communication, negotiation, participation, compromise, decision-making, and obviously teamwork. With this type of assessment activity you may be asked to identify the role each group member took in producing the final product. Many students find it helpful to form and work in informal study groups as this gives opportunities to discuss ideas and concepts, forge friendships, and consult one another over draft versions of their written assignments. Be aware that this approach may introduce a certain element of danger if members of the group then present very similar pieces of work. It is not acceptable for members of the group to produce very similar pieces of work, that is, assignments that are either identical or alike – in either content or structure, or in their arguments and conclusions. Therefore, although you are encouraged to discuss your work during the preparation stages, you are discouraged from swapping or showing your colleagues final versions of assignments. It is worth reminding you that if a marker identifies two, or more, pieces of work that have similarities all students involved will be asked to answer to a formal allegation of the use of unfair means, or plagiarism. The consequences, should the allegations be proven, are laid out in the next section. If you have any queries about forming a study group you are advised to seek advice from your Programme Leader, Module Tutor or Personal Supervisor. 64 Hull University Business School
  65. 65. Plagiarism and unfair means The University has had a Code of Practice on the Use of Unfair Means since February 2000. You should make sure that you download a copy from the university portal, read it, understand it, and keep it for future reference. The use of unfair means relates to any form of illegitimate conduct that might give one student an advantage over another – and includes: copying another’s work without providing adequate references (including information taken from the Internet); stealing another’s work; cheating in an examination by taking prohibited materials into the examination room, whether or not they are used, such as revision notes; impersonating another person during an examination; falsifying a transcript or other official documentation; and removing, hiding or destroying library materials without permission. The Code of Practice provides further examples of what might constitute unfair means. However, the most common use of unfair means is plagiarism. Plagiarism is the use and presentation of somebody else’s work as though it were your own. This includes plagiarism of a colleague’s work, from a textbook, from the Internet, from a journal, or from other sources. All coursework submitted to the Business School will be routinely scrutinised using the Turnitin plagiarism prevention system. Turnitin provides information on the similarity between the work you have submitted and a wide range of existing material in the Turnitin database. It is not a plagiarism detection system and interpretation of the Turnitin similarity report requires careful consideration by assessors. Traditional plagiarism detection mechanisms will still be important. When assignments are submitted electronically through turnitin they are checked against all work that has been submitted through the system as well against other electronic sources. This means that work which has been submitted previously will be visible to staff marking your assignments. There are two particular situations that you should be aware of and guard against whenever possible. First, students are being assessed and given credit for their own work, not that which has been written by another student. Sometimes two or more students submit work that is similar or submit an assignment that has been submitted Hull University Business School 65
  66. 66. Study Skills Handbook previously by another student. It is then unclear who has written a piece of work and this will be investigated to establish if it is the result of the use of unfair means. If it is found to be the result of the use of unfair means then penalties will be applied in the same way as if the work had been plagiarised. The school encourages students to share their understanding and learn collaboratively, however assignments are usually individual pieces of work and students should exercise caution in how they work together and help each other. Second, students should be aware that seeking to gain credit twice for the same work is also considered to be the use of unfair means. Thus if a student is found to have submitted their own work for a second time, and they have already been given credit for the first submission, then this will also be investigated and, if found to be the use of unfair means, penalised. Students who wish to refer to their own previous assignments should reference them as they would any other source, although they should realise that this may not be seen as a good piece of work by the marker if it does not answer the question being set. Any form of the use of unfair means is dishonest and is unacceptable. Therefore, the University has decreed penalties that reflect the seriousness of the matter. As a rule, the very least penalty you can expect to receive is zero or 0 marks for the module in question. Reassessment is often permitted for a first offence by a student in the early stages of their study, however the further you progress into your programme of study the harsher the penalty becomes, as it is assumed that you have had sufficient time to familiarise yourself with University procedures and what constitutes good academic practice. The right to reassessment may therefore not be granted. Should a student be proven to have committed a second breach of the code the penalty will be termination of the student’s programme of study unless there are good reasons to impose a more lenient penalty. You will not be permitted to continue with your studies at the University of Hull. Penalties such as these should be a clear indication to you that the use of unfair means is taken very seriously by the University. It is not worth risking your academic and future employment opportunities. A little extra time spent making note of the full reference of any source of material you consult or use, and ensuring that the reference is included within your piece of work, will ensure that you do not jeopardise your future at the University of Hull. 66 Hull University Business School

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