Transcript of "Hate crime legislation in the united states"
HATE CRIME LEGISLATION IN
THE UNITED STATES
Hate crimes:When a perpetrator targets a victim because
of his or her membership to a certain social group.
• Gender identity
• Political affiliation
Hate Crime Study
Looked at the number of hate crimes in each
As of July 2009 there are five states that have
no legislation in place (Arkansas, Georgia,
Indiana, South Carolina andWyoming).
Goal is to determine whether or not these
states need to adopt the hate crime law.
Are hate crimes rare enough in these states to not
Data To Consider
Average hate crimes in non-legislated states
(Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, South Carolina
andWyoming) : 56
Highest total: Arkansas 113
Lowest total:Wyoming 5
Average hate crimes in remaining 45 states: 165
Arkansas Georgia Indiana South Carolina Wyoming
Hate Crimes in Non-legislated States
Answer considering averages:Yes, they are rare enough
Is there a difference in the likelihood of a hate
crime occurring in Pennsylvania compared to
one of the 5 states without hate crime laws?
Pennsylvania vs. South Carolina
Null:There is no difference in reported hate
crimes by agencies in the two states.
Alternative:There is a difference in reported
hate crimes by agencies in the two states
One-Tailed orTwo-Tailed: Two-Tailed
HYPOTHESIS TESTS x-value sample 1 27 x-value sample 2 56
sample size 1 954 sample size 2 476
pooled proportion 0.058 proportion 1 0.0283 proportion 2 0.1176
Pennsylvania South Carolina
std error 0.013
Is there a difference in reported hate crimes by agencies in Pennsylvania and South Carolina?
NULL: m1 = m2 There is no difference in reported hate crimes by agencies in the two states.
ALTERNATIVE: m1 <> m2 There is a difference in reported hate crimes by agencies in the two states.
one-tailed or two tailed? 2
test statistic (obs) (6.809)
critical measure 1.960
|obs| > critical?? yes
p-value < a-level?? yes
CONCLUSION:There is a difference in hate crimes between the two
Should the states adopt sexual orientation
under their hate crime laws?
Data To Consider
Bias motivation Incidents
Sexual Orientation 1195
Ethnicity/National Origin 984
Multiple Bias Incidents 2
Ethnicity/National Origin: Sexual Orientation:
Ethnicity vs. Sexual Orientation
Answer:Yes, hate crime laws should include Sexual Orientation
Sexual Orientation vs. Ethnicity/National
Null:There is no difference in the number sexual
orientation crimes compared to ethnicity/national
Alternative:There is a difference in the number
sexual orientation crimes compared to
Does hate crimes occur on college campus
just as often as in a dark alley?
Data to consider:
Total Incident: 1,387
Sexual Orientation: 287
Total Incident: 941
Sexual Orientation: 116
All Hate Crime Locations
College Campus vs. Dark Alley
Null: Hate crimes in college campus occur just
as likely as in dark alley.
Alternative: Hate crimes in college campus
does not occur just as likely as in dark alley.
One-tailed orTwo-tailed: One-Tailed
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