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T3 thermal imager class bates
 

T3 thermal imager class bates

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  • This slide covers the objectives of the “orientation” program, we are using orientation because this is a basic introduction and a higher level of hands-on work should be involved before it is termed training. The SAFE-IR option is “training” At the end of the orientation you should have covered all of this material, If you don’t intend to cover this much material modify the slide accordingly
  • Self explanatory Refer to the instructions manuals
  • VERY IMPORTANT ! Make sure the power supply marked “24 volt” is only used with a dual charge battery charger. All other components operate off of 12-15 volts, so the 24 volt power supply can damage them. Make sure a battery is in the thermal imager before connecting the direct charge cord to the camera, if not the charger may not operate properly.
  • The battery can be inserted in the charger and thermal imager in a number of wrong positions so please note the following : Charger Make sure when the battery is placed in the charger the light turns red and does not stay green, this will insure the battery is in properly and has made contact. A battery can be left in the charger once the light turns green, the charger will automatically switch to a trickle charge mode Thermal Imager Insure that the battery is inserted with the arrow on the front of the battery in the correct position. If the arrow can not be seen the notch on the back of the battery should be placed toward the left side of the imager when inserting it, this can be done in blinding smoke conditions with a gloved hand with a little practice. Also make sure the battery light and sleep mode are illuminated when the battery is inserted.
  • Self explanatory
  • Getting use to using the sleep mode is very important because it can really increase the amount of time the unit can operate. Remind firefighters it is possible to accidentally bump the sleep button, so they should check it if they are carrying the unit and pick it up to find that there is no image on the screen.
  • Getting use to using the sleep mode is very important because it can really increase the amount of time the unit can operate. Remind firefighters it is possible to accidentally bump the sleep button, so they should check it if they are carrying the unit and pick it up to find that there is no image on the screen.
  • The unit is water resistant, but it is best not to dunk the unit under water for long periods of time since the waterproofing may be damaged by impacts or high heat exposure. Do not use strong solvents to clean the unit. If the picture on the imager is weak or distorted, check to insure the lens does not have a build-up on it. Any questions on cleaning problems or other service issues contact your distributor or Bullard.
  • Self explanatory Refer to the instructions manuals
  • Technology really took off due to an incident in the Falklands War, which resulted in British Naval Forces employing Thermal Imagers.
  • Use the example of being in a fire, you can’t always see the fire but you can feel the heat from it, this is the infrared energy from the fire which pass through the smoke unlike the visible light which does not always pass through.
  • As mentioned earlier basically everything emits IR. These emitters are classified on the quantity of IR that they emit. Passive emitters emit very little IR because they tend to have very little molecular activity. They emit the majority of their IR by absorbing and dissipating IR from an Active or Direct emitter. Passive emitters that are not dissipating heat they have absorbed from an Active or Direct emitter can be very difficult to see with a thermal imager. Examples include : walls, floors, doors, rocks, dirt, etc. Active emitters are always emitting varying quantities of IR which is usually in direct proportion to the activity of the organism. The only time an active emitter will not emit IR is when it is dead. Shortly after death, there still may be a small quantity emitted of IR emitted for a small period of time. Active emitters are usually readily identified with a thermal imager. Examples include people and animals. Direct emitters are always emitting IR. They vary from Active emitters in that they are continually emit very strong concentrations of IR for the period of time that they exist or operate. Examples include : fire, sun, and lights. Direct source emitters are very easy to identify with a thermal imager, but they may damage older tube technology during exposure to the Direct source.
  • People in the audience with a military or law enforcement background may confuse image intensifiers with infrared detectors, make sure they understand that they are 2 different types of technology. Image intensifiers operate by magnifying existing light, so they will not work with out some form of visible light so they are not effective for firefighting The picture at the bottom shows how IR detectors or thermal imagers are much better
  • Remind everyone a thermal imager displays an image based on the amount of energy or heat that it detects or “sees”. Make sure everyone understands a particular shade is not assigned to any specific temperature. An object is not displayed as white because it has reached any specific temperature, it will appear white when it is one of the hottest things in the field of view. In the first picture the person which is about 80 degrees is white because it is the hottest thing in the field of view In the second picture the fire in the room through the doorway is white because it is the hottest thing in the field of view, but in this case the white object is over 1,000 degrees
  • Make sure everyone understands how IR energy behaves. The video shows IR energy being : emitted by the hand absorbed by the magazine re-emitted from the magazine An example of reflection will follow
  • Make sure everyone understands how IR energy behaves. The video shows IR energy being : emitted by the hand absorbed by the magazine re-emitted from the magazine An example of reflection will follow
  • Make sure everyone is aware of how IR energy can be reflected off of various smooth or shiny surfaces. Tell them if they believe they see a victim or firefighter to wave, if they wave back very good chance it is a reflection. If they are applying water on a fire and nothing is happening they may be applying water to a reflection on a wall or floor.
  • Make sure everyone is aware of how IR energy can be reflected off of various smooth or shiny surfaces. Tell them if they believe they see a victim or firefighter to wave, if they wave back very good chance it is a reflection. If they are applying water on a fire and nothing is happening they may be applying water to a reflection on a wall or floor.
  • IR will penetrate smoke, but it will not penetrate everything. When IR strikes a surface such as water or glass a very large percentage of it is reflected back, and a small portion of it is absorbed by the surface / object. Looking at these surfaces through a thermal imager is like looking at a mirror. Strong IR emitters such as a fire can transmit enough IR energy to a surface / object to allow it to register on the other side of the object. This is why / how you can not see a fire directly through a window but you can tell it is there because of the transferred heat / IR.
  • Thermal Contrast is also a very important term and concept. This refers to how well different objects viewed and displayed by an imager stand out from one another. If there is good thermal contrast the objects will be well defined and easily identifiable, if not they will tend to blend together with one another. Thermal contrast is affected by how the MRTD of unit is and how much of a temperature difference there is between the objects. The better the MRTD and the greater the temperature difference the better the thermal contrast.
  • Thermal Inversion is also a very important term and concept. This event can cause confusion when it occurs, a prime example is : A person (98 degrees) standing outside under normal conditions (75 degrees) appears on a thermal imager as a white or light colored object, because compared to the background they are emitting more IR and have a higher temperature. Take the same person (98 degrees) and put them in a room where the temperature has been raised (over 100 degrees) and they will now be dark in color. It is the same object at the same temperature, but it has changed in appearance because the surrounding back ground or environment has changed. Reinforce the point that a thermal imagers assign a color to an object based on how it compares with the surrounding background, the hottest objects will be light in color and the coolest objects will be dark in color.
  • This is phenomenon that can occur with the unit if the thermal throttle is all the way open and a strong IR source is being viewed. This can be eliminated by adjusting the thermal throttle down, however this can be used as a very valuable visual queue to identify which spot is the hottest.
  • This is phenomenon that can occur with the unit if the thermal throttle is all the way open and a strong IR source is being viewed. This can be eliminated by adjusting the thermal throttle down, however this can be used as a very valuable visual queue to identify which spot is the hottest.
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  • A movie will play on this slide As it plays talk about how you can use an imager for fire attack, cover the earlier points once again (repeat) MAKE SURE everyone notes the white area at the ceiling that looks like steam or smoke. This is very dense particles in the smoke layer that have been superheated. This is a very important warning sign that things are getting very hot and conditions are starting to develop that could lead to a flashover or backdraft. If this condition is bad enough, usually just prior to flashover occurring, the entire area being viewed may appear as white, some people will identify this as “white out” though it is really not. If everything is extremely hot, everything will appear white, this is a bad situation !!! Also point out how the fog stream upsets this thermal layer and pushes it down on the firefighters. You can also point out how you can see areas that have been cooled and areas that have not.
  • Self explanatory MAKE SURE everyone notes the white area at the ceiling that looks like steam or smoke. This is very dense particles in the smoke layer that have been superheated. This is a very important warning sign that things are getting very hot and conditions are starting to develop that could lead to a flashover or backdraft. If this condition is bad enough, usually just prior to flashover occurring, the entire area being viewed may appear as white, some people will identify this as “white out” though it is really not. If everything is extremely hot, everything will appear white, this is a bad situation !!!
  • A movie will play on this slide As it plays talk about how you can use an imager for fire attack, cover the earlier points once again (repeat) MAKE SURE everyone notes the white area at the ceiling that looks like steam or smoke. This is very dense particles in the smoke layer that have been superheated. This is a very important warning sign that things are getting very hot and conditions are starting to develop that could lead to a flashover or backdraft. If this condition is bad enough, usually just prior to flashover occurring, the entire area being viewed may appear as white, some people will identify this as “white out” though it is really not. If everything is extremely hot, everything will appear white, this is a bad situation !!! Also point out how the fog stream upsets this thermal layer and pushes it down on the firefighters. You can also point out how you can see areas that have been cooled and areas that have not.
  • Self explanatory
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  • A movie will play on this slide As it plays talk about how you can use an imager for overhaul, cover the earlier points once again.
  • Self explanatory Works great in identifying areas affected by lightning strikes.
  • Self explanatory
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  • This is based on the ability of the material in the container to affect the external temperature of the container. This may not always happen with very thick or insulated containers.
  • A movie will play on this slide As it plays talk about how you can use an imager for Haz Mat, cover the earlier points once again. Make the point that with the first container you can clearly see a product level, but with the second you can not be sure if the container is full, empty, or to insulated to show a product level. If you have similar containers under similar conditions you can use one that you know the status of as a reference point to compare the others to.
  • `This slide shows a container full of hot water and cold water. Personnel trained in chemistry or Haz. Mat. may be able to identify if a chemical reaction is taking based on the amount of heat being given off from a product or if the conditions are changing in a container
  • Self explanatory
  • `This slide shows a container full of hot water and cold water. Personnel trained in chemistry or Haz. Mat. may be able to identify if a chemical reaction is taking based on the amount of heat being given off from a product or if the conditions are changing in a container
  • Self explanatory
  • Self explanatory
  • Pretty much self explanatory You can use the Grandbury, Texas incident from the news letter to illustrate the first point. Use your own examples or stories for the others.
  • Drive home the point that thermal imagers can create tunnel vision and it is critical that everything must be scanned constantly. Also make the point that seeing something is only half the battle, understanding what you are looking at takes a thorough understanding of the basics and hours of practice.

T3 thermal imager class bates T3 thermal imager class bates Presentation Transcript

  • Bates Technical College
    • T 3 Thermal Imager Orientation
  • Special Thanks to Gary Simpson of Bullard Thermal Imaging Cameras for his help on this presentation .
  • Primary Objectives
    • Identify and Understand :
    • 1. The features and operating procedures for the Bullard Thermal Imagers
    • 2. The technology and basic theory associated with thermal imaging
    • 3. The emergency response applications for thermal imaging technology
    • TI Features & Operating Procedures
      • What should you know about the imager ?
      • What about cleaning & maintenance?
      • What about the accessories ?
  • T 3 Overview
    • Familiarization
    • Operating Procedures
      • Battery Charging & Changing
      • Activating the Unit
    • Cleaning & Maintenance
  • Familiarization LCD Display On/Off Button Battery Indicator Battery Release Battery Lens & Bezel w/Cover Window
  • Operating Procedures
    • Battery Charging
      • connect the AC or DC power supply to the charger
      • place a battery in the charger, the center LED should turn red. Leave until the LED turns green
    Charge Times : 1 battery +/- 90 minutes, (direct charge) 2 batteries +/- 90 minutes
  • Operating Procedures
    • Battery Changing
      • to remove, push in both battery release buttons and slide the battery forward
      • to reinstall, align the battery with the housing grooves
      • slide the battery back until it locks in place
  • Operating Procedures
    • Activating the Unit
      • place a fully charged battery in the unit
      • push in the grey On / Off button
      • wait 5 seconds for the display to appear
    • Deactivating the Unit
      • push in the grey On / Off button
    Operating Time : 2 hours 30 minutes
    • “ Shutter”
      • the unit has an automated “shutter”, which is used to auto-calibrate or zero the unit
      • the “shutter” will “fire” or close at a varied rate, approx. every 60 seconds
      • when the shutter fires, the image on the display will freeze for 1-2 seconds.
      • when the unit goes in and out of “EI Mode” the “shutter” will also fire.
    Operating Procedures
    • “ EI Mode”
      • all contrast / gain controls on the unit are automated
      • the unit has 2 levels of operation, normal mode for scenes with low temperatures, and “EI Mode” for scenes with elevated temperatures
      • when the unit views an object above 300º F (approx.) it will shift into “EI Mode”.
      • the unit will remain in “EI Mode” for a 30 seconds or until it is no longer viewing a hot object
      • when the unit goes in and out of “EI Mode” the “shutter“ will fire, freezing the screen for a second.
    Operating Procedures
  • Cleaning & Maintenance
    • Mild soap & water with a cloth or soft bristle brush should be used for cleaning
    • Isopropyl Alcohol may be used on “stubborn” stains
    • Polycarbonate LCD cover, Straps, and Rubber Bumpers are field replaceable
    • For any other service issues return the unit to Bullard
  • T 3 Accessories
    • “ Powerhouse” – standard DC powered vehicle mount
    • Components:
      •  Back Mounting Plate
      •  Mounting Hardware
      •  Latch Spring
      •  Hard Wire DC Power Cord
      •  “ Powerhouse” TI Holder & Battery Charger
    • Intro to Thermal Imaging Technology
      • What is thermal imaging ?
      • How does a thermal imager work ?
      • What about infrared energy ?
      • What about using the thermal imager ?
  • What is Thermal Imaging ?
    • Thermal Imaging is :
      • the detection of Infrared Radiation
      • the translation of the detected energy levels into a viewable image
    • It is a way to look at the “Heat Signature” of an object or person
  • Historical Perspective
    • Technology was developed for the military in the 1960s
    • “ America Burning Study” identified thermal imaging technology in 1972
    • Fire Service use began in Europe in the mid 1980’s
    • FDNY placed their first units in service in 1985
    • Military declassified 2nd and 3rd generation technology in 1992
    • Widespread use in the US began in 1996
  • What is Infrared Radiation ?
    • Infrared radiation is a portion of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    • It is a form of energy that we perceive as heat
  • Where does IR come from ?
    • Infrared Radiation comes from anything with molecular activity
    • Infrared emitters are broken down into 3 categories based on the amount of energy emitted
      • Passive : primarily absorb and dissipate IR energy from active or direct emitters (inanimate objects)
      • Active : emit IR energy in low to medium strength and varying intervals (living organisms)
      • Direct : constant high strength IR energy emitters (energy sources)
  • Imagers
    • Image Intensifiers vs. Infrared Detectors
      • Image Intensifiers (I 2 ) amplify existing visible light
      • Infrared Detectors view IR sources regardless of the visible light conditions
    Image Intensifier Infrared Detector
  • Image Display
    • Hottest Objects : White or Light Shades
    • Coolest Objects : Black or Darker Shades
    • Display is relative to the area viewed
  • Thermal Imaging Principles
    • IR Principles
    • Heat / Energy Principles
    • Image Interpretation
  • IR Principles
    • Infrared Radiation can be :
      • Emitted
      • Absorbed
      • Emitted Again
      • Reflected
    BST FOOTAGE
  • IR Principles Heat Conditions Search & Rescue Haz-Mat Recon
  • IR Principles
    • Reflections
      • Infrared Radiation can be reflected by a number of surfaces
      • These can include : Glass, Water, Mirrors, and Shiny Surfaces
    Reflection
  • IR Principles Fire Attack Outdoor Search Overhaul
  • IR Principles
    • Glass
      • IR will not penetrate glass, however heated glass will show up lighter in color
    • Water
      • IR will not penetrate water, some penetration may occur in a fog or mist
    • Steam
      • IR may or may not penetrate steam depending on it’s density
  • Energy / Heat Principles
    • Energy or heat can travel or be transferred by :
      • Conduction
      • Convection
      • Radiation
    • Different materials and forms of building construction can vary greatly in how they impact energy transfer
    * It is critical to understand how heat or energy is transferred so that when heat is identified the source can be determined. * It is also critical to understand how heat or energy is transferred so that a heat or energy source is not underestimated.
  • Energy / Heat Principles
    • Conduction
      • Occurs in a solid or liquid, a heat source is in direct contact with the material and transfers energy directly through it.
      • Is readily identified with the TI especially with good conductors such as metals
      • Examples :
        • fire in contact with a metal pipe
        • heats the pipe and transfers
        • energy down the length of it.
    IFSTA
  • Energy / Heat Principles
    • Convection
      • Occurs in gases, an energy source will heat the gases which will carry or transfer the energy on air currents
      • Not always identified with the TI. Gases which have heavy particle content (like carbon in smoke) and superheated gases are more likely to show the energy
      • Example :
  • Energy / Heat Principles
    • Radiation
      • Occurs through air, energy is emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves which travels through the air and transfers the energy to objects as it strikes them.
      • Easily identified with the TI at the source and on objects where the heat has been transferred, but cannot be seen as it travels through the air
      • Example
    • Thermal Contrast
      • how well objects stand out from one another, related to detector sensitivity and the variance of temperature in objects being viewed
    Image Interpretation High Contrast Background and victim are distinct shades Low Contrast Background is faded together, victim is all the same shade
    • Thermal Inversion
      • Occurs when an object changes shade, even though its temperature has not, due to changing environmental conditions
    Image Interpretation Background is light, versus dark, due to heating by fire Firefighter is dark, versus light, due to high surrounding heat conditions
  • Image Interpretation
    • Thermal Saturation
      • Not the same as “White Out”
      • Occurs when objects absorb as much energy as possible and radiate the energy back creating an even temperature and an almost completely white image
      • An “All White” image can occur during or after a fire
  • Image Interpretation
    • Judging Temperature – T 3 Units
      • Shifting into “EI Mode”
      • Comparisons, Common Sense, and Firefighting Basics
    * Comparisons should be made between similar objects when possible
    • Emergency Response / EMS
    • Scene Assessment
    • Hazard Identification
    • Victim Identification
    • Patient Assessment
    Thermal Imaging Applications Limited Only By Your Imagination !
  • Scene Assessment
    • Scene Assessment - Objectives
      • 1. Regain vision in total darkness, fog, smoke
      • 2. Gain information unavailable to the naked eye
  • Hazard Identification
    • Hazard Identification - Objectives
      • 1. Identify heat, fire, and ignition Sources
      • 2. Evaluate presence of hazardous materials
      • 3. Determine extent of mechanical or electrical hazards
  • Victim Identification
    • Victim Identification - Objectives
      • 1. Regain vision in total darkness, fog, smoke
      • 2. Gain information unavailable to the naked eye
  • Patient Assessment
    • Patient Assessment - Objectives
      • 1. Locate amputated body parts
      • 2. Identify areas of heat, indicating injury
      • 3. Evaluate hypothermia or frostbite
  • Thermal Imaging Applications Size Up
  • Size Up
    • Size Up
    High Heat Levels shows fire & heat throughout structure Heat In Attic shows advancing fire conditions BST FOOTAGE
  • Size Up
    • Size Up
    “ Haloing” Occurring Around Window which would make it Hottest Spot most likely the seat of the fire BST FOOTAGE
  • Thermal Imaging Applications Search & Rescue
  • Search & Rescue
    • Search & Rescue - Key Points
      • Constantly scan and evaluate all areas using a “6 sided” approach (ceiling, 4 walls, floor).
      • DO NOT forget to maintain a physical reference point, by using a rope, hoseline, or staying on an exterior wall. Never rely on an imager 100 percent to identify your way out
  • Search & Rescue
    • Search & Rescue
    • Identify Victims by scanning each area and looking for :
        • obvious form of victim
        • unrecognizable form that could be a victim
        • areas that could contain a victim such as a bed, closet, or debris field
    Light Shades Dark Shades * Remember not all victims will have a recognizable form or recognizable color * Clothing, bedding, or debris can all mask a victim’s heat / IR signature BST FOOTAGE
  • Search & Rescue
  • Thermal Imaging Applications Fire Attack
  • Fire Attack
    • Fire Attack
    BST FOOTAGE
  • Fire Attack
    • Fire Attack - Key Points
    High Heat DANGER ! Firefighter w/ TI directing F. F. w/ hose Dark Area indicating water is cooling Light Area indicating water is not cooling
  • Fire Attack
    • Fire Attack –
    • Identify convected heat which can indicate :
        • Extent of fire conditions
        • Location of the fire
        • Potential for Rollover or Flashover exists
    BST FOOTAGE
  • Fire Attack
    • Fire Attack
    • Identify fire conditions hidden by building construction
      • The video illustrates :
        • studs and void spaces
        • recognizable fire pattern
        • Fire growth & extension
    * Remember certain types of heavier building construction or multiple layers of materials can mask heat or fire conditions BST FOOTAGE
  • Thermal Imaging Applications Ventilation
    • Ventilation
    • Identify the areas of greatest heat concentration
      • Remember, an imager can not see through solid objects, but can identify heat transferred through or around the materials.
      • Remember, heat levels can appear differently based on the type of building construction being viewed.
    Ventilation
  • Thermal Imaging Applications Overhaul
  • Overhaul
    • Overhaul
    T-3 FOOTAGE
  • Overhaul
    • Overhaul –
    • Identify construction features & hidden fire
      • The video illustrates :
        • studs and void spaces
        • recognizable fire pattern
        • Fire growth & extension
    T 3 FOOTAGE
  • Overhaul
    • Overhaul
    * Remember thermal imagers are very sensitive * Use additional features to judge heat conditions
  • Thermal Imaging Applications Haz Mat
  • Haz Mat
    • Haz Mat –
    • Identify product levels
        • Product levels can only be determined with solids and liquids, NOT GASES
        • Product level will only be visible when the material inside the container has affected the external surface temperature of the container.
  • Haz Mat
    • Haz Mat
      • Identify product levels
    • The video illustrates :
        • product level is clear on the container to the left
        • no product level is visible on the container to the right which could indicate it is empty or too insulated to show a product level
        • If the containers are compared the one on the right would be empty, but only identical containers should be compared
    BST FOOTAGE
  • Haz Mat
  • Haz Mat
    • Haz Mat
    • Identify product movement
        • Will only identify materials on the surface of water
        • Will only identify gaseous clouds when there is contamination or a temperature difference
        • Will only identify solids or liquids on the ground when there is a temperature difference.
    Release Point Direction of Flow
  • Haz Mat
  • Thermal Imaging Applications Wildland
  • Wildland
    • Wildland Firefighting
    • Identify fire lines and reaming hot spots
        • Place imager in an aircraft, or elevated platform when possible
        • Use wireless transmitter feature to relay information to command
  • Thermal Imaging Applications Firefighter Safety
  • Firefighter Safety
    • Firefighter Safety : Key Issues
    Remember ! You have to look at it, You have to interpret it The imager can not do it for you! Maintain a point of reference! BST FOOTAGE
  • Thanks To The Following
    • The following individuals have contributed information to this presentation and the overall understanding of thermal imaging in the Fire Service.
    SAFE-IR B. Athanas B. Knabbe G. Rusinski S. Woodworth M. West Bourbon County FD, KY Charlottesville FD, VA E.K.U. Fire & Safety, KY Enterprise FD, AL Fairhope FD, AL Nassau County FD, FL Paris FD, KY Axis Fire Supply, FL J. Montgomery