Chapter 8 fire extinquishers 4 07
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Chapter 8 fire extinquishers 4 07 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Portable Fire Extinguishers
  • 2. Objectives (1 of 2)
    • Explain the five classes of fire and the risks associated with each class.
    • Identify the kinds of fire extinguishers used for each class.
    • Explain the rating systems of portable extinguishers for Classes A,B, and C.
    • Identify the limitations of portable extinguishers.
  • 3. Objectives (2 of 2)
    • Demonstrate the operation of portable fire extinguishers.
    • Explain the care and maintenance of portable fire extinguishers.
    • Discuss the inspection requirements of portable fire extinguishers.
  • 4. Introduction (1 of 3) Click Here to View Video: Portable Fire Extinguishers
  • 5. Introduction (2 of 3)
    • Portable fire extinguishers are designed to fight small incipient fires.
    • Firefighters must know how to use extinguishers and be able to teach others.
    • Proper instruction can improve department effectiveness and reduce damage costs.
    • Fire extinguishers come in a variety of types and sizes.
  • 6. Introduction (3 of 3)
    • Firefighters should know the extinguishers carried on apparatus.
    • Firefighters should be capable of answering questions regarding fire extinguishers.
    • Citizens will often request information and training on the use of extinguishers.
  • 7. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS:
    • ONE OF THE MOST COMMON FIRE-PROTECTION APPLIANCES USED TODAY
    • 1ST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST FIRES
    • EXCELLENT TOOL FOR EXTINQUISHING INCIPIENT FIRES
    • CAN OFTEN EXTINGUISH A SMALL FIRE IN LESS TIME THAN DEPLOYING A HOSE LINE
  • 8. GENERAL :
    • It is important that firefighters be knowledgeable about the different types of portable fire extinguishers and their use.
    • We will discuss the various types of portable fire extinguishers that firefighters are likely to encounter.
    • NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers provides information on rating, placement and use.
  • 9. GENERAL :
    • Firefighters should rely on extinguishers carried on their apparatus and not those found in occupancies.
    • Two portable extinguishers are required on fire apparatus by NFPA standard 1901
    • One suitable for class B and C fires and one for class A
    • Sizes are as follows: Co2 rated 10 BC, Dry Chemical rated 80 BC, & 2.5 Gal H2o for Class A
  • 10. Fire Classification and Risk
    • The type and nature of the burning material (fuel) defines the fire.
    • There are five classes of fire.
      • Class A
      • Class B
      • Class C
      • Class D
      • Class K (As of 1998)
  • 11. Class K Fires Click Here to View Video: Class K Fires
  • 12. Types of Fire Extinguishers (1 of 2)
    • Many types of fire extinguishers are available today.
    Click Here to View Video: Fire Extinguisher Functions/Ratings
  • 13. Types of Fire Extinguishers (2 of 2)
    • Many factors need to be considered before using an extinguisher.
      • Type and amount of fuel
      • User and occupancy
      • Building construction
      • Environmental conditions
      • Type of equipment being protected
  • 14. Types of Extinguishing Agents (1 of 2)
    • Water is the basic agent for Class A fires.
    • Water-based foam extinguishers for class B fires have either AFFF or FFFP.
    • CO 2 is an inert gas stored under pressure.
    • CO 2 is effective on Class B or C fires.
    • Dry chemical agents are particles propelled by a gaseous medium.
    • There are three categories of dry chemicals.
  • 15. Types of Extinguishing Agents (2 of 2)
    • Wet chemicals are water-based solutions.
    • Wet chemicals are used for Class K fires.
    • Clean agents have replaced halons.
    • Clean agents do not conduct electricity or leave a residue.
    • There are two classes.
      • Halocarbon agents and inerting gases
  • 16. Kinds of Extinguishers
    • Pump-type extinguishers are hand-pumped devices.
    • Pressurized extinguishers operate by expelling gas that propels the agent out.
    • Cartridge-operated extinguishers are used for dry chemical and most dry powder Class D extinguishers.
  • 17. Backpack Pump Tank
  • 18. PUMP-TANK WATER
    • STREAM REACH – 30 to 40 ft.
    • DISCHARGE TIME – 45 sec. To 3 min.
  • 19. Stored Pressure Water Extinguisher Stored Pressure Foam Extinguisher Stored Pressure Extinguishers (1 of 2)
  • 20. STORED-PRESSURE WATER
    • STREAM REACH - 30 to 40 ft.
    • DISCHARGE TIME - 45 sec. To 60 sec.
  • 21. FOAM EXTINGUISHERS:
    • STREAM REACH - 20 to 25 ft.
    • DISCHARGE TIME - Approx. 50 sec.
    • AFFF - USED ON CLASS B FIRES NOT INVOLVING WATER SOLUABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR SOLVENTS) AIR ASPIRATING CREATING A BLANKET
    • FFFP - USED ON CLASS B FIRES INVOLVING ALCOHOL RESISTANT LIQUIDS (SMOTHERS)
  • 22. Stored Pressure Dry Chemical Extinguisher Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers Stored Pressure Extinguishers (2 of 2)
  • 23. DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS
    • ABC ( MULTI- PURPOSE)- MOST COMMON USED
        • (MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE)
    • BC (REGULAR, OR SODIUM BICARBONATE)
        • POTASIUM BICARBONATE
        • AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE
        • POTASIUM CHLORIDE
    • PKP (POTASSIUM BICARBONATE)
    • USED FOR MOST CLASSES OF FIRES
  • 24. DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS
    • STREAM REACH: 5 TO 20 Ft.
    • DISCHARGE TIME: 8 TO 25 Sec.
    • !!!!!! NEVER MIX DRY CHEMICAL WITH OTHER TYPES OF AGENTS , MAY CAUSE A DANGEROUS RISE IN PRESSURE INSIDE EXTINGUISHER
    • NON-TOXIC ONLY AN IRRITANT
  • 25. HALON EXTINGUISHERS:
    • 1211 - CLEAR LIQUID STREAM
      • Stream Reach - 8 to 18 ft.
      • Discharge Time - 8 to 18 sec.
    • 1301 -FIXED SYSTEMS (FLOODING)
      • Stream Reach - 4 to 6 ft
      • Discharge Time - 8 to 10 sec.
    • NEARLY INVISIBLE (WIND)
    • HALOTRON (CLEAN-AGENT)- B&C
    • NON OZONE DEPLETER, ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE
  • 26. Cartridge-Operated Dry Chemical Extinguisher
  • 27. CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHERS
    • STREAM REACH - 3 to 8 ft.
    • DISCHARGE TIME - 8 to 30 sec.
    • HORN- DISPERSION
    • UNLIKE OTHERS ITS STORED UNDER ITS OWN PRESSURE
  • 28. DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHERS:
    • DRY POWDER ( LITH-X) - EXTINGUISH COMBUSTIBLE METALS
    • NOT EVERY DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHER WILL WORK ON ANY COMBUSTIBLE METAL FIRE
    • GRAY OR BLACK IN COLOR
    • APPLY WITH SUFFICIENT DEPTH
  • 29. WET CHEMICAL
    • CLASS K - FOUND IN KITCHENS WITH UNSATURATED FATS & OILS, EXTINGUISHES WITH MINIMAL SPLASH BACK AND PREVENTION OF REFLASH
    • Common Size - 2-1/2 Gallon
    • Operating Principle - Air Pressure
  • 30. WET CHEMICAL
    • CLASS K -
    • STREAM REACH - 8 to 12 ft.
    • DISCHARGE TIME - 75 to 80 sec.
  • 31.  
  • 32. Rating Systems of Portable Extinguishers
    • Each class of fuel is subject to a separate type of rating test.
      • Class A rating test uses wooden cribbing test.
      • Class B rating test uses a pan of flammable liquid.
      • Class C rating test only involves conductivity of the agent and the nozzle or hose and nozzle combination.
  • 33. Rating Systems of Portable Extinguishers
  • 34. CLASS A RATINGS:
    • CLASS A RATINGS RANGE FROM 1-ATO 40-A
    • 1-A EQUALS 11/4 GAL.OF WATER (BENCH MARK)
    • 2-A HAS TWO TIMES THE EXTINGUISHING CAPABILITY OF A 1-A
    • ACCORDING TO OCCUPANCY HAZARD,MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA PER UNIT, PER EXTINGUISHER, AND MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE TO EXTINGUISHER
  • 35. CLASS B RATING:
    • CLASS B RATINGS RANGE FROM 1-B TO 640-B
    • THE 1-B RATING EQUALING 1 SQUARE FOOT
    • THE TEST CONSIST OF THE APPROXIMATE SQUARE FOOT AREA OF A FLAMMABLE LIQUID FIRE THAT A NON-EXPERT OPERATOR CAN EXTINGUISH
  • 36. CLASS C & D RATINGS:
    • CLASS C FIRES ARE TYPICALLY CLASS A OR B FIRES INVOLVING ENERGIZED EQUIPMENT (AGENT NON-CONDUCTIVE)
    • THERE IS NO EXTINGUISHER WITH A CLASS A-C RATING
    • CLASS D FIRES EXTINGUISHING CAPABILITY VARIES WITH THE FUEL METAL BEING BURNED
    • CLASS D EXTINGUISHERS ARE NOT GIVEN A MULTI PURPOSE RATING
  • 37. Limitations of Portable Extinguishers
    • Extinguishers have limited capabilities.
      • They are designed and rated for certain types and sizes of fire.
    • The wrong extinguisher will create greater problems.
      • You need to use the right extinguisher for the fire present.
  • 38. Extinguisher Operation
    • P ull the pin.
    • A im the nozzle.
    • S queeze the handle.
    • S weep the nozzle.
    Click Here to View Video: PASS Procedure/Fire Extinguisher Maintenance
  • 39. OPERATION OF EXTINGUISHER:
    • SELECTING
    • QUICK INSPECTION
    • APPROACH
    • APPLICATION
  • 40. SELECTION:
    • CHOOSE PROPER EXTINGUISHER ACCORDING TO SIZE OF FIRE, TYPE OF FIRE.
    • CHOOSE AN EXTINGUISHER THAT WILL EFFECTIVELY DO THE JOB WITHOUT RISK TO LIFE AND PROPERTY
  • 41. QUICK INSPECTION:
    • EXTERNAL DAMAGE
    • HOSE-HORN/NOZZLE ARE IN PLACE
    • PROPER WEIGHT OF EXTINGUISHER
    • PRESSURE GAUGE IN OPERATING RANGE
  • 42. APPROACH:
    • SAFETY IS PARAMOUNT !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    • NEVER RUN WITH EXTINGUISHER
    • APPROACH FROM WINWARD SIDE
    • MAKE SURE AGENT REACHES FIRE
    • WATCH FOR RADIANT HEAT
  • 43. APPLICATION:
    • P ULL OUT THE PULL PIN IN OUTWARD DIRECTION WITH RIGHT HAND
    • A IM NOZZLE AT BASE OF FIRE WITH RIGHT HAND
    • S QUEEZE HANDLE WITH LEFT
    • S WEEP NOZZLE FROM SIDE TO SIDE AT BASE OF FIRE WITH RIGHT HAND, MOVING FORWARD UNTIL FIRE IS EXTINGUISHED
  • 44. Obsolete Extinguishers
    • Firefighters should never operate obsolete extinguishers.
      • Soda acid
      • Chemical foam (except film-forming)
      • Vaporizing liquids
      • Cartridge-operated water or loaded stream
      • Copper or brass extinguishers
    Click Here to View Video: Obsolete Fire Extinguishers
  • 45. Care and Maintenance of Portable Extinguishers
    • Carefully inspect before placing in service.
    • Remove them from bracket periodically.
    • Occasionally invert dry chemical extinguishers.
    • Clean dirt and grit to maintain good working order.
  • 46. Inspection Requirements (1 of 2)
    • First, perform visual inspection.
    • It should be checked every 30 days.
    • Pin seal should be in place.
    • Gauge should register proper pressure.
  • 47. Inspection Requirements (2 of 2)
    • Some extinguishers, such as CO 2 , are only checked by weighing.
    • Weight is stamped on the cylinder.
    • Check for hydrostatic testing.
  • 48. INSPECTION :
    • LOCATIONS/ACCESSABILITY
    • SEAL
    • PHYSICAL DAMAGE
    • GAUGE
    • HOSES&HORNS/NOZZLE
    • INSTRUCTION& NAMEPLATE
    • CHECK WEIGHT
    • INSPECTION TAG/COLLAR& STICKERS
  • 49. LOCATION/ACCESSABILITY:
    • IN DESIGNATED LOCATION
    • IN BRACKET/CASE
    • CLEAR OF OBSTRUCTIONS
  • 50. SEAL/PIN:
    • PIN IS IN
    • SEAL IS NOT BROKEN
    • PROPER TYPE OF SEAL AND PIN IS ON EXTINGUISHER
  • 51. PHYSICAL DAMAGE:
    • DENTS
    • CRACKS
    • CORROSION
    • BROKEN OR BENT HANDLES
    • CRACKED OR BROKEN HOSES/NOZZLES
  • 52. GAUGE:
    • IN OPERATION RANGE
    • NO WATER IN IT
    • BENT
    • LEAKING
    • BLOWOUT DISC
    • NEEDLE NOT BROKE
  • 53. HOSES&HORNS/NOZZLES
    • FREE OF OBSTRUCTIONS
    • CRACKED OR SPLIT
    • MELTED
    • FITTINGS
    • ALL CO2 HOSES REQUIRE A CONDUCTIVITY TEST LABEL
  • 54. INSTRUCTIONS/NAMEPLATE:
    • THERE
    • LEGIBLE
    • RATING
    • SYMBOL
  • 55. WEIGHT:
    • LIFTING
    • SCALE
    • GAUGE
    • NAMEPLATE
  • 56. INSPECTION TAG/COLLAR& STICKERS :
    • DATE OF INSPECTION,MAINTENANCE,OR RECHARGING
    • ANY EXTINGUISHER SERVICED AFTER JANUARY 1999, SHALL HAVE A SERVICE COLLAR
    • ALL EXTINGUISHERS MADE OR SERVICED AFTER 1989 SHALLHAVE HMIS LABEL OR STICKER
    • HYDROSTATIC STICKER
    • 6YR STICKER
  • 57. MAINTENANCE/SERVICING:
    • RESPONSIBILITY
    • ANNUAL SERVICE
    • 6YR MAINTENANCE
    • HYDROSTATIC TEST
  • 58. RESPONSIBLILITY:
    • THE BUILDING OCCUPANT
    • PROPERTY OWNER
    • LICENSED COMPANIES
    • CERTIFIED EXTINGUISHER TECHNICIANS
  • 59. ANNUAL SERVICE:
    • INSPECTED ANNUALLY EITHER BY BUILDING OWNER, FIRE INSPECTOR, LICENSED BUISNESS
    • CHECK HOSE
    • CHECK GAUGE
    • CHECK SEAL
    • CHECK LABELS
    • WEIGHT
  • 60. 6 YEAR MAINTENANCE:
    • COMPLETED EVERY 6 YEARS AFTER MANUFACTURED, OR HYDROSTACIALLY TESTED
    • COMPLETE TEARDOWN
    • CHECK VALVE STEM
    • CHECK O-RING
    • AGENT
    • OVERALL EXTINGUISHER
  • 61. HYDRO-STATIC TESTING:
    • DRY CHEM/POWDER- 12 YEARS
    • HALON- 12 YEARS
    • CO2- 5 YEARS
    • FOAM- 5 YEARS( AGENT EVERY 3)
  • 62. HYDRO CONT:
    • WATER- 5 YEARS
    • COMPLETE TEARDOWN
    • DEFORMATIES, DENTS, SCRATCHES
    • ALL STORED PRESSURE EXTINGUISHERS THAT REQUIRE A 12 YEAR HYDRO ARE REQUIRED TO UNDERGO A 6 YEAR MAINTENANCE
  • 63. IF ANY OF THE ITEMS LISTED ARE FOUND DEFICIENT IN EITHER INSPECTION OR MAINTENANCE, THE EXTINGUISHER SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM SERVICE, AND REPAIRED IN ACCORDANCE WITH DEPARTMENT POLICIES
  • 64. Summary
    • There are various classes of fires.
    • There are various kinds of extinguishers.
    • The proper type of extinguisher is needed for various classes of fire.
    • It is important to remember extinguishers have limitations.
    • Extinguishers need to be maintained, serviced, and inspected regularly.