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Chapter 8 fire extinquishers 4 07
 

Chapter 8 fire extinquishers 4 07

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    Chapter 8 fire extinquishers 4 07 Chapter 8 fire extinquishers 4 07 Presentation Transcript

    • Portable Fire Extinguishers
    • Objectives (1 of 2)
      • Explain the five classes of fire and the risks associated with each class.
      • Identify the kinds of fire extinguishers used for each class.
      • Explain the rating systems of portable extinguishers for Classes A,B, and C.
      • Identify the limitations of portable extinguishers.
    • Objectives (2 of 2)
      • Demonstrate the operation of portable fire extinguishers.
      • Explain the care and maintenance of portable fire extinguishers.
      • Discuss the inspection requirements of portable fire extinguishers.
    • Introduction (1 of 3) Click Here to View Video: Portable Fire Extinguishers
    • Introduction (2 of 3)
      • Portable fire extinguishers are designed to fight small incipient fires.
      • Firefighters must know how to use extinguishers and be able to teach others.
      • Proper instruction can improve department effectiveness and reduce damage costs.
      • Fire extinguishers come in a variety of types and sizes.
    • Introduction (3 of 3)
      • Firefighters should know the extinguishers carried on apparatus.
      • Firefighters should be capable of answering questions regarding fire extinguishers.
      • Citizens will often request information and training on the use of extinguishers.
    • FIRE EXTINGUISHERS:
      • ONE OF THE MOST COMMON FIRE-PROTECTION APPLIANCES USED TODAY
      • 1ST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST FIRES
      • EXCELLENT TOOL FOR EXTINQUISHING INCIPIENT FIRES
      • CAN OFTEN EXTINGUISH A SMALL FIRE IN LESS TIME THAN DEPLOYING A HOSE LINE
    • GENERAL :
      • It is important that firefighters be knowledgeable about the different types of portable fire extinguishers and their use.
      • We will discuss the various types of portable fire extinguishers that firefighters are likely to encounter.
      • NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers provides information on rating, placement and use.
    • GENERAL :
      • Firefighters should rely on extinguishers carried on their apparatus and not those found in occupancies.
      • Two portable extinguishers are required on fire apparatus by NFPA standard 1901
      • One suitable for class B and C fires and one for class A
      • Sizes are as follows: Co2 rated 10 BC, Dry Chemical rated 80 BC, & 2.5 Gal H2o for Class A
    • Fire Classification and Risk
      • The type and nature of the burning material (fuel) defines the fire.
      • There are five classes of fire.
        • Class A
        • Class B
        • Class C
        • Class D
        • Class K (As of 1998)
    • Class K Fires Click Here to View Video: Class K Fires
    • Types of Fire Extinguishers (1 of 2)
      • Many types of fire extinguishers are available today.
      Click Here to View Video: Fire Extinguisher Functions/Ratings
    • Types of Fire Extinguishers (2 of 2)
      • Many factors need to be considered before using an extinguisher.
        • Type and amount of fuel
        • User and occupancy
        • Building construction
        • Environmental conditions
        • Type of equipment being protected
    • Types of Extinguishing Agents (1 of 2)
      • Water is the basic agent for Class A fires.
      • Water-based foam extinguishers for class B fires have either AFFF or FFFP.
      • CO 2 is an inert gas stored under pressure.
      • CO 2 is effective on Class B or C fires.
      • Dry chemical agents are particles propelled by a gaseous medium.
      • There are three categories of dry chemicals.
    • Types of Extinguishing Agents (2 of 2)
      • Wet chemicals are water-based solutions.
      • Wet chemicals are used for Class K fires.
      • Clean agents have replaced halons.
      • Clean agents do not conduct electricity or leave a residue.
      • There are two classes.
        • Halocarbon agents and inerting gases
    • Kinds of Extinguishers
      • Pump-type extinguishers are hand-pumped devices.
      • Pressurized extinguishers operate by expelling gas that propels the agent out.
      • Cartridge-operated extinguishers are used for dry chemical and most dry powder Class D extinguishers.
    • Backpack Pump Tank
    • PUMP-TANK WATER
      • STREAM REACH – 30 to 40 ft.
      • DISCHARGE TIME – 45 sec. To 3 min.
    • Stored Pressure Water Extinguisher Stored Pressure Foam Extinguisher Stored Pressure Extinguishers (1 of 2)
    • STORED-PRESSURE WATER
      • STREAM REACH - 30 to 40 ft.
      • DISCHARGE TIME - 45 sec. To 60 sec.
    • FOAM EXTINGUISHERS:
      • STREAM REACH - 20 to 25 ft.
      • DISCHARGE TIME - Approx. 50 sec.
      • AFFF - USED ON CLASS B FIRES NOT INVOLVING WATER SOLUABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR SOLVENTS) AIR ASPIRATING CREATING A BLANKET
      • FFFP - USED ON CLASS B FIRES INVOLVING ALCOHOL RESISTANT LIQUIDS (SMOTHERS)
    • Stored Pressure Dry Chemical Extinguisher Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers Stored Pressure Extinguishers (2 of 2)
    • DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS
      • ABC ( MULTI- PURPOSE)- MOST COMMON USED
          • (MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE)
      • BC (REGULAR, OR SODIUM BICARBONATE)
          • POTASIUM BICARBONATE
          • AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE
          • POTASIUM CHLORIDE
      • PKP (POTASSIUM BICARBONATE)
      • USED FOR MOST CLASSES OF FIRES
    • DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS
      • STREAM REACH: 5 TO 20 Ft.
      • DISCHARGE TIME: 8 TO 25 Sec.
      • !!!!!! NEVER MIX DRY CHEMICAL WITH OTHER TYPES OF AGENTS , MAY CAUSE A DANGEROUS RISE IN PRESSURE INSIDE EXTINGUISHER
      • NON-TOXIC ONLY AN IRRITANT
    • HALON EXTINGUISHERS:
      • 1211 - CLEAR LIQUID STREAM
        • Stream Reach - 8 to 18 ft.
        • Discharge Time - 8 to 18 sec.
      • 1301 -FIXED SYSTEMS (FLOODING)
        • Stream Reach - 4 to 6 ft
        • Discharge Time - 8 to 10 sec.
      • NEARLY INVISIBLE (WIND)
      • HALOTRON (CLEAN-AGENT)- B&C
      • NON OZONE DEPLETER, ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE
    • Cartridge-Operated Dry Chemical Extinguisher
    • CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHERS
      • STREAM REACH - 3 to 8 ft.
      • DISCHARGE TIME - 8 to 30 sec.
      • HORN- DISPERSION
      • UNLIKE OTHERS ITS STORED UNDER ITS OWN PRESSURE
    • DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHERS:
      • DRY POWDER ( LITH-X) - EXTINGUISH COMBUSTIBLE METALS
      • NOT EVERY DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHER WILL WORK ON ANY COMBUSTIBLE METAL FIRE
      • GRAY OR BLACK IN COLOR
      • APPLY WITH SUFFICIENT DEPTH
    • WET CHEMICAL
      • CLASS K - FOUND IN KITCHENS WITH UNSATURATED FATS & OILS, EXTINGUISHES WITH MINIMAL SPLASH BACK AND PREVENTION OF REFLASH
      • Common Size - 2-1/2 Gallon
      • Operating Principle - Air Pressure
    • WET CHEMICAL
      • CLASS K -
      • STREAM REACH - 8 to 12 ft.
      • DISCHARGE TIME - 75 to 80 sec.
    •  
    • Rating Systems of Portable Extinguishers
      • Each class of fuel is subject to a separate type of rating test.
        • Class A rating test uses wooden cribbing test.
        • Class B rating test uses a pan of flammable liquid.
        • Class C rating test only involves conductivity of the agent and the nozzle or hose and nozzle combination.
    • Rating Systems of Portable Extinguishers
    • CLASS A RATINGS:
      • CLASS A RATINGS RANGE FROM 1-ATO 40-A
      • 1-A EQUALS 11/4 GAL.OF WATER (BENCH MARK)
      • 2-A HAS TWO TIMES THE EXTINGUISHING CAPABILITY OF A 1-A
      • ACCORDING TO OCCUPANCY HAZARD,MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA PER UNIT, PER EXTINGUISHER, AND MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE TO EXTINGUISHER
    • CLASS B RATING:
      • CLASS B RATINGS RANGE FROM 1-B TO 640-B
      • THE 1-B RATING EQUALING 1 SQUARE FOOT
      • THE TEST CONSIST OF THE APPROXIMATE SQUARE FOOT AREA OF A FLAMMABLE LIQUID FIRE THAT A NON-EXPERT OPERATOR CAN EXTINGUISH
    • CLASS C & D RATINGS:
      • CLASS C FIRES ARE TYPICALLY CLASS A OR B FIRES INVOLVING ENERGIZED EQUIPMENT (AGENT NON-CONDUCTIVE)
      • THERE IS NO EXTINGUISHER WITH A CLASS A-C RATING
      • CLASS D FIRES EXTINGUISHING CAPABILITY VARIES WITH THE FUEL METAL BEING BURNED
      • CLASS D EXTINGUISHERS ARE NOT GIVEN A MULTI PURPOSE RATING
    • Limitations of Portable Extinguishers
      • Extinguishers have limited capabilities.
        • They are designed and rated for certain types and sizes of fire.
      • The wrong extinguisher will create greater problems.
        • You need to use the right extinguisher for the fire present.
    • Extinguisher Operation
      • P ull the pin.
      • A im the nozzle.
      • S queeze the handle.
      • S weep the nozzle.
      Click Here to View Video: PASS Procedure/Fire Extinguisher Maintenance
    • OPERATION OF EXTINGUISHER:
      • SELECTING
      • QUICK INSPECTION
      • APPROACH
      • APPLICATION
    • SELECTION:
      • CHOOSE PROPER EXTINGUISHER ACCORDING TO SIZE OF FIRE, TYPE OF FIRE.
      • CHOOSE AN EXTINGUISHER THAT WILL EFFECTIVELY DO THE JOB WITHOUT RISK TO LIFE AND PROPERTY
    • QUICK INSPECTION:
      • EXTERNAL DAMAGE
      • HOSE-HORN/NOZZLE ARE IN PLACE
      • PROPER WEIGHT OF EXTINGUISHER
      • PRESSURE GAUGE IN OPERATING RANGE
    • APPROACH:
      • SAFETY IS PARAMOUNT !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
      • NEVER RUN WITH EXTINGUISHER
      • APPROACH FROM WINWARD SIDE
      • MAKE SURE AGENT REACHES FIRE
      • WATCH FOR RADIANT HEAT
    • APPLICATION:
      • P ULL OUT THE PULL PIN IN OUTWARD DIRECTION WITH RIGHT HAND
      • A IM NOZZLE AT BASE OF FIRE WITH RIGHT HAND
      • S QUEEZE HANDLE WITH LEFT
      • S WEEP NOZZLE FROM SIDE TO SIDE AT BASE OF FIRE WITH RIGHT HAND, MOVING FORWARD UNTIL FIRE IS EXTINGUISHED
    • Obsolete Extinguishers
      • Firefighters should never operate obsolete extinguishers.
        • Soda acid
        • Chemical foam (except film-forming)
        • Vaporizing liquids
        • Cartridge-operated water or loaded stream
        • Copper or brass extinguishers
      Click Here to View Video: Obsolete Fire Extinguishers
    • Care and Maintenance of Portable Extinguishers
      • Carefully inspect before placing in service.
      • Remove them from bracket periodically.
      • Occasionally invert dry chemical extinguishers.
      • Clean dirt and grit to maintain good working order.
    • Inspection Requirements (1 of 2)
      • First, perform visual inspection.
      • It should be checked every 30 days.
      • Pin seal should be in place.
      • Gauge should register proper pressure.
    • Inspection Requirements (2 of 2)
      • Some extinguishers, such as CO 2 , are only checked by weighing.
      • Weight is stamped on the cylinder.
      • Check for hydrostatic testing.
    • INSPECTION :
      • LOCATIONS/ACCESSABILITY
      • SEAL
      • PHYSICAL DAMAGE
      • GAUGE
      • HOSES&HORNS/NOZZLE
      • INSTRUCTION& NAMEPLATE
      • CHECK WEIGHT
      • INSPECTION TAG/COLLAR& STICKERS
    • LOCATION/ACCESSABILITY:
      • IN DESIGNATED LOCATION
      • IN BRACKET/CASE
      • CLEAR OF OBSTRUCTIONS
    • SEAL/PIN:
      • PIN IS IN
      • SEAL IS NOT BROKEN
      • PROPER TYPE OF SEAL AND PIN IS ON EXTINGUISHER
    • PHYSICAL DAMAGE:
      • DENTS
      • CRACKS
      • CORROSION
      • BROKEN OR BENT HANDLES
      • CRACKED OR BROKEN HOSES/NOZZLES
    • GAUGE:
      • IN OPERATION RANGE
      • NO WATER IN IT
      • BENT
      • LEAKING
      • BLOWOUT DISC
      • NEEDLE NOT BROKE
    • HOSES&HORNS/NOZZLES
      • FREE OF OBSTRUCTIONS
      • CRACKED OR SPLIT
      • MELTED
      • FITTINGS
      • ALL CO2 HOSES REQUIRE A CONDUCTIVITY TEST LABEL
    • INSTRUCTIONS/NAMEPLATE:
      • THERE
      • LEGIBLE
      • RATING
      • SYMBOL
    • WEIGHT:
      • LIFTING
      • SCALE
      • GAUGE
      • NAMEPLATE
    • INSPECTION TAG/COLLAR& STICKERS :
      • DATE OF INSPECTION,MAINTENANCE,OR RECHARGING
      • ANY EXTINGUISHER SERVICED AFTER JANUARY 1999, SHALL HAVE A SERVICE COLLAR
      • ALL EXTINGUISHERS MADE OR SERVICED AFTER 1989 SHALLHAVE HMIS LABEL OR STICKER
      • HYDROSTATIC STICKER
      • 6YR STICKER
    • MAINTENANCE/SERVICING:
      • RESPONSIBILITY
      • ANNUAL SERVICE
      • 6YR MAINTENANCE
      • HYDROSTATIC TEST
    • RESPONSIBLILITY:
      • THE BUILDING OCCUPANT
      • PROPERTY OWNER
      • LICENSED COMPANIES
      • CERTIFIED EXTINGUISHER TECHNICIANS
    • ANNUAL SERVICE:
      • INSPECTED ANNUALLY EITHER BY BUILDING OWNER, FIRE INSPECTOR, LICENSED BUISNESS
      • CHECK HOSE
      • CHECK GAUGE
      • CHECK SEAL
      • CHECK LABELS
      • WEIGHT
    • 6 YEAR MAINTENANCE:
      • COMPLETED EVERY 6 YEARS AFTER MANUFACTURED, OR HYDROSTACIALLY TESTED
      • COMPLETE TEARDOWN
      • CHECK VALVE STEM
      • CHECK O-RING
      • AGENT
      • OVERALL EXTINGUISHER
    • HYDRO-STATIC TESTING:
      • DRY CHEM/POWDER- 12 YEARS
      • HALON- 12 YEARS
      • CO2- 5 YEARS
      • FOAM- 5 YEARS( AGENT EVERY 3)
    • HYDRO CONT:
      • WATER- 5 YEARS
      • COMPLETE TEARDOWN
      • DEFORMATIES, DENTS, SCRATCHES
      • ALL STORED PRESSURE EXTINGUISHERS THAT REQUIRE A 12 YEAR HYDRO ARE REQUIRED TO UNDERGO A 6 YEAR MAINTENANCE
    • IF ANY OF THE ITEMS LISTED ARE FOUND DEFICIENT IN EITHER INSPECTION OR MAINTENANCE, THE EXTINGUISHER SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM SERVICE, AND REPAIRED IN ACCORDANCE WITH DEPARTMENT POLICIES
    • Summary
      • There are various classes of fires.
      • There are various kinds of extinguishers.
      • The proper type of extinguisher is needed for various classes of fire.
      • It is important to remember extinguishers have limitations.
      • Extinguishers need to be maintained, serviced, and inspected regularly.