Chapter 16 rescue procedures 6 07

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  • 1. Rescue Procedures CHAPTER 16
  • 2. Objectives (1 of 2)
    • Recognize the hazards associated with various rescue operations.
    • Describe the differences between primary and secondary searches.
    • Identify the need for rapid intervention teams.
    • Demonstrate the proper procedures for victim drags and carries.
    • Define proper terminology utilized during motor vehicle extrication operations.
  • 3. Objectives (2 of 2)
    • Demonstrate proper and safe operation of vehicle extrication tools and equipment.
    • Explain the various types of specialized rescue situations presented and the hazards associated with them.
    • Identify specialized equipment used during technical rescue operations.
  • 4. Introduction
    • Rescues are defined as actions that trained firefighters perform at emergency scenes to remove someone from immediate danger, or to extricate them if they are already trapped.
    • This lesson is designed to provide an awareness level of rescue situations.
    • Teamwork and safety are the key points to remember.
  • 5. Hazards Associated with Rescue Operations
    • Every rescue operation has hazards.
    • Tunnel vision is a big hazard.
      • It is easy to get tunnel vision in a complex and lengthy rescue.
      • Tunnel vision can keep rescuers from seeing obvious solutions and impending danger.
  • 6. Search of Burning Structures (1 of 3)
    • This is one of the most dangerous rescue situations.
    • Training, practicing, and planning are the best ways to reduce danger.
    • Always enter in teams of two or more.
    • Two firefighters in full gear and a charged line should be ready to go in, if needed.
      • Known as two-in/two-out rule
  • 7. Search of Burning Structures (2 of 3)
    • Perform a quick survey of structure and surroundings.
    • Always carry a tool, flashlight, and radio when searching.
    • Thermal imagers may help “see” through smoke.
    • Search single-family structures using wall as reference.
      • Known as “right-handed” or “left-handed” search
  • 8. Search of Burning Structures (3 of 3)
    • Commercial or industrial structures require use of lifeline or guideline.
    • There are two operations to searching a building.
      • Primary search
      • Secondary search
  • 9. Search Team
  • 10. Rapid Intervention Team Standing By
  • 11. Survey Structure Prior to Entering
  • 12. Searching a Residential Occupancy
  • 13. Commercial Occupancies
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. SEARCHING A ROOM WITH 2 PEOPLE
    • One person is the point of reference.
    • Search around and behind furnishings.
    • Use tools and body to probe for victims.
    • Leave the way you came in.
    • Mark the searched area.
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. Primary Search
    • First and most dangerous of the two
    • Search team often ahead of attack lines
    • Often above the fire
    • Window searches may speed process
    • Rapid, but thorough, search
    • All clear may change fireground operations focus
  • 20. Secondary Search
    • Conducted after fire is out or well under control
    • A more thorough search
    • May find areas that still need to be extinguished
  • 21. Victim Removal, Drags, and Carries
    • Victims must be removed carefully and expeditiously.
    • Try to not cause further injury or aggravate existing injury.
    • You may not be able to give care due to hazardous or hostile environment.
    • Use “tight core” to create power and reduce injury.
  • 22. Firefighter’s Carry
  • 23. Extremity Carry
  • 24. Seat Carry
  • 25. Blanket Drag
  • 26. Clothing Drag
  • 27. Webbing Sling Drag
  • 28. Sit and Drag
  • 29. Firefighter’s Drag
  • 30. Rescue of a Firefighter Wearing SCBA
  • 31. Placing a Patient on a Backboard
  • 32. Placing a Patient on an Ambulance Cot
  • 33. Extrication From Motor Vehicle
    • Motor vehicle crashes are common rescue situations.
    • Knowledge, experience, and skill are most valuable tools.
    • Extrication means to free, release, or disentangle a patient from entrapment.
    • Operations may be simple or complex.
    • Operations at an extrication incident should follow a pre-determined sequence of events.
  • 34. Incident Action Plan
    • Scene assessment
    • Establishing work areas
    • Vehicle stabilization
    • Patient access
    • Disentanglement
    • Patient removal
    • Scene stabilization
  • 35. Extrication Tools (1 of 3)
    • They range from basic to specialized tools.
    • Hydraulic tools are operated by gasoline engine, electric motor, or air-driven motor.
    • Spreaders are used to push and pull.
    • Cutters are used for different tasks.
    • Rams are used for pushing.
    • Combination tools spread and cut.
  • 36. Extrication Tools (2 of 3)
    • Air bags come in high-pressure and low/medium-pressure.
    • High-pressure bags operate at a maximum inflation pressure of about 130 psi.
    • Bags come in sizes ranging from 6”x 6” to 36”x 36”.
    • Low/medium-pressure bags can lift very heavy loads.
  • 37. Extrication Tools (3 of 3)
    • Air chisels are valuable tools for rescue operations.
    • Reciprocating saws are also gaining popularity.
  • 38. Gasoline Engines
  • 39. Spreaders and Cutters
  • 40. Rams and Combination Tools
  • 41. High-Pressure Air Bags
  • 42. Low-Pressure Air Bags
  • 43. Air Chisel and Reciprocating Saw
  • 44. Crash Scene Assessment
    • Traffic
    • Number and types of vehicles involved
    • Number and apparent extent of injuries
    • Disentanglement requirements
    • Other associated hazards
  • 45. Additional Resources
    • Additional ambulances
    • Specialized extrication equipment
    • Additional law enforcement
    • Specialized technical rescue equipment
  • 46. Establish Work Areas
    • Use of cones
    • Natural barriers
    • Law enforcement
  • 47. Vehicle Stabilization
    • It may be simple or complex.
    • Determine the type necessary.
    • You may use cribbing.
    • You may need additional tools.
  • 48. Patient Access
    • It is necessary to care for the patient.
    • Patient may need care prior to removal.
    • It may be as simple as opening a door.
    • You may need additional tools.
  • 49. Disentanglement
    • Disassembly
    • Distortion
    • Displacement
    • Severance
  • 50. Patient Removal
    • Careful of sharp metal and edges
    • Tools removed from egress path
    • Tools retrieved and fire hazard monitored
  • 51. Scene Stabilization
    • Secure unresolved hazards.
    • Remove tools and cribbing that may create hazards.
    • Remain at the scene until the vehicle is removed.
    • Tow cable risks.
    • Fluid and vehicle debris.
    • Remove barriers.
  • 52. Specialized Rescue Situations and Tools
    • There are a variety of other rescues a firefighter may face.
      • Specialized training beyond this course is needed.
      • This is designed as a familiarization.
  • 53. Vertical Rescue
    • The victim may be above or below grade.
    • NFPA 1983 deals with rope safety.
    • Rescuers must be well-trained.
    • Be familiar with equipment and techniques.
  • 54. Water Rescue
    • These are very dangerous operations
    • Wear PFD around water.
    • Do not attempt rescue if not trained.
    • Ice rescue requires thermal protection.
    • Reach, Throw, Row, Go.
  • 55. Structural Collapse Rescue
    • Collapse may be natural or from an explosion.
      • Pancake collapse
      • Lean-to collapse
      • V-type collapse
    • Victims are the greatest concern.
    • You need specialized training and equipment.
  • 56. Structural Collapse Rescue
    • Pancake Collapse
  • 57. Structural Collapse Rescue
    • Lean-to Collapse
  • 58. Structural Collapse Rescue
    • V-type Collapse
  • 59. Trench and Below-Grade Rescue
    • Most occur at construction, utilities, maintenance, or well digging sites.
    • Asphyxiation is a major concern.
    • For the safety of rescuers, beware of a secondary collapse.
    • Team work is essential.
  • 60. Confined Space Rescue
    • Definition
      • A space large enough to enter
      • Not designed for worker occupancy
      • Limited egress or access
    • Many different forms
    • Concern of oxygen-deficient atmosphere
    • Space constantly monitored
    • Need proper PPE and equipment
    • Back-up crew ready
  • 61. Other Rescue Situations
    • Rescue from electrical situations
      • Energy concerns
    • Industrial entrapment rescue
      • Unusual entrapments
    • Elevator and escalator rescue
      • Secure elevator and call for assistance
    • Farm equipment rescue
      • Specialized training needs
  • 62. Summary
    • Address common rescue situations you may have to face.
    • Specialized training is required.
    • Goal was to present broad spectrum of situations and some concepts to deal with them.
    • Never attempt a complex rescue without proper training.
    • Identify possible hazards in your district.
    • Know where to get specialized resources.