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BrianHughesSchool of Psychology,National University ofIreland, Galway
Smith, T. W., Limon, J. P., Gallo, L. C., & Ngu, L. Q. (1996).       J Personality Social Psychol, 70, 1012-1024.
• “Helping is intrinsically good”• “Psychotherapy works because it’s psychotherapy”• “Positivity is great”• “Women are gre...
http://ed.fnal.gov/projects/scientists/index.html
Leydesdorff & Rafols (2009). Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60, 348-362.
http://users.fmg.uva.nl/lleydesdorff/map06/index.htm
• Some philosophical assumptions  – Determinism  – Empiricism  – Skepticism• Some methodological principles  – Observation...
• Some philosophical assumptions  – Determinism  – Empiricism  – Skepticism• Some methodological principles  – Observation...
HOT!                         NOT!                     Physics   Chemistry     PsychologyEmpirical                      Yes...
HOT!                                    NOT!                       Psychology       Meteorology    AstrophysicsEmpirical  ...
HOT!                                       NOT!                       Psychology       Palaeontology        BotanyEmpirica...
HOT!                                          NOT!                       Psychology           UFOlogy            Astrology...
Question:Is psychology a science?    Short Answer:
Smith, T. W., Limon, J. P., Gallo, L. C., & Ngu, L. Q. (1996).       J Personality Social Psychol, 70, 1012-1024.
Hughes, B. M., & Callinan, S. (2007). Psychology &              Health, 22, 457-472.
http://goo.gl/EVUs7
• “Do to others as you would  have them do to you”• “Do not do to others what you  do not want done to yourself”• “Do not ...
“Usual” Blood Pressure                                                           100 university staff; 67 women, 33       ...
ODonovan, A., & Hughes, B. M. (2008). Access to social support in life and in the laboratory: Combined impact oncardiovasc...
• What type of social support (e.g., group  work, peer mentoring, etc.) would  provide effective couples counselling?• Pra...
• ‘Placebo’ problem    – Most studies have inadequate      control conditions• ‘Expertise’ problem    – No difference betw...
Wampold et al. (1997)
p of hypothesis that effect deviates from zero (i.e., probability that both therapies are the                      same)Wa...
“Small” effect size(d of .21 equivalent to r = .1, or 1% of variance)Wampold et al. (1997)
Wampold, B. E., Imel, Z. E., and Miller, S. D. (2009). Barriers to the dissemination of empirically supported          tre...
http://goo.gl/wWJNC
“Peer-reviewed journals, positivist epistemology, andquantitative methods work… to reduce women’sparticipation in psycholo...
HTTP://XKCD.COM/385/
Validity   Construct validity   External validity   Internal validityReliability   Inter-rater reliability   Test-retest r...
Group vs. Individual Differences
Group vs. Individual Differences
Group vs. Individual Differences
Tendency tonotice sexdifferences andto under-emphasize ‘sexsimilarities’File-drawerproblem
Psychology, done      Psychologists, andscientifically, can   the societies theyteach us much about   work in, will haveth...
Psychology, done      Psychologists, andscientifically, can   the societies theyteach us much about   work in, will haveth...
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
Ucc one sided coin actual
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Ucc one sided coin actual

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Guest lecture at University College Cork to the UCC Psychology Society, 21 January 2013

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Transcript of "Ucc one sided coin actual"

  1. 1. BrianHughesSchool of Psychology,National University ofIreland, Galway
  2. 2. Smith, T. W., Limon, J. P., Gallo, L. C., & Ngu, L. Q. (1996). J Personality Social Psychol, 70, 1012-1024.
  3. 3. • “Helping is intrinsically good”• “Psychotherapy works because it’s psychotherapy”• “Positivity is great”• “Women are great”• “Qualitative approaches to psychology are (a) positive, (b) womanly , and (c) therefore great”
  4. 4. http://ed.fnal.gov/projects/scientists/index.html
  5. 5. Leydesdorff & Rafols (2009). Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60, 348-362.
  6. 6. http://users.fmg.uva.nl/lleydesdorff/map06/index.htm
  7. 7. • Some philosophical assumptions – Determinism – Empiricism – Skepticism• Some methodological principles – Observation – Measurement – Experimentation• Some reasoning principles – Parsimony – Falsification – Objectivity
  8. 8. • Some philosophical assumptions – Determinism – Empiricism – Skepticism• Some methodological principles – Observation – Measurement – Experimentation• Some reasoning principles – Parsimony – Falsification – Objectivity
  9. 9. HOT! NOT! Physics Chemistry PsychologyEmpirical Yes Yes YesfalsifiabilityParsimony of Yes Yes Most of the timetheoryExperimental Yes Yes To an extentcontrolMeasurement Yes Yes Kind ofaccuracyFacilitates Yes Yes A bitprediction
  10. 10. HOT! NOT! Psychology Meteorology AstrophysicsEmpirical Yes Yes Kind offalsifiabilityParsimony of Most of the time Not really YestheoryExperimental To an extent No NocontrolMeasurement Kind of Kind of Within limitsaccuracyFacilitates A bit A bit Who knows?prediction
  11. 11. HOT! NOT! Psychology Palaeontology BotanyEmpirical Yes No NofalsifiabilityParsimony of Most of the time Hard to say Not a prioritytheoryExperimental To an extent No NocontrolMeasurement Patchy track Kind of Within limitsaccuracy recordFacilitates A bit Not a priority Not a priorityprediction
  12. 12. HOT! NOT! Psychology UFOlogy AstrologyEmpirical Yes Absolutely none Absolutely nonefalsifiabilityParsimony of The antithesis of Most of the time Not at alltheory parsimonyExperimental To an extent Err, nope No attemptcontrolMeasurement Track record of Kind of Not a priorityaccuracy utter failureFacilitates A bit Not a priority Afraid not!prediction
  13. 13. Question:Is psychology a science? Short Answer:
  14. 14. Smith, T. W., Limon, J. P., Gallo, L. C., & Ngu, L. Q. (1996). J Personality Social Psychol, 70, 1012-1024.
  15. 15. Hughes, B. M., & Callinan, S. (2007). Psychology & Health, 22, 457-472.
  16. 16. http://goo.gl/EVUs7
  17. 17. • “Do to others as you would have them do to you”• “Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself”• “Do not do unto others whatever is injurious to yourself”• “What is hateful to you, do not do to your neighbor”• “Not one of you truly believes until you wish for others what you wish for yourself”
  18. 18. “Usual” Blood Pressure 100 university staff; 67 women, 33 men; aged 26 to 63 (mean 37.9) Regression Analysis β p Model 1 (19.3%) Gender +.27 .009 Age +.18 .063 BMI +.15 .147 Model 2 (+ 4.7%) Social support –.22 .018 [Depression] –.03 .778 [Perceived stress] –.02 .825 p < .001 for both modelsHughes, B. M. & Howard, S. (2009). Social support reduces resting cardiovascularfunction in women. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 22, 537-548.
  19. 19. ODonovan, A., & Hughes, B. M. (2008). Access to social support in life and in the laboratory: Combined impact oncardiovascular reactivity to stress and state anxiety. Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 1147-1156.
  20. 20. • What type of social support (e.g., group work, peer mentoring, etc.) would provide effective couples counselling?• Practice – Exposure to couples with cohesive relationships• Evidence – Exposure to couples with discordant relationships leads to greater happiness, confidence, and benefit-finding Buunk, B. P., & Hoorens, V. (1992). Social support and stress: The role of social comparison and social exchange processes. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 445-457.
  21. 21. • ‘Placebo’ problem – Most studies have inadequate control conditions• ‘Expertise’ problem – No difference between trained vs. untrained therapists• ‘Experience’ problem – No difference between experts vs. novices• ‘Generic effectiveness’ problem – ‘Dodo bird’ conjecture
  22. 22. Wampold et al. (1997)
  23. 23. p of hypothesis that effect deviates from zero (i.e., probability that both therapies are the same)Wampold et al. (1997)
  24. 24. “Small” effect size(d of .21 equivalent to r = .1, or 1% of variance)Wampold et al. (1997)
  25. 25. Wampold, B. E., Imel, Z. E., and Miller, S. D. (2009). Barriers to the dissemination of empirically supported treatments: Matching evidence to messages. The Behavior Therapist, 32, 144-155
  26. 26. http://goo.gl/wWJNC
  27. 27. “Peer-reviewed journals, positivist epistemology, andquantitative methods work… to reduce women’sparticipation in psychology.” (p. 96)“*In addressing discrimination against women+ thenew Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section shouldalso provide an important forum…” (p. 96) The Psychologist (2006) On behalf of the British Psychological Society’s Standing Committee for the Promotion of Equal Opportunities
  28. 28. HTTP://XKCD.COM/385/
  29. 29. Validity Construct validity External validity Internal validityReliability Inter-rater reliability Test-retest reliability
  30. 30. Group vs. Individual Differences
  31. 31. Group vs. Individual Differences
  32. 32. Group vs. Individual Differences
  33. 33. Tendency tonotice sexdifferences andto under-emphasize ‘sexsimilarities’File-drawerproblem
  34. 34. Psychology, done Psychologists, andscientifically, can the societies theyteach us much about work in, will havethe world… social value-systemsAnd value-systems …but in doing soinfluence the way requires prioritisationwe form subjective of objectivity overjudgements values! brian.hughes@nuigalway.ie http://thesciencebit.net
  35. 35. Psychology, done Psychologists, andscientifically, can the societies theyteach us much about work in, will havethe world… social value-systemsAnd value-systems …but in doing soinfluence the way requires prioritisationwe form subjective of objectivity overjudgements values! brian.hughes@nuigalway.ie http://thesciencebit.net

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