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Guest lecture at National University of Ireland, Galway to the NUIG Psychology Society, 18 February 2013

Guest lecture at National University of Ireland, Galway to the NUIG Psychology Society, 18 February 2013

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Starting positions slideshare Starting positions slideshare Presentation Transcript

  • Kinship loyalty A building is burning.(Pinker, 2002) You can run through the left door and save a number of children who are all unrelated to you, or you can run through the right door and save your own child…
  • Julie and Mark are brother and sister…One night they arestaying alone in a cabin…They decide that it would beinteresting and fun if they tried making love…Julie wasalready taking birth control pills, but Mark uses a condomtoo, just to be safe. They both enjoy making love, but theydecide not to do it again. They keep that night as a specialsecret, which makes them feel even closer to each other… Based on Haidt (2001) Picture: http://l0stshadow.deviantart.com/
  • Definition of ‘value’(Rokeach, 1973)An “enduring belief that aspecific mode of conduct orend state of existence ispersonally or sociallypreferable to an opposite orconverse mode of conduct orend state of existence”
  • • Stable over time (not transient)• Criteria for evaluations (not evaluations themselves)• Hierarchically ordered• May be shared at societal level• Exist within typologies (e.g., terminal vs. instrumental)
  • Aristotelianism Utilitarianism Deontology‘Golden mean’ of Maximising utilityperfection/virtue (or minimising Categorical imperative: ‘negative utility’) ‘…will that it should become a universal law’
  • Left-wing Right-wingRedistribution of Private property resources Social justice Capitalism Liberalism ConservatismBig Government Small government
  • Left-wing Right-wing Favours individual Favours adherence tofreedom of thought decisions of a central and action ruling regime
  • Libertarian Authoritarian Anarchists Capitalists Communists Conservatives Progressives Fascists Social liberals MonarchistsSocial democrats Nationalists Socialists Reactionaries
  • Implications of Nature-NurtureDistinctions… …for parenting Nurture: Parenting instills values Nature: Parenting less important
  • Implications of Nature-NurtureDistinctions… …for interventions Nurture: Interventions should work well Nature: Interventions less effective than hoped
  • Implications of Nature-NurtureDistinctions… …for moral culpability Nurture: Circumstances to blame Nature: Person to blame NYDailyNews.com
  • 80 12070 10060 805040 6030 NY Times 4020 Wash Post 20 NY100 0 DC 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Shanahan & Good (2000). Public Understanding of Science, 9, 285-295.
  • http://goo.gl/SReC0
  • Adolescentcompetence
  • Taylor’s “tend-and-befriend” position Taylor et al. (2000), Taylor (2002)• Taylor’s concern: – Most fight-or-flight research conducted on males – But, genders had different evolutionary experiences
  • Taylor’s “tend-and-befriend” position Taylor et al. (2000), Taylor (2002)• Gayle Pitman (2003) – Misogynistic, reflects societal sexism, reinforces “harmful and inaccurate gender stereotypes”
  • http://www.ehow.com/info_8783846_difference-between-qualitative-quantitative-approaches.html
  • “Peer-reviewed journals, positivist epistemology, andquantitative methods work...to reduce women’sparticipation in psychology.” (p. 96)“*In addressing discrimination against women] thenew Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section shouldalso provide an important forum…” (p. 96) The Psychologist (2006) On behalf of the British Psychological Society’s Standing Committee for the Promotion of Equal Opportunities
  • HTTP://XKCD.COM/385/
  • research it?
  • Group vs. Individual Differences
  • Tendency tonotice sexdifferences andto under-emphasize ‘sexsimilarities’File-drawerproblem
  • (Some)Scientific Values1. Open communication2. Honesty, objectivity3. Precision4. Curiosity5. Open-mindedness