Group 8Department of water resource engineering Faculty of engineering Kasetsart university
What is Earthquake? An earthquake is the sudden, rapid shaking or rolling of the Earth. Earthquakes happen when rocks break or slip along fault lines in the Earth’s crust, releasing energy that causes the ground to move.
Large plates include.• The Africa: the continent of Africa as a continent.• Antarctic Plate, covering Antarctica is a continent.• Australian Plate, covering Australia (To pages linked to India, about 50-55 million years ago) was the continents.• Eurasian plate, covering Asia and Europe as a continent.• North American plate, covering North America and northeastern Siberia, is inserted continent.• South American plate, a sheet covering North America.• The Pacific: the Pacific Ocean. As the ocean.• There are also smaller than the plate, including the Indian, the S series, the Caribbean, in the Juan de Fu, in a nice car, the Philippines and the Scotia.
What Causes Earthquake http://www.il.mahidol.ac.th/e-media/earth- science/chapter1_3.html The sudden slip at the fault causesthe earthquake a violent shaking of theEarth when large elastic strain energyreleased spreads out through seismicwaves that travel through the body andalong the surface of the Earth.
WHAT IS A FAULT? Earthquakes occur on faults.A fault is a thin zone of crushed rockbetween two blocks of rock , andcan be any length, from centimetersto thousands of kilometers. Whenan earthquake occurs on one ofthese faults, the rock on one side ofthe fault slips with respect to theother. The fault surface can bevertical, horizontal, or at someangle to the surface of the earth.The slip direction can also be at anyangle. We classify these into twobasic cases: strike slip and dip-slipmotion.
Measuring the shaking Magnitude is a measurement of the energyproduced by the earthquake and is not what you feelduring the event. What you feel is very complex-- hardor gentle, long or short, jerky or rolling--and notdescribable with one number.
The worlds first earthquake detector ;science museum
Wave EquationM = earthquake magnitude (Richter).A = the height of seismic waves as high as possible.A0 = height of seismic waves at the center.
Aspects of the motion are described by thepeak velocity (how fast the ground is moving),peak acceleration (how quickly the speed of theground is changing), the frequency (energy isreleased in waves and these waves vibrate atdifferent frequencies just like sound waves), andthe duration (how long the strong shaking lasts).Three factors primarily determine what you feel inan earthquake. These are: 1) magnitude 2) distance from the fault 3) local soil conditions
MAGNITUDE When scientists refer to a “Great“earthquake, they do not mean theearthquake was fabulous, they mean it washuge. Informally, earthquakes are classifiedaccording to their magnitudesize: under 5 small 5 - 6 moderate 6 - 7 large 7 - 7.8 major 7.8 or above great
Intensity Intensity is a qualitative measure of the actualshaking at a location during an earthquake, and isassigned as Roman Capital Numerals. There aremany intensity scales. Two commonly used ones arethe Modified Marcella Intensity (MMI) Scale and theMSK Scale. Both scales are quite similar and rangefrom I- (least perceptive) to XII- (most severe). Theintensity scales are based on three features of shaking. • perception by people and animals, • performance of buildings, and • changes to natural surroundings.
How the Ground Shakes?Seismic Waves Large strain energy released during an earthquake travels as seismic waves in all directions through the Earth’s layers, reflecting and refracting at each interface. These waves are of two types -body waves and surface waves; the latter are restricted to near the Earth’s surface Body waves consist of Primary Waves (P-waves) and Secondary Waves (S-waves), and surface waves consist of Love waves and Rayleigh waves.
Focal Pont The point on the fault where slip starts isthe Focus or Hypocenter, and the pointvertically above this on the surface of theEarth is the Epicenter. The depth of focus fromthe epicenter, called as Focal Depth, is animportant parameter in determining thedamaging
Hazard Vulnerability in Gujarat100% of land vulnerable to Earthquakes11 % of Land liable to severe earthquake( IntensityMSK VIIXmore)-Kachchh Area9 % of Land liable to severe earthquake(IntensityMSK V-VIII)Banaskantha, jam nagar,Surendranagar79.2 % of Land liable to severe earthquake( Intensity MSK III-VI)
The formula to calculate earthquakes. Standards used to design buildings to resistearthquakes (Design Code) is an American UBC Code(Uniform Building Code), which are many ways tocalculate earthquakes. But how convenient andwidely used in building work is to Lateral LoadAnalysis or Base Shear Analysis by converting seismic(Dynamic Load) in the form of shear forces acting atthe base of the building Static Load, which can beobtained from formula
Design CodeV = Z I K C S Wd V = a Wt V= Total base shear Z = Seismic zoning factor I = Occupancy important factor (1.0 - 1.5) K = Frame factor C = Coefficient that depends on the period (Period), the swing of the building. S = Soil factor (1.0 - 1.5) Wd = Total dead loads of structure WT = Total dead loads and live loads of structure a = Base shear coefficient http://microfeap.com/DrSomporn/Engineer/Eng003doc_Earthquake.htm
power fault or Active Fault current is as follows. Chang san fault. The length of thechannel, about 130 kilometers from MaeChan to the east. The Mae Chan. It cutsacross the south of the district County to theeast along the north side of Chiang KhongNavy ships. Mae Chan fault length of about 130 kmfrom the years 2521 and> 3 on the Richterscale occurred along the fault is 10 times / 3times the size of> 4.5 on the Richter scale wasonly on September 1, 2521 are> 4.9 on theRichter scale.
power fault or Active Fault current is as follows. Mae Tha fault. Is curved along the Mae WangRiver. And the river in Mae Tha, Chiang Mai andLamphun. The total length is about 55 kilometers ofintensive studies in the year 2521, there were severalsmall earthquakes. http://blog.eduzones.com/anisada/80016
Statistics of earthquakes felt in the country since 2550 - present.( in Thailand ) 12 Sep 2550 in South Sumatra and 8.4 on theRichter scale was felt on the high-rise building inBangkok. 13 Sep 2550 the area south of the Sumatra quakeof 7.1 on the Richter scale was felt in some of thebuildings. 12 May 2551 in Sichuan province of China, and7.8 on the Richter scale shaking the feel of the tallestbuilding in Bangkok. And China has killed about 20,000people. 30 Sep 2552 in the middle of the island of Sumatrawas 7.9 on the Richter scale was the tallest building inBangkok. Indonesia has killed about 1,000 people.
Statistics of earthquakes (world Record) 9.5 Richter scale earthquake on 5 May 1960on the southern coast of Chile. As a result,more than 1,600 people have died and 2million homeless. 9.2 Richter scale earthquake on 27 Mar1964 Alaska to the United States, the tsunamiclaimed 128 lives and destroyed "in the neck,Anchorage" (Anchorage), the largest city inthe state.
Statistics of earthquakes (world Record) 9.1 Richter scale earthquake that we allremember well. I was born on 26 Dec 2004 atsea in Indonesia. As a result, the tsunami iswidespread in many coastal countries in theIndian Ocean. More than 220,000 people losttheir lives. 9.0 Richter scale earthquake on 4 Nov 1952at the Russian coast of the peninsula to theIncome Support values (Kamchatka) Russias FarEast. As a result, a large tsunami in the PacificRim. However, no reports of damage.
Statistics of earthquakes (world Record) 9.0 Richter scale earthquake on 13 Aug 1868in North America, the port area. We are part ofPeru. But as of Chillicothe. When an earthquakeoccurs. Feel the vibration as far as 1,400 miles. 9.0 Richter scale earthquake on 26 Jan 1700in North America. Along the west coast. Tsunamiacross the Pacific. Destruction of villages alongthe coast of Japan.
Statistics of earthquakes (world Record) 8.9 Richter scale earthquake that occurredjust recently on 11 Mar 2011 earthquake underthe sea to the southeast coast of Japan. Result ina 10-meter high tsunami swept into the flood. Thedamage is being reported to the periodic 8.8 Richter scale earthquake on 27 Feb 2010at the coast of Chile. Earthquakes along thebeach to play in the U (Maule) away from thecapital Santiago, only 500 km in the tsunami thathas killed about 500.
Statistics of earthquakes (world Record) 8.8 Richter scale earthquake on 31 Jan 1906in Ecuador, shaking the central coast of SouthAmerica to Ecuador and Colombia. I feelalmost as far as the North American continentat San Francisco. 8.7 Richter scale earthquake on 4 Feb 1965at Ballarat Island (Rat Islands) miles away fromAlaska. The tsunami wave height of 10 meters. http://www.udon108.com/board/index.php?topic=79326.0