Coffee wilt disease resistance breeding in Uganda - November 2012

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Presentation by Africano Kangire, Coffee Research Centre, Uganda
Delivered at the B4FA Media Dialogue Workshop, Kampala, Uganda - November 2012
www.b4fa.org

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Coffee wilt disease resistance breeding in Uganda - November 2012

  1. 1. DEVELOPING BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS TO ENHANCE MULTIPLICATION OF COFFEE WILT DISEASE RESISTANT MATERIALS FOR FARMERS Africano Kangire Israel Sebugenyi, Pascal Musoli and Naboth Edongot COFFEE RESEARCH CENTRE, UGANDA P.O.Box 185, Mukono-Kituza Email:afrikangire@gmail.com Presentation at Biosciences For Farming in Africa, Kampala 1st Nov., 2012
  2. 2. COFFEE RESEARCH CENTRE, AT KITUZA, MUKONO.
  3. 3. COFFEE AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN UGANDA • Over 8 million people derive their livelihood directly from coffee (involvement at different levels) • Uganda produces both Robusta (80%) and Arabica (20%) • Robusta is cultivated mainly between 1200-1500 masl. • While Arabica coffee between 1500-2300 masl • Uganda is known to produce the best Robusta coffee • It is the biggest coffee exporter in Africa (low consumer) • Overall, coffee contributes 20% of Uganda’s foreign currency earnings • Coffee is cultivated by mainly small holder farmers, with average farm sizes of 0.25 hectres.
  4. 4. COMPONENTS OF COFFEE RESEARCH IN UGANDA Leaf discs/explants Somatic Embryos in test tubes Mature embryos in a bioreactor ready transfer Mature embryos transferred on dishes Plants in bags ready for field Kituza, COREC at 39 Km east of Kla, on 195Ha Arabica coffee research, mainly at Bugusege, in Sironko, 6 Ha Tissue culture and germplasm conservation at Kawanda (NARLI)
  5. 5. THE CURRENT COFFEE KILLER CONSTRAINTS • Coffee wilt disease (CWD) •Lack of sufficient CWD resistant planting materials • Black coffee twig borer (BCTB) •Coffee leaf rust (CLR) – on Arabica coffee • Water stress (effects of climate change) • Declining soil fertility • Weak extension services
  6. 6. SOME OF THE BIOTIC KILLER CONSTRAINTS Coffee wilt disease; Robusta •Symptoms: Whole plants dry •Can lose a whole field Black coffee twig borer •Twigs killed and dry •Mistaken to be CWD •Spreads very fast Coffee leaf rust •Plants lose leaves •Harvested berries empty shells
  7. 7. COFFEE WILT DISEAEASE RESISTANT ROBUSTA VARIETIES DEVELOPED A mother garden of the coffee wilt disease resistant varieties intercropped with bananas at COREC. Farmers are advised to intercrop coffee and bananas to enhance their income and food security One of the coffee wilt disease resistant variety in the field at COREC
  8. 8. MULTIPLICATION OF PLANTING MATERIALS 1. Seed: Applicable to mainly Arabica coffee 2. Rarely applied with Robusta coffee due to outcrossing 3. Rooted clonal cuttings (Can produce up to 100 plts per year from one plant) 4. Tissue culture (Can produce up to 10,000 plts per year from one leaf) or even more than 100,000 per plant. Have contracted AGT, a private Lab., to produce up to 2,000,000 plants.
  9. 9. EX-PLANTS GENERATED FROM CLEAN LEAVES Coffee Leaf discs (explants). Explants on sterile solid medium (right)
  10. 10. EMBRYO INDUCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT MEDIA Macro elements KNO3 NH4NO3 MgSO4 7 H2O CaCL2 2 H20 KH2PO4 2 H20 mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l FeS04 7H20 Na2 EDTA 2 H20 Microelements CuSO4 5 H2O MnSO4 1 H20 Kl Na2MoO4 2 H2O ZnSO4 7 H2O H3BO3 CoCL2 6 H2O Vitamins inositol nicotinic acid pyridoxine HCl thiamine HCl pantothenic acid biotine BAP Sucrose Gelrite Ph mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l g/l g/l Embryo induction (MS1) 475 412.5 92.5 110 85 13.9 18.65 MS 0.0125 8.45 0.415 0.125 5.3 3.1 0.0125 Gamborg 100 1 1 10 _ _ 1.5 30 3 5.7 Embryo development (MS2) 1900 1650 370 440 170 27.8 37.3 MS 0.025 16.9 0.83 0.25 10.6 6.2 0.025 Morel(1) 100 1 1 10 1 0.01 0.5 30 _ 5.7
  11. 11. DIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS Somatic embryos growing on media from ex-plants in test-tubes or Petridishes Somatic embryos are removed and transferred into bioreactors (RITA) containing liquid medium for further growth. One ex-plants can yield up to 300 coffee plantlets per year, or 3000 from one leaf. Harvesting of coffee embryos from bioreactors (RITA) can start as early as 2 months and lasts for a maximum of six months. This implies that sorting of ready embryos for weaning takes four months.
  12. 12. INDIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS The callus from coffee ex-plants is cultured in liquid medium in a conical flask for 3 months to generate embryos Embryogenic callus is a mass of undifferentiated cells which are capable of developing into coffee embryos The embryos are then transferred to bioreactors (RITAs) for further growth. With indirect somatic embryogenesis, callus from one ex-plant can yield up to 1000 coffee plantlets per year or 10,000 per leaf.
  13. 13. PIERSON MEDIUM FOR INDUCTION OF COFFEE EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS MACRO NUTRIENTS MS/2 NH4NO3 KNO3 CaCl2 , 2H2O MgSO4 KH2PO4 Na2 EDTA FeSO4 , 7H2O MICRO NUTRIENTS MS/2 H3BO3 MnSO4 , H2O ZnSO4 , 7H2O KI Na2MoO4 , 2H2O CuSO4 , 5H2O CoCl2 , 6H2O VITAMINS Pierson (3) MYO – INOSITOL THIAMINE HCl ( B1 ) L-CYSTEINE CYTOKININE 2 IP AUXINE IBA HYDROLYSAT CASEINE HYDOLYSAT CASEINE SUCROSE SUCROSE GELING AGENT Agar Ph mg / l 825 950 166 90 85 37.3 27.8 mg / l 3.1 8.45 4.3 0.41 0.12 0.012 0.012 mg / l 100 10 50 mg / l 1 5 mg / l 100 g/l 30 g/l 8 5.7
  14. 14. EMBRYOS ARE HARVESTED AND TRANSFERRED TO THE BIO-REACTORS Only mature embryos in RITA are sorted for harvesting after they are fully developed. After they have attained one pair of true leaves, they are removed from RITAs and taken out side of the laboratory (weaning shade) for conditioning and weaning.
  15. 15. CONDITIONING AND WEANING OF EMBRYOS Coffee embryos that come out of the laboratory are fragile and very delicate. For this reason, they need to be conditioned to get rid of excess water to favour the weaning process. Conditioning is done by spreading the coffee embryos on weaning substrate (decomposed saw dust or coconut fibres) in transparent plastic boxes for a period of two weeks. After conditioning, they are planted one by one in weaning medium and kept in a shade net where they spend an average of 3 month before subjecting them to hardening conditions.
  16. 16. PLANTLETS ON WEANING SUBSTRATES Weaned young coffee plantlets Fully germinated coffee plantlets ready for transplanting into polythene pots
  17. 17. PLANTS ARE READY FOR FARMERS When coffee plantlets have attained 3 to four pairs of true leaves, they are transplanted into polythene pots containing a mixture of soil and sand. These are kept in humidity bins for 2 months under 90% shade where they are maintained by watering, fertilizer application and insect control. The plantlets are then transferred to 50% shade net where they spend an additional two months before they are taken by nursery operators.
  18. 18. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • • • • • • • • The Government of Uganda European Union UCDA CFC CABI USAID: APEP, LEAD;IPM/CRSP. AGT Uganda farmers

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