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3.3 groundnut aflatoxin project


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  • 1. Developing improved groundnut varieties and awareness creation for uptake and aflatoxin mitigation measures in Tanzania Dr. Omari Mponda (PhD) – ARI Naliendele, P.O. Box 509 Mtwara. E-mail:
  • 2. Background • Food and nutrition insecurity • - Over half the pop live below the poverty datum line – Over 40% of the children under 5 are malnourished – Gnut as a source of nutrition (protein, oil) and income
  • 3. Project Goal • Reduction in poverty by improving income level, food and nutrition security through investments in short- and medium high yielding groundnut varieties with acceptable market traits and resistance to foliar diseases
  • 4. Cultivar development Improved varieties Improving crop Management Availing seed Reduced aflatoxin In grain Increased production Availability of safe food Increased HH consumption Increased marketable surplus Reduced aflatoxin contamination in humans Labour serving techs N U T R I T I O N Processing and value add INCOME Theory of Change -Groundnut Breeding and Aflatoxin project.
  • 5. Groundnuts Production-Tanzania Cropped Production Av. Area (2008- (2008-10 Yield (2008- Potential 10 avg) avg) 10 avg) (A) yield (B) million million ha tonnes Kg/Ha Kg/Ha 0.54 0.39 721.38 3,000 Realizable Yield (C) Yield Gap (C-A) Kg/Ha Kg/Ha 1500 778.62
  • 6. Groundnut Breeding Objectives • To develop high yielding variety resistant to biotic and abiotic stress and adoptable to the major groundnut growing areas of the country that farmer preferred and market acceptable. • The breeding programmes aim at developing high yielding varieties with high oil content, but • with the availability of cheaper oil from other sources, groundnut has lost its ground as a premier oil seed crop Rising confectionery market has assumed great significance as snack food in domestic and international markets • Bold seed, high protein, high oleic acid/linoleic acid, (O/L) ratio and low oil.
  • 7. Constraints to increased production and trade • Diseases • Rosette – can cause 100% crop loss in epidemic years in 2009/10 about 30% was lost in TZ • Leaf spots, LLS, ELS, Rust • Aflatoxin contamination • Drought – Climate Change
  • 8. Drought Rosette Leaf spot Rust
  • 9. Research Hypothesis • Improved groundnut varieties (for yield, disease and aflatoxin resistance) will stimulate farmer adoption and increase production enabling smallholder farmers to overcome – Malnutrition – Health related ailments – Increased rural poverty – Loss of soil fertility
  • 10. Specific Objectives • High yielding farmer and market-acceptable groundnut varieties with resistance to foliar/viral diseases and aflatoxin contamination developed. • Nutritional status, dietary diversity, human health and mycotoxin contamination problem spatially characterized • Adoption rates of improved farmer and marketacceptable varieties and production technologies enhanced • Capacity of partners for management of mycotoxins in food, variety development and enabling policy environment enhanced
  • 11. Project sites • • • • • On-station trials Southern Tanzania Naliendele Nachingwea Nakayaya - Tunduru • • • • • • Central Tanzania Makutopora Hombolo Bihawana Western -Tumbi Lake zone - Ukiriguru • • • • • On-farm (each at least) 20 sites PVS and seed prod South and Central Lake zone, Western zone Western - T
  • 12. Objective 1: High yielding farmer and market-acceptable groundnut varieties developed Milestones Screening by giving high disease pressure for rust, ELS,GRD, Aflatoxin Good X Good cross
  • 13. Groundnut Crossing program • Introgressing desirable traits to the improved varieties (rosette resistance, pod size, drought resistance, oil content)
  • 14. Activity Good X Good Crosses Farmer Preferred Variety Current Status Selection GRD, ELS, Rust
  • 15. Objective 3:Adoption rates of improved varieties and production technologies developed Milestones Improve Adoption Demonstration Technology
  • 16. Demonstration Technology GRD, Aflatoxin GRD
  • 17. Improved Groundnuts varietiesTanzania Masasi-2009 Mangaka-2009
  • 19. Rural seed fairs • Inadequate awareness, availability and accessibility have hindered adoption of improved varieties by farmers • Improved seeds bred by national research institutes and private seed companies have not been readily available in Southern Tanzania • Poor infrastructure including poor roads have not been attractive to private seed companies to invest in remote areas even liberalization of the seed industry in 1990s • Naliendele designed a rural seed fairs since in 1997
  • 20. Objectives of the seed fairs • To create awareness of seeds available from informal and formal seeds systems • Increase availability, accessibility of alternative seeds • Establish working contacts: researchers, extension, farmers, traders, policy makers (linkage improved) • Enhance the rural seed systems
  • 21. Methodology • Rural seed fairs were first started in Newala, Masasi and Nachingwea in 1997 • Due to successful implementation of rural seed fairs it was exapanded to include all district councils of Mtwara and Lindi region in 1998,1999 and 2000. • To organise rural seed fair – Sensitize stakeholders on the importance of seed fairs and agree on its implementation budget – Identify local seed experts and invite them to the seed fair – Select site village representative of potential growing area – The site should be a centre where farmers could easily come – Organise construction of booths and traditional dances and artists to perform on the seed fairs – Organize radio spot announcements prior to the seeds fairs
  • 22. • Organize to collect/purchase seeds from research station seed companies and in small samples of 50 – 200 gms, 500 gms depending on crop and sale at cost price. • Organize radio live coverage during the seed fair event to inform the public on the progress of seed fairs • Seed fair is a venue for seed exchange, sale, and making contact between seed producers, farmers, extension and researchers and policy makers • On the eve of seed fair in the evening organize to show video films on various agricultural technologies up to 10.00 o’clock in the evening then traditional dance till morning
  • 23. • On seed fair day researchers, farmer seed experts will exhibit seeds and share their knowledge to others • Farmers visiting exhibitors will purchase seed packs from researchers, farmers to go and try in their environments • District Councils Leaders make speeches on the importance of seeds and agriculture in general in their districts and national at large • Researchers learn from farmers of local seeds and associated local knowledge
  • 24. Traditional dances promote seed knowledge and sharing
  • 25. Achievements/impact • Awareness of improved seed have significantly improved • During these events we were able to exhibit about 70 crop varieties of cereals, oilseeds, root and tubers, fruits and vegetables • Farmers accessing seeds were organised into Farmer Research Groups for their participation in Participatory variety selection and seed multiplication • Farmers groups have become seed multipliers and registered as Quality declared and certified seed production with Agricultural Seed Agency and companies • 15 – 20 tons groundnuts produced
  • 26. • Demand for seed significantly increased especially for sesame and groundnuts • Adoption of improved groundnuts varieties and sources of seeds significantly increased. Pendo, Mnanje are popular in Tanzania • Productivity of groundnuts increased on farm from 700 kg/ha – 1000-1500 kg/ha
  • 27. Groundnut Aflatoxin • Aflatoxin and nutrition – Need to establish whether the state of human nutrition is at risk as a result of aflatoxin contamination of foods • Aflatoxin and agriculture – Ascertain the source of dietary contamination and its management – ensure that the general public is knowledgeable about aflatoxin and its effects on health • Disseminate available aflatoxin reducing technologies • Building capacity of front line staff and farmers through farmer friendly integrated aflatoxin management packages
  • 28. Top 20 Groundnut Exporters, 2008 Rank Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 India China USA Argentina Netherlands Nicaragua Brazil UAE South Africa Vietnam Paraguay Belgium Gambia Singapore Australia Bolivia UR of Tanzania Egypt Spain Uzbekistan Quantity Value (1,000 Unit value (tonnes) US$) (US$/tonne) 293,128 274,154 935 167,054 232,183 1,390 216,936 198,593 915 148,962 180,890 1,214 80,287 137,390 1,711 77,973 90,058 1,155 44,361 50,586 1,140 15,938 15,799 991 10,202 15,027 1,473 14,300 13,700 958 9,230 9,778 1,059 6,282 9,395 1,496 18,000 8,200 456 6,093 7,336 1,204 3,984 7,254 1,821 4,056 6,658 1,642 14,817 6,280 424 5,684 6,138 1,047 3,275 5,874 1,794 6,461 5,545 858 Source: FAOSTAT
  • 29. Countries with Permissible Limits for Total Aflatoxins in Food & Feed
  • 30. Problem • Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2), the poisonous secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, are one of the most frequent contaminants in several crops produced under rainfed conditions such as groundnut, maize, millets, chillies, various nuts, etc. (Fig. 1). • Aflatoxins have been linked with impaired child growth, liver cancer and various other illnesses. • Stringent food safety regulations have been established to prevent aflatoxin contamination in foods. However, they are ineffective in developing countries due to poor awareness, inadequate monitoring skills and food inadequacy issues. • Large percentage of populations (particularly low-income groups) are at the highest risk of exposure to aflatoxin contaminated diets.
  • 31. Pre-desposing factors • • • • • • Weather conditions Drought stress Cultivars and farming practices Time of harvest and pod removal Method of harvest and drying Mechanical/insect damage (pre-and post harvest pests • Conditions of packing and distribution
  • 32. Model for understanding Risk of Contamination
  • 33. Aflatoxin, Health & Trade Synergistic with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) to cause liver cancer • 30 times more potent in HBV+ people • 5-60 times higher cancer risk Impairs growth and development of children Suppress immune system – increased susceptibility to diseases, e.g., HIV, malaria? Impedes uptake and utilization of micronutrients in human systems Animal productivity reduced – growth rate, embryo toxicity, feed efficiency, cancer, death…… ~2.3 million bags contaminated maize not tradable in 2010 in Kenya
  • 34. Fungi producing mycotoxins Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium are among the most common molds that invade food and feed.
  • 35. Aflatoxins Toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and related species in several crop species Aflatoxin B1 is a potent toxin It is considered as carcinogen Aspergillus flavus: Aflatoxin producing mold Aflatoxin B1
  • 36. Aflatoxin causes-Liver cancer
  • 37. Aflatoxicosis Aflatoxicosis is the poisoning that results from ingesting aflatoxins Two types of aflatoxicosis have been identified 1) Acute severe intoxication: Results in liver damage and subsequent illness or death. Large dose leads to acute illness and death, through liver cirrhosis The 2004 outbreak in Eastern and Northern province of Kenya resulted in a total of 317 cases of aflatoxicosis, with 125 deaths This was due to widespread aflatoxin contamination of locally grown maize, which occurred during storage of the maize under damp conditions. 2) Chronic sub symptomatic exposure: Due to frequent ingestion of sublethal doses This have nutritional and immunological consequences, and a cumulative effect on the risk of liver cancer anitha©2011 anitha©
  • 38. Cirrhosis of liver
  • 39. Cirrhosis of Liver
  • 40. Effects of mycotoxins in cattle
  • 41. Birds affected with aflatoxin B1
  • 43. Moulds in groundnuts-Ukungu (kuvu) kwenye karanga
  • 44. Microscope view of fungi aspergillus flavusUkungu husambaa kirahisi sana kwa vimelea vidogo vidogo
  • 45. Lifecyle of aspergillus flavus (fungi) Mzunguko wa maisha ya ukungu
  • 46. Aflatoxin contamination levels in groundnuts in Tanzania (ppb) Samples Mean AfB1 93 85 93 121 68 115
  • 47. 1. Aflatoxin contamination starts in the fieldMashambulizi shambani
  • 48. 1. How to reduce contamination in the fieldNjia za kupunguza mashambulizi shambani
  • 49. 2. Contamination during harvestMashambulizi wakati wa kuvuna
  • 50. 2. How to reduce contamination- Timely harvestNjia za kupunguza mashambulizi wakati wa kuvuna
  • 51. 3. Contamination during dryingMashambulizi wakati wa kukausha
  • 52. 3. How to reduce contamination during harvestNjia za kupunguza mashambulizi wakati wa kukausha
  • 53. 3. How to reduce contamination during drying- Njia za kupunguza mashambulizi wakati wa kukausha
  • 54. 4. Mashambulizi kwenye karanga zilizobanguliwa
  • 55. 4b. Mashambulizi kwenye karanga zilizobanguliwa
  • 56. 4.Sorting and Grading-Jinsi ya kupunguza mashamabulizi kwenye karanga zilizobanguliwa
  • 57. 5a. Njia za punguza mashambulizi wakati wa utunzaji
  • 58. 5b. Njia za punguza mashambulizi wakati wa utunzaji
  • 59. Breeding - International aflatoxin screening trials involving 100 lines for Spanish and 49 lines for Virginia – control: J11 and 55-437 at ICRISAT Malawi
  • 60. Joint action needed – by value chain actors Policy makers (Ministries of Agriculture, Health, Industry, Finance, Trade, PMO, Loc GOvt),TFDA, Input & service suppliers (incl extension, SIDO, AMCOS; Farmer groups, PvT TOSCI,ASA, NGOs) Farmers Research community NARS, ICRISAT,IITA, TFDA, TFNC,TBS Traders Exporters Processors Supermarkets Consumers Adapted from Homann-Kee Tui (2010) Training/Planning Workshop Report on Establishing Small Stock Innovation Platforms, Gaborone
  • 61. Aflatoxin Management Method Purpose I. Primary prevention To minimize fungal infestation and aflatoxin contamination Cultivation of A. flavus resistant varieties Potential for control of fungal invasion and toxin production during crop growth. Control of field infection by following appropriate phytosanitary measures to reduce the fungal inoculum Limit fungal inoculum in the field Seed treatment and application of fungicides Limit fungal invasion during crop growth Appropriate scheduling for planting, harvest and post harvest Avoid drought stress and other abiotic stresses Application of soil amendments (gypsum, farmyard manure etc Enhancing soil nutrient (especially calcium) and water holding capacity, promoting the growth of antagonistic native soil-microflora Lowering moisture content of seeds after harvesting and during storage Limit fungal invasion and growth during storage Preservatives to prevent insect infestation and fungal contamination during storage Limit fungal invasion during storage
  • 62. Aflatoxin Management Method II. Secondary prevention Purpose Elimination or limiting the fungal contamination Sorting of contaminated pods and kernels Reducing aflatoxin contamination in final product Re-drying the groundnut pods and kernels Limit further mold invasion during storage Appropriate storage conditions to avoid favorable conditions for mold growth Limit further mold invasion during storage Detoxification of contaminated product Chemical inactivation of aflatoxins through use of detoxification clay, ammonification, electronic sorting of kernels.
  • 63. Challenges • Inadequate funding, no sustainable funding, facilities (cold storage) • Limited access to seed of improved varieties due to inadequate seed production of preferred seed varieties. • Lack of access to information on available varieties –farmers do not know about new varieties, their potential, where to access and how to manage them and market requirements • Export markets constrained by stringent aflatoxin standards set by importing countries- value chain actors limited awareness • High transaction costs due to collection from a large no of smallholder farmers resulting in grain of mixed quality leading to low prices • Lack of premium price for quality (aflatoxin free nuts)-Traceability • Low mechanization technologies - gender • Cheap oils -Inadequate value addition – groundnut oil, peanut butter • Too centralized formal seed system certification limits participation of other seed value chain actors - decentralize
  • 64. Thank you. Further Contacts on Mycotoxin/aflatoxin Dr. Madinda – Consultant Surgeon +255789333282 Dr. Martin Kimanya TFDA - +255754317687 Acknowledgements McKnight Foundation CCRP, Tropical Legumes I&II, ICRISAT, IITA, DRD MAFSC