Cowpea Research in Nigeria - September 2012


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Presentation by Muhammad Lawan, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Delivered at the B4FA Media Dialogue Workshop, Ibadan, Nigeria - September 2012

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Cowpea Research in Nigeria - September 2012

  1. 1. Muhammad Lawan Umar Department of Plant Science, Institute for Agricultural Research, ABU-Zaria E-mail: , Presented at B4FA media Fellowship training 24th – 27th Sept 2012, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria
  2. 2. Gene Deployment- system of assigning specific resistance gene to a specific area to control insect Bt-=Bacillus thurengiensis (soil microorganism) Bt gene- gene obtained from soil bacterium Maruca- flying insect (lepidopteran) Terms used in the topic
  3. 3. Cowpea Most important legumes in Africa Over 60 million people consume cowpea products everyday in Nigeria Mixture of cowpea and rice Cowpea paste mixed with spice Made from cowpea flour Akara/ Kosai
  4. 4. Cowpea Provides employment to millions people Cowpea farmer Cowpea processor & consumers waiting
  5. 5. Cowpea production Grows everywhere but mostly Savanna/Derived Savannas Africa is the leading cowpea producer in the world Nigeria accounts for > half (58% ) of worldwide production • largest consumer and largest importer – National Deficit over 500,000 tons *Made up through imports-20 billion naira
  6. 6. Causes of production deficit Drought
  7. 7. Parasitic Flowering Plants • AlectraStriga
  8. 8. Constraints to production- Insect Flower thrips Aphid
  9. 9. CONSTRAINTS TO PRODUCTION- MARUCA Up 80% yield loss Maruca larva Maruca adult
  10. 10. Constraints to production- Maruca cont’d Maruca damages the flower
  11. 11. Pod damage Maruca damages the pod Constraints to production- Maruca cont’d
  12. 12. SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECT-MARUCA Up to 80%Yield loss for Grains Poor Quality Grains-Reduced Income Estimated Revenue loss at 400kg/ha-35.52 billion naira Food insecurity - Spreads Poverty - Malnutrition - Poor health
  13. 13. IMPACT –MARUCA RESISTANT COWPEA Increase yield up to 20 times Improve Quality of the Grains Reduce cost of Production- increase income Food security - Reduce Poverty - Improve health
  14. 14. STRATEGIES - CONTROL MARUCA Insecticide sprays Host plant Resistance
  15. 15. PAST EFFORTS -MARUCA Research institutes- developed and released many varieties • Consumers preferred traits- seed size, colour Identified source of resistance: • Diseases resistance- TVU 12349 • Aphid resistance-TVU 3000, IT84S-2246-4 • Parasitic weeds- IT81D-994 Source of resistance to maruca?????
  16. 16. PAST EFFORTS MARUCA Screening Techniques Developed- Louis Jackai Screened 15,000 accessions, no resistance found Unsuccessful wide crossing with Resistance in Vigna vexillata Fatokun et al(2002) Way out???
  17. 17. Bt cowpea: History International Symposium on Cowpea improvement- Dakar, Jan 2001 Birth of NGICA Group of experts meeting, Nairobi, (2003)- application of crop biotechnology as the potential strategy to combat maruca (Huesing et al, 2011) • AATF- gene access • Partners - USAID, CSIRO, IAR, INERA and CSIR- SARI RF (Popelka et al, 2006)
  18. 18. Strategies for Bt-cowpea Deployment Laboratory work- CSIRO, Australia • Developed system of gene introgression/transfer • Transferred the gene into IT86D-1010 (Cowpea genotype) • Preliminary efficacy test - conducted in a glass house
  19. 19. Strategies for Bt-cowpea Deployment Confined Field Trial (CFT)- a small-scale experimental field trial of a GM plant species performed under regulated conditions • Critical step- development & commercialization, Maruca resistance cowpea variety
  20. 20. Small Scale Field Test [Confined Field Trial (CFT)] • Why CFT? Assess the performance of the transformed cowpeas under natural condition Assess the level of gene expression Assess interaction of the test material by environment Maintain control over planting materials and harvest prior to biosafety assessment
  21. 21. CFT APPROVAL PROCESS • Application- submitted to NBC of the FMENV (December 23, 2008) • NBC & Biotechnology experts- reviewed the application • Regulators- interact with the research team
  22. 22. Biosafety requirements • NBC – scrutinized application, assessed the facilities and verify measures put in place CFT-site Maruca rearing laboratory
  23. 23. Regulatory One year permit for CFT granted by the Biosafety office- March 2009 Outcomes of the first CFT necessitated the extension to 2013
  24. 24. IMPORT PERMIT-NAQS IMPORT PERMIT PROCESSED AND GRANTED- NAQS Checked the package Verified the content of the package
  25. 25. SEED STORE Seeds Verified, Recorded and Kept Before Planting Seed temporarily storedVerification completed
  26. 26. Moving from Laboratory to Field
  27. 27. CFT-SITE PLAN
  28. 28. 0.75m 1.5m 3.6m 1.5m 1.5m1.5m 3.6m 1m 1m 1m 1m FIELD LAY OUT
  30. 30. ISOLATION DISTANCE MONITORING Monitoring the surrounding field done - Before planting - Growing period on weekly basis Aim- to destroy all sexually compatible plants to prevent- Gene flow Removed Volunteer plant
  31. 31. Yield and Damage- Assessment Yield potential- Harvesting & threshing - manually by hand Insect damage- attempts to penetrate the wall of the pods and seeds assessed
  32. 32. TRANSPORTATION Plant materials that need further investigation are: • Labeled • Packaged- secure multiple containers to prevent loss/damage in case of accident Primary Secondary Tertiary
  33. 33. DISPOSAL OF MATERIAL • All plant materials that do not need further investigation - disposed
  34. 34. OUT COMES AFTER 3-YEARS OF FIELD EXPERIMENT -----One of the test materials indicates: • Exceptional – resistance to maruca • 20 fold yield increase compared to untransformed cowpea • What next?????
  36. 36. Research team ACKNOWLEDGEMENT NGICA
  37. 37. Thank You!