LIBERALISM
FIRST, A WARNING:
• The term „liberal‟ can be a tricky concept for
American students.
• In American culture, the word „lib...
ORIGIN OF LIBERALISM
• The Enlightenment
• John Locke Second Treatise on Civil Government
• Adam Smith Wealth of Nations
•...
LIBERAL VIEW OF “STATE OF NATURE”
• Note: Not a Hobbesian state of a “war of all against all”
• Humans are generally reaso...
LIBERALISM AS PARADIGM IN IR
• Liberalism has a particular meaning in the context
of scholarly study of IR
• Bova‟s defini...
© 2012 Pearson Education
THE LIBERAL RESPONSE TO THE
PRISONERS DILEMMA
• International Relations doesn‟t happen in a vacuum. States
interact with e...
AN EXAMPLE OF “TIT FOR TAT”
• SALT: Strategic Arms Limitations Talk
• Arms reduction agreement between U.S. and Soviets.
HOW CAN COOPERATION EMERGE
UNDER CONDITIONS OF ANARCHY?
• Three strands of Liberalism
• Liberal Commercialism
• Integrated...
KEY POINTS:
• From a Liberal perspective the Security Dilemma is not
inevitable.
• The vicious circle of the Security Dile...
KANTIAN TRIANGLE
GLOBALIZATION
AND LIBERAL THINKING
• Interdependence International Cooperation
• Consider how Gordon Brown‟s Ted Talk---
...
HARD POWER VERSUS SOFT POWER
• Hard power-Use of economic resources and military strength
to get what you want. “Carrots” ...
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  • Second major paradigm in international relations scholarship.Challenges some, though not all, of Realism’s assertions about how the world works.Agrees that the system is anarchical, but doesn’t agree with the dire implications of an anarchical international system.Peace and cooperation are more possible than Realists make out…..
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  • Lecture 2.0 without audio

    1. 1. LIBERALISM
    2. 2. FIRST, A WARNING: • The term „liberal‟ can be a tricky concept for American students. • In American culture, the word „liberal‟ has a somewhat different meaning than in many other parts of the world. • Pay attention to how the word is being used and in what context.
    3. 3. ORIGIN OF LIBERALISM • The Enlightenment • John Locke Second Treatise on Civil Government • Adam Smith Wealth of Nations • Immanuel Kant Perpetual Peace • Focus on individual freedom and reason • In economic decisions (Free markets) • In political decisions (Democracy)
    4. 4. LIBERAL VIEW OF “STATE OF NATURE” • Note: Not a Hobbesian state of a “war of all against all” • Humans are generally reasonable and generally peaceful in state of nature • Locke‟s Liberal View: State of nature had inconveniencies, but it is not “nasty, brutish and short” • Positive view of the pursuit of self-interest • This view of human nature leads liberals to a more optimistic view regarding the possibilities of cooperation under anarchical conditions.
    5. 5. LIBERALISM AS PARADIGM IN IR • Liberalism has a particular meaning in the context of scholarly study of IR • Bova‟s definition: A Paradigm that suggests that global cooperation is possible and that challenges the Realist assumption that competitive, power oriented, violent character of world politics is inevitable. • And like in Realism, there are „flavors‟ of Liberalism
    6. 6. © 2012 Pearson Education
    7. 7. THE LIBERAL RESPONSE TO THE PRISONERS DILEMMA • International Relations doesn‟t happen in a vacuum. States interact with each other over time in „iterated interactions‟—not single interaction • “Shadow of the Future”: • States know they will have future interactions with each other and they also know they can benefit through cooperation • Liberal view of absolute versus relative gains: • States will pursue absolute gains (or mutual gain—working together so they are both better off) • “Tit-for-tat” strategy is most rational---try cooperating first, if cooperation is reciprocated, keep cooperating, if cooperation is not reciprocated, then defect.
    8. 8. AN EXAMPLE OF “TIT FOR TAT” • SALT: Strategic Arms Limitations Talk • Arms reduction agreement between U.S. and Soviets.
    9. 9. HOW CAN COOPERATION EMERGE UNDER CONDITIONS OF ANARCHY? • Three strands of Liberalism • Liberal Commercialism • Integrated markets cooperation and peace • Economic Interdependence • Liberal Institutionalism- • International Institutions cooperation and peace • Collective Security (versus Balance of Power) • Liberal Internationalism • Democracy cooperation and peace • Democratic Peace Theory • Shared and key point of all „flavors‟ of Liberalism: • The negative aspects of anarchy can be mitigated and cooperation is possible.
    10. 10. KEY POINTS: • From a Liberal perspective the Security Dilemma is not inevitable. • The vicious circle of the Security Dilemma can be changed into a virtuous circle of peace and cooperation through the Kantian Triangle. • Consider how the European Union evolved---it changed from being locked in a vicious Security Dilemma in to a peaceful and cooperative security community.
    11. 11. KANTIAN TRIANGLE
    12. 12. GLOBALIZATION AND LIBERAL THINKING • Interdependence International Cooperation • Consider how Gordon Brown‟s Ted Talk--- • Notion of „enlightened self-interest‟ • national interest and global interest are not at odds, but are highly interconnected • Cooperation is possible, states need to think in terms of mutual gain, not narrow self-interest.
    13. 13. HARD POWER VERSUS SOFT POWER • Hard power-Use of economic resources and military strength to get what you want. “Carrots” (rewards) and “Sticks” (threats). Realists focus on Hard Power. • Soft power- Getting others to want what you want. Liberals say soft power is important too. • “A leader is best when people barely know he exists, not so good when people obey and acclaim him; worst when they despise him.” Lao-tsu 630 BC • Role of reputation, power of persuasion, power of norms • This idea of soft power was the focus of the Joseph Nye‟s Ted Talk • “smart power”—knowing how to use both hard and soft to achieve goals
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