Second major paradigm in international relations scholarship.Challenges some, though not all, of Realism’s assertions about how the world works.Agrees that the system is anarchical, but doesn’t agree with the dire implications of an anarchical international system.Peace and cooperation are more possible than Realists make out…..
Lecture 2.0 without audio
FIRST, A WARNING:
• The term „liberal‟ can be a tricky concept for
• In American culture, the word „liberal‟ has a
somewhat different meaning than in many other
parts of the world.
• Pay attention to how the word is being used and in
ORIGIN OF LIBERALISM
• The Enlightenment
• John Locke Second Treatise on Civil Government
• Adam Smith Wealth of Nations
• Immanuel Kant Perpetual Peace
• Focus on individual freedom and reason
• In economic decisions (Free markets)
• In political decisions (Democracy)
LIBERAL VIEW OF “STATE OF NATURE”
• Note: Not a Hobbesian state of a “war of all against all”
• Humans are generally reasonable and generally
peaceful in state of nature
• Locke‟s Liberal View: State of nature had
inconveniencies, but it is not “nasty, brutish and short”
• Positive view of the pursuit of self-interest
• This view of human nature leads liberals to a more
optimistic view regarding the possibilities of cooperation
under anarchical conditions.
LIBERALISM AS PARADIGM IN IR
• Liberalism has a particular meaning in the context
of scholarly study of IR
• Bova‟s definition: A Paradigm that suggests that global
cooperation is possible and that challenges the Realist
assumption that competitive, power oriented, violent
character of world politics is inevitable.
• And like in Realism, there are „flavors‟ of Liberalism
THE LIBERAL RESPONSE TO THE
• International Relations doesn‟t happen in a vacuum. States
interact with each other over time in „iterated interactions‟—not
• “Shadow of the Future”:
• States know they will have future interactions with each other and they also
know they can benefit through cooperation
• Liberal view of absolute versus relative gains:
• States will pursue absolute gains (or mutual gain—working together so they
are both better off)
• “Tit-for-tat” strategy is most rational---try cooperating first, if
cooperation is reciprocated, keep cooperating, if cooperation is
not reciprocated, then defect.
AN EXAMPLE OF “TIT FOR TAT”
• SALT: Strategic Arms Limitations Talk
• Arms reduction agreement between U.S. and Soviets.
HOW CAN COOPERATION EMERGE
UNDER CONDITIONS OF ANARCHY?
• Three strands of Liberalism
• Liberal Commercialism
• Integrated markets cooperation and peace
• Economic Interdependence
• Liberal Institutionalism-
• International Institutions cooperation and peace
• Collective Security (versus Balance of Power)
• Liberal Internationalism
• Democracy cooperation and peace
• Democratic Peace Theory
• Shared and key point of all „flavors‟ of Liberalism:
• The negative aspects of anarchy can be mitigated and
cooperation is possible.
• From a Liberal perspective the Security Dilemma is not
• The vicious circle of the Security Dilemma can be
changed into a virtuous circle of peace and
cooperation through the Kantian Triangle.
• Consider how the European Union evolved---it changed
from being locked in a vicious Security Dilemma in to a
peaceful and cooperative security community.
AND LIBERAL THINKING
• Interdependence International Cooperation
• Consider how Gordon Brown‟s Ted Talk---
• Notion of „enlightened self-interest‟
• national interest and global interest are not at odds, but are
• Cooperation is possible, states need to think in terms of mutual
gain, not narrow self-interest.
HARD POWER VERSUS SOFT POWER
• Hard power-Use of economic resources and military strength
to get what you want. “Carrots” (rewards) and “Sticks”
(threats). Realists focus on Hard Power.
• Soft power- Getting others to want what you want. Liberals
say soft power is important too.
• “A leader is best when people barely know he exists, not so
good when people obey and acclaim him; worst when they
despise him.” Lao-tsu 630 BC
• Role of reputation, power of persuasion, power of norms
• This idea of soft power was the focus of the Joseph Nye‟s Ted Talk
• “smart power”—knowing how to use both hard and soft to achieve
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.