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Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans
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Describe - Defence Mechanisms in Humans

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primary,secondary immune response, immunoglobulins, antibodies, B cells, T cells, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes,Interleukins, cytokines, MHC complex, cell surface receptors, Vaccination

primary,secondary immune response, immunoglobulins, antibodies, B cells, T cells, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes,Interleukins, cytokines, MHC complex, cell surface receptors, Vaccination

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  • 1. Describe: Defence Mechanisms - Humans b.stev
  • 2. <ul><li>PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>lag (wait) period of 10 days – 4 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>at first no antibodies are produced </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTED : sneeze/ illness/ fever/ cough </li></ul><ul><li>antibodies made by B cells &gt; prepare </li></ul><ul><li>to divide and then replicate to multiply </li></ul><ul><li>pathogen specific antibodies appear </li></ul><ul><li>&amp; out compete infection, then subside </li></ul><ul><li>quality of the made antibody improves </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY immune response previous interaction with </li></ul><ul><li>pathogen gives quick action to compete with the pre-made antibody </li></ul><ul><li>NO lag (wait) period - specific quality to strain has been reached </li></ul><ul><li>recovery to infections is more rapid due to this memory response </li></ul>
  • 3. Gamma globulin proteins Basic structural unit-two heavy chains, two light chains 5 different antibody types each directing the reponse to encounter IMMUNOGLOBULINS (antibody) IN: blood and body fluids USED : identity to neutralise foreign bodies PRODUCED: B lymphocytes (B cells) CIRCULATES in the blood - binds to pathogen before entering the cell - stimulates it’s removal, coats the pathogen for identity by phagocyte: (a digester) - can stimulate direct response of complement pathway
  • 4. IT IS THE , “ TIP ,” that differs to allow millions of varieties: - gives specific response to particular foreign body - attaches to commence immune response - TIP binds: identity of pathogen: called the “ EPITOPE ” ANTIBODY : produces attachment of a TAG to the pathogen: that shows expression for the next phase identity to it’s MATCH of the B cell &amp; then T cell (Wikipedia, 2008)
  • 5. ANTIBODY IgD IgE IgG binding site pathogen 5 DIFFERENT isotopes known as: IgA IgM
  • 6. IgA: mucosal areas (saliva/ tears/ breast milk) urogenital/ gut/ respiratory IgD: less defined: use on unknown pathogens IgE: allergens – triggers histamine release protects against - parasitic worms IgG: crosses the placenta for immunity to fetus provides most antibody based immunity IgM: expressed on B cells &amp; secreted rapidly addresses early stages of response before specified responses produced
  • 7. <ul><li>spread through body lymph nodes / spleen / liver / blood </li></ul><ul><li>released at several thousand per second </li></ul><ul><li>eliminates/ prevents pathogenic challenge </li></ul><ul><li>surveillance for pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>works as the - antigen presenting cell </li></ul><ul><li>THIS eventuates to creation of : memory B cell </li></ul><ul><li>EACH - specific receptor, binds to certain pathogen(s ) </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCES antibodies </li></ul>B LYMPHOCYTES (B cell) divide in bone marrow to form CLONES (Wikipedia, 2008)
  • 8. <ul><li>originates in the bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>pathogen is absorbed &amp; fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>a complex on it’s surface is made to display this, made of : </li></ul><ul><li>genomic region – known as, MHC &amp; pathogen fragments </li></ul><ul><li>THIS FACILITATES RESPONSE – presentation attracts </li></ul><ul><li>lymphocytes (T cell) via their receptor cell </li></ul>ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS (accessory cell) (HON Foundation, 2002)
  • 9. T cell activates when it encounters a B cell that displays it’s specific MHC &amp; fragmented pathogen complex T LYMPHOCYTES (T cell) originates in bone marrow THYMUS produces a precursor cell some TYPES: HELPER : activation, rapid dividing &amp; secretion (cytokines) – regulate/ help immune response CYTOTOXIC : destroy virus infected/ tumour cells - cause of transplant rejection MEMORY : persists after infection has subsided - quick action if activated by their MHC coagent REGULATORY : closes response of subsided infection NATURAL KILLER : destroys virus infected/ tumour cells
  • 10. immune COMMUNICATION is AIDED VIA: - MHC (major histological complex) - cytokines : interleukins
  • 11. CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS: MHC PROTEINS MHC : called the &gt; major histological complex FUNCTION: attracts specific cells consists of genomic material - proteins are coded with this &amp; expressed on cell’s outer surface after B cell has fragmented the PATHOGEN … B cell then “ expresses ” these fragments in a complex : to attract the T-cell via the use of the MHC complex (Wikipedia, 2008)
  • 12. <ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>the glycoprotein acts as a signal in a variety of processes </li></ul><ul><li>example: interleukin(s) </li></ul><ul><li>BINDS: specific cell receptor – changes it’s function </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE OR decrease: action of cells and production </li></ul>CYTOKINES PRODUCED: blood cells (haematopoietic) &amp; other cells - classed: glycoprotein
  • 13. <ul><li>acts as a signal to activate next response </li></ul><ul><li>- complexity of white blood cell processes </li></ul><ul><li>- stimulate/ suppress: immune response </li></ul><ul><li>utilised in: many of the immune processes </li></ul><ul><li>- cytokine molecule – (glycoprotein) </li></ul><ul><li>mediates white blood cell communication </li></ul>INTERLEUKINS PRODUCED : variety of cells
  • 14. ADMINISTERED mostly: hypodermic needle orally VACCINATION <ul><li>TYPES: </li></ul><ul><li>live - weakened forms of the pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>killed / inactivated forms: pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>specific proteins : act on the pathogen </li></ul>administered PATHOGENIC material that ... produces immunity to disease ... response creates memory cells examples : smallpox/ rubella/ tetnaus/ hepatitis (Wikipedia, 2008)
  • 15. Bibliography HON Foundation. (2002). HON allergy glossary antigen - presenting cell (APC) . Retrieved October 21, 2008, from https://www.hon.ch/Library/ Theme/Allergy/Glossary/apc.html - 11k - Wikipedia. (2008). B cell – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http//: en.wikipedia.www. org/wiki/ B _cell - 75k - Wikipedia. (2008). T cell – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http//: en.wikipedia.www. org/wiki/ T _cell - 59k - Wikipedia. (2008). Cytokine – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http//: en.wikipedia.www. org/wiki/ Cytokine - 118k -
  • 16. Wikipedia. (2008). Interleukin – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http//:en.wikipedia.www. org/wiki/ Interleukin - 89k - Wikipedia. (2008). Major histocompatibility complex – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http//:en. wikipedia.www. org/wiki/Major_histocompatibility _ complex - 69k - Wikipedia. (2008). Antibody – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http//:en.wikipedia.www. org/wiki/ Antibody - 192k - Crudup A. B. (n.d). Primary and secondary immune responses . Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http//: www.meredith.edu/kenya/prim_ secon_immune_ response s.pdf -

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