Northern ireland 1 1

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Causes of Northern Ireland Conflict

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Northern ireland 1 1

  1. 1. Northern IrelandProtestants Vs. Catholics Conflict in Multi-Ethnic Societies
  2. 2. "Zombie" is one of Cranberries’s biggest singles, reaching number 3 in theirnative Ireland, and having a total chart run of 11 weeks. The song reachednumber 14 in the UK, with a total chart run of six weeks. It topped the U.S.Modern Rock chart for six weeks.
  3. 3. Objectives• 1. History of Northern Ireland before the Conflict.• 2. Causes of Northern Ireland Conflict.
  4. 4. Big Terms• Protestants and Catholics• Unionist/Loyalist VS Nationalist/Republican
  5. 5. Background• During the 1100s, Ireland was a united country• Subsequently it was conquered by England in the 1200s• The Irish Catholics who stayed behind were given the less fertile land• English landlords brought in Protestant Scottish and English settlers into the northern parts of Ireland and pushed out the local Catholic farmers
  6. 6. Background• Northern Ireland became predominantly Protestant• King James II (Catholic) came to the throne and tried to defeat the Protestants• He failed and was defeated by King William of Orange in the Battle of Boyne in 1690
  7. 7. Background• Penal Laws were implemented against the Catholics by the Protestants to ensure that they had complete control of Ireland – No Catholic can buy land – No Catholic shall be allowed to vote – No Catholic can join the army – No Catholic may receive higher education
  8. 8. Background• In 1800, Ireland became part of the United Kingdom (England)• In the late 1800s, local Irish Catholics sought limited self-government known as Home Rule• Hostilities continued and were so bad that Britain lost control of the southern part of Ireland
  9. 9. Background• In 1921, Ireland was divided into 2 separate parts, based on majority religion – Northern Ireland (which was predominantly Protestant) – Southern Ireland (Irish Free State) • Had their own parliament but consulted the English monarchy regarding foreign affairs
  10. 10. Background• The Catholics in the North were treated very unfairly by the government• In 1949, the Irish Free State cut ties with Britain and became the Republic of Ireland
  11. 11. Background• Before 1972 – Northern Ireland had its own parliament in Stormont• Since 1972 – Northern Ireland has been ruled directly by the British parliament in London – Northern Ireland is in charge of commerce, health and education – Ministers are predominantly protestant
  12. 12. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Catholics and Protestants see themselves as 2 different groups• Lack of common identity prevents understanding and co-operation between the 2 groups. (This shows that Lack of Common Identity is the UNDERLYING CAUSE)• Religious differences cause tension BUT ARE NOT a cause of conflict
  13. 13. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Divided Loyalties• Unequal Allocation of Housing• Unequal Employment Opportunities• Lack of Voting Rights• Lack of Opportunities for Social Interaction
  14. 14. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Divided Loyalties – Most Protestants see themselves as British and do not want a union with the Republic of Ireland as they fear a Catholic government would not tolerate them and their beliefs
  15. 15. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Divided Loyalties – Catholics see themselves as Irish and want to be reunited with the Republic of Ireland – Catholics are also resentful of the history of English conquest where Catholics were killed or ill-treated
  16. 16. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Divided Loyalties – Loyalty to different countries makes the Catholics and Protestants intolerant of each other
  17. 17. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Unequal Allocation of Housing – Provision of housing by city councils – Public houses are partly subsidized – Housing councils are predominantly Protestant – Large Catholic families have to wait for a long time to get houses – Catholics are frustrated by the long wait
  18. 18. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Unequal Employment Opportunities – Competition for jobs – Difficult for Catholics to get jobs in the civil service – Unequal employment opportunities for the Catholics despite having similar academic qualifications – The Catholics felt resentful and frustrated because they had no chance of having a bright future and supporting their families
  19. 19. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Lack of Voting Rights – Before 1969, voting rights were a problem because: • Only those who owned houses and businesses were entitled to vote in the elections • Each household was given 2 votes while business owners were given more votes based on the number of staff they had
  20. 20. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Lack of Voting Rights – Before 1969, voting rights were a problem because: • As the Protestants were richer and had bigger businesses, the Catholics lost out • Voting districts were also drawn up to include more Protestants
  21. 21. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Lack of Voting Rights – Since 1969, the system is fairer: • Everyone has a vote: – if he or she is a British citizen – Was born in Northern Ireland – Lived in the UK for 7 years • Voting districts were re-drawn to ensure fairness
  22. 22. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Lack of Opportunities for Social Interaction – Fully funded public schools for Protestants only and partially-funded private schools for Catholics only – Integrated schools set up by private individuals only attract about 5% of the total school-going population of Northern Ireland
  23. 23. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Lack of Opportunities for Social Interaction – Protestant children are taught British history and play British sports like rugby, hockey and cricket – They are loyal to the British and sing the British national anthem – Nothing about the Catholics or the history of Northern Ireland is taught from a neutral perspective
  24. 24. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Lack of Opportunities for Social Interaction – Catholic children are taught Irish history and play Irish sports like hurling and are taught the Irish language and culture – They are loyal to the Republic of Ireland and see Britain as a foreign country – Nothing about the Protestants or the history of Northern Ireland is taught from a neutral perspective
  25. 25. Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland• Lack of Opportunities for Social Interaction – Catholics and Protestants live in separate residential areas – Opportunities for social interaction are reduced
  26. 26. Homework• “The Irish conflict is mainly caused by a lack of social interaction”. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [12m]• Remember to deal with the lack of social interaction as one of the factors in the issue of The Irish Conflict.• Weigh your lack of social interaction factor against the MAIN CAUSE of the conflict• Is it more important? Less important?

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