Jazz & Blues General Music Presentation


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Presentation given in a general music methods course at the University of Miami on April 27, 2010. Topic is teaching jazz and blues in secondary general music courses.

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  • Jazz & Blues General Music Presentation

    1. 1. Teaching Music in the Historical Setting<br />Blues and Jazz<br />
    2. 2. What IS Jazz?<br />“Man, if you have to ask what it is, you’ll never know.”<br />–Louis Armstrong<br />
    3. 3. Improvisation was the main source of melody<br />Blues Scale was widely used<br />“Blue Note” – Lowered 5th Scale Degree<br />Musical Characteristics-Melody<br />“Blue” Note<br />
    4. 4. Swing Style-Asymmetrical 8th Notes<br />Accent on upbeats<br />Other Styles:<br />Shuffle<br />Waltz<br />Ballad<br />Latin (Salsa, Bossa Nova, Afro-Cuban)<br />Musical Characteristics-Rhythm/Style<br />
    5. 5. Blues Form<br />12-Bar form separated into three sections<br />I III | IV IV I I | V7V7 I I<br />Extensions:<br />IV in measure 9<br />ii-V7in last measure (“turnaround”)<br />Turn mm. 9-12 into one big turnaround:<br />Musical Characterstics-Form<br />
    6. 6. Extreme dynamics on both ends<br />Miles Davis<br />Dizzy Gillespie<br />Pushing the envelope of extremes<br />Experimenting with new sounds<br />Emotional vocal timbres<br />Musical Characteristics-Dynamics/Timbre<br />
    7. 7. Extreme tempi on both ends<br />“Jumpin’ at the Woodside” – Count Basie<br />“Naima” – John Coltrane<br />Pushing the envelope-“As Fast as Possible”<br />Musical Characteristics-Tempo<br />
    8. 8. Small Ensembles (Combos)<br />Horn Players (Trumpet, Sax, Trombone, etc.)<br />Rhythm Section (Piano, Bass, Guitar, Drums)<br />Sometimes included vocalist<br />Sizes Varied (duet/trios up to eight or more)<br />Large Ensembles (Big Band)<br />Horns (5 Saxophones, 4 Trombones, 4 Trumpets)<br />Rhythm Section (Piano, Bass, Guitar, Drums)<br />Sometimes included vocalist or “featured” instrumentalist<br />Musical Characteristics-Texture/Instrumentation<br />
    9. 9. How Did We Get Here?<br />Historical/Socio-Cultural Contexts<br />
    10. 10. Map - http://bit.ly/jazzmap<br />Africa<br />Plantations<br />New Orleans<br />Chicago<br />New York<br />Los Angeles<br />Beginnings of Jazz<br />
    11. 11. The Blues<br />Call-and-Response “work songs” on plantations<br />“Lament” style lyrics<br />Primarily string instruments (drums not allowed)<br />New Orleans<br />The “birthplace” of the blues<br />Louis Armstrong becomes popular<br />Socio-Cultural Contexts<br />
    12. 12. Inter-Related Arts: Painting<br />
    13. 13. Inter-Related Arts: Sculpture<br />
    14. 14. Inter-Related Arts: Architecture<br />
    15. 15. Additional Information<br />Performance Practice<br />Vocal/Instrumental Trends<br />Composers<br />
    16. 16. Swing Performance Practice<br />Heavy accent on beats two and four (backbeat)<br />Accented upbeats<br />Exploring new instrumental techniques<br />Trumpet-Growls, Shakes, ½ Valve<br />Saxophone-Altissimo Register<br />Trombone-Growls, Shakes, Glissandi<br />Came from a need to express emotion in a different way<br />Performance Practice<br />
    17. 17. Vocal/Instrumental Trends<br />Remember: Jazz roots were vocal!<br />Instrumental jazz became predominant<br />Louis Armstrong brings improv to voice<br />Billie Holliday continues the tradition<br />
    18. 18. Duke Ellington (1899-1974)<br />Prolific bandleader/composer of jazz music<br />“Take the ‘A’ Train”<br />“Do Nothing ‘Till You Hear From Me”<br />“It Don’t Mean a Thing…”<br />Count Basie (1904-1984)<br />Bandleader and composer<br />Laid-back style<br />Thad Jones (1923-1986)<br />Continued jazz composition into middle of century<br />Wrote for his band, along with Mel Lewis<br />Composers<br />
    19. 19. Supportive Materials<br />Listening/Composition Lessons<br />
    20. 20. Compare/Contrast Jazz Styles<br />Blues/Swing-http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9cM3ALga80<br />Blues/Dixieland-http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j_WbQYdQty0<br />Solo Piano-http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0t8WSu6Tcc<br />Discuss diversity of Jazz<br />Listening Lesson #1<br />
    21. 21. Links:<br />Student Handout/File: http://bit.ly/cceK3O<br />Lesson Plan: http://bit.ly/cVwgyO<br />Composition Assignment<br />
    22. 22. Rhythmic Differences-Dave Brubeck<br />“The Duke” <br />“Take Five”<br />“Blue Rondo a la Turk”<br />Discussion on use of rhythm in dances<br />Is “Blue Rondo” easy or difficult to dance to?<br />Listening Lesson #2<br />
    23. 23. “Goodbye! (Yesterday)”<br />Buddy Rich Big Band<br />