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Kursus ‘Research Methodology’ KKKTBy: Azwadi Ali Department of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Management and Economics, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. Studio SPS, KKKT. 29 November 2011.
Data collection Observation – assembly line in factories, arrival of aircrafts, activities of rural community. Interview – open-ended with some guided questions. Suitable for exploratory research especially qualitative. Questionnaire – widely used, easy and objective. Focus on questionnaire . Quantitative – research model exists, items have been developed from existing literature. May need to perform pilot study.
Constructing Instrument Begin with literature search. Use google scholar, then use provided databases at your institution to locate the articles. Certain articles provide actual questionnaire – use/adopt wisely. If the aim is not to merely replicating existing research, find some ways to improve/extend/modify research models – a new variable is already sufficient. Ensure that variables forming your research model make sense such as the appropriateness of mediator/moderator/antecedent.
Latent variables Also known as unobserved variables. Items in questionnaire are observed variables. Latent variables can either reflect or formed by items. If reflective mode is suitable, ensure that items of the same variables make sense (i.e., co-variance can be expected). Items of three or more are good enough to represent a latent variable. Too many items are not advised.
Reflective vs FormativeExample: Computer Self-EfficacyReflective – I am capable at performing tasks on my computer. I feel confident in my ability to perform computer- related tasks.Formative – I am confident at my ability to perform tasks in MS Word. I am skillful at using Excel.Example: System QualityReflective – Overall, I would rate the system quality of the system highly. The quality of the system is appropriate for my needs.Formative – Reliability, Ease of Use, Complexity, Accessibility, Responsiveness
Devising questionnaire/item scales Normally questionnaire includes several sections – e.g. demographic, cases/experiment/quiz, and items making up the research model. The order of the sections depends on the researcher. Only ask relevant demographic questions, especially if they are useful to answer a research question – e.g. Do individuals differ in opinions between male and female? Do large companies more transparent than small companies? Questions of items in research model may be asked via Likert scale, equal-appearing, semantic differential or cumulative.
Research model Questionnaire is easily constructed when research model has been identified. In social science, many well established theories or concepts can be adopted/extended/modified. Theory of Reasoned Action – Theory of Planned Behavior Social Cognitive Theory Technology Acceptance Model Diffusion of Innovation Elaboration Likelihood Model Attitude Mediation Hypothesis
Examples Attitude Behavioural towards Beliefs Behaviour Normative Subjective Intention Behaviour Beliefs Norm Perceived Control Behavioural Beliefs Control
Validity & Reliability of Instrument What is validity? - A study is valid if its measures actually measure what they claim to, and if there are no logical errors in drawing conclusions from the data. - Face and content validity (expert/pilot study) - Construct validity (≈ reliability) - Internal validity (defend against source of biases) - Statistical validity (proper use of statistics) Reliability? - Reliability is the correlation of an item, scale, or instrument with a hypothetical one which truly measures what it is supposed to. Focus on construct validity and internal consistency.
Construct validity Convergent validity and Discriminant validity Convergent -> internal consistency (cronbach alpha, simple factor structure), concurrent (correlation between scale), predictive validity (criterion in the future) and external validity (possible biases?). Discriminant validity -> correlational method (rule of thumbs), factor methods (principal component), average variance extracted (AVE) and nested model in structural equation modelling (SEM).
Hands-on factor method and cronbach alpha Use SPSS. These are ‘pre-requisite’ to test a research model.
Research hypothesesH1: ‘Information usefulness’ is positively related to ‘attitude towards IR Websites’H2: ‘Usability’ is positively related to ‘attitude towards IR Websites’H3: ‘Attractiveness’ is positively related to ‘attitude towards IR Websites’H4: ‘Attitude towards IR Websites’ is positively related to ‘intention to re-use IR Website’
Research Model with Indicators COG3 COG4IQ1 COG2 COG5IQ3IQ4 COG1 COG6IQ7 IQIQ8 AFT1IQ9 COG AFT AFT2 AFT3 IUCRD2CRD4CRD5 CRDCRD6USB1USB2 INT1USB3 INT2USB5 USB AT_ST INT INT3USB6 INT4USB7ATR1ATR2ATR3 ATRATR5ATR6
Sample Results Information Usefulness γ= 0 t = .341 2.8 65 Attitude Intention to γ = 0.297 towards IR β = 0.640 Usability Re-use t = 2.425 Websites t = 8.873 (σ2 = .409) (σ2 = .784) 11 0.3 30 γ= 5.0 t=Attractiveness