NS100 Deck Equipment and Marlinespike Seamanship
Ground Tackle and Mooring Equipment Cleat - Consists of a double-ended pair of horns, used for securing a line or wire. Bitts - Pairs of heavy vertical cylinders, used for making fast lines led through chocks. Bollard - Strong cylindrical upright on a pier, about which a mooring line is placed.
Ground Tackle and Mooring Equipment Chock - Heavy fitting with smooth surfaces through which mooring lines are led. Roller Open Closed
Ground Tackle and Mooring Equipment Padeye - A metal plate with an “eye”, attached to the deck to distribute a load over a large area. Lifelines - Lines erected around the edges of decks, referred to as follows: Top - Lifeline Middle - Housing line Bottom - Foot rope Snaking - Netting rigged between foot rope and deck.
Ground Tackle and Mooring Equipment Capstan - Separate vertical machinery units or part of the anchor windlass around which lines are passed, commonly used in mooring and anchoring evolutions.
Ground Tackle and Mooring Equipment Camel - A large float or raft used as a fender. Rat guards - Shields secured around mooring lines to prevent rats from coming board ships.
Dip the Eye When two bights are placed on the same bollard, the second one is led up through the first before being put over the bollard. This allows either to be cast off without moving the other.
Ground Tackle and Mooring Equipment Chafing gear - Canvas or other material placed around mooring lines to prevent wear. Fenders - Material designed to absorb the shock of contact between two ships or a ship and a pier.
Ground Tackle and Mooring Equipment Boatswain’s chair - Used for sending one person over the side. Jacob’s ladder - Rope ladder w/rungs rigged over the side for temporary use Boat boom - Spar swung out from the side of the ship, permits small boats to ride safely alongside while at anchor.
Ground Tackle and Mooring Equipment Pilot’s ladder - Flexible portable ladder, usually constructed of metal, sturdier than a Jacob’s ladder. Sea ladder - Rigid, portable ladder that maybe rigged to the side of the ship. Accommodation ladder - Rigid, inclined ladder rigged to the side of the ship to allow boarding of a moored or anchored ship.
Mooring Lines Mooring lines are the lines used to secure the ship to a wharf, pier or another ship. Definition of lines : Breast lines - Run at right angles from the ship, control distance of ship from pier Aft spring lines - Tend aft from ship, control forward movement. Forward spring lines - Tend forward from the ship, control aft movement
Mooring Lines Numbering of lines: #1 - Bow line #2 - Aft bow spring line #3 - Forward bow spring line #4 - Aft quarter spring line #5 - Forward quarter spring line #6 - Stern line 1 3 4 5 6 2
Marlinespike Seamanship Marlinespike seamanship is the art of - handling - maintaining - working with line or rope , including every variety of - knotting - splicing - lashing.
Rope and Line Rope - general term that refers to both fiber and wire . It is manufactured from fiber, wire, or a combination of the two. Almost every fiber rope in use on board ship is a line .
Rope and Line Fiber rope - Commonly called “ line ”, it is fashioned from natural or synthetic fibers. Measured by circumference Types of construction: -Twisted - Braided - Plaited
Rope and Line (classification and construction, cont’d)
Types of fiber rope:
Natural: Synthetic: Aramid:
manila - nylon - 4 strands kevlar
cotton - polyester
- hemp - polypropylene
Rope and Line (classification and construction, cont’d) Wire rope - basic unit of construction is the metal wire. - Measured by diameter . - Construction : individual wires are laid together to form strands , and strands are laid together to form the wire rope.
Rope and Line (classification and construction, cont’d) Wire rope Designated by - number of strands per rope, and - number of wires per strand. - example: 6 x 19 6 strands per rope 19 wires per strand
Rope and Line (classification and construction, cont’d) Wire Rope (cont’d) - - large number of small wires produces high flexibility but low abrasion resistance. - a small number of large wires would stiffer, but more resistant to abrasion. Cores - - single wire strand adds strength - fiber adds flexibility.
Rope and Line (classification and construction, cont’d) Combination - - measured by diameter - six main strands of fiber and wire rope interwoven, laid around a fiber core. - used as mooring lines for extra strength - fiber rope adds great flexibility and elasticity
Natural vs Synthetic Important differences : - Synthetic fiber lines slip more easily. - Synthetic line has higher breaking strength. - Synthetic line has poor knot-holding characteristics. - Synthetic lines stretch under load.
Synthetic Line Construction 3-strand double-braided plaited Breaking Low High Medium strength Abrasion Best Low Medium resistance Relative High Low Highest stretch Cost Low High Medium
Synthetic Line Materials Nylon Polypropylene Polyester Breaking High Low Medium strength Abrasion Best Poor Good resistance Relative High Medium Least stretch Cost Medium Low High
Small Stuff Line or rope less than 1 3/4 inches in circumference. Identified by the number of yarns (threads) it contains, rather than its size. Marline - Two-strand, tarred hemp, used for “serving” a line. (Serving a line means to wrap it with marline to protect it from weather or to make it look neater. Most commonly used on natural fiber lines) Houseline - Three-strand, left laid tarred hemp for light seizing, light rigging, and work exposed to weather.
Small Stuff Seizing stuff - Very small, used for fancier jobs that marline can accomplish. Ratline stuff - Dark brown and coarse, it is primarily used for snaking - nettings used to prevent personnel from washing overboard. Tattletale - Small, natural line spaced into a synthetic fiber line to provide an indication of the working load placed on the line.
Small Stuff Tattletale (cont’d) - the tattletale for a three-strand, twisted nylon line consists of a 40-inch natural fiber line spliced between two points 30 inches apart. The tattletale become taut when the line is stretched 33% or more.
Marlin e spike Seamanship Terms Hawser - Heavy line over five inches in circumference. Used for towing or mooring. Bight - A loop of line or chain. Bitter End - Free end of a length of line, wire chain or cable. Eye - Closed loop in the end of a line. Marlinspike - Tapered steel tool used in splicing wire.
Marlin e spike Seamanship Terms Fid - Tapered wood tool used in splicing lines. Coil - Lay down a line in circular turns on top of one another.
Marlin e spike Seamanship Terms Flemish: Coil a line flat on deck Fake down: Lay out a line in long, flat bights. Heaving line: Light weighted line thrown across to a pier or ship when coming alongside to act as a messenger.
Marlin e spike Seamanship Terms Monkey fist - Knot at the end of a heaving line to provide weight. Rat-tailed Stopper - Line designed to take the strain of a working line while shifting the line about bitts or cleats. Mousing - Light line across a hook to prevent a sling from slipping off or a pin from backing out.
Marlin e spike Seamanship Terms Shot line - Light nylon line used in a line throwing gun Bolo - Nylon line with a lead weight in canvas or leather, thrown from ship to ship or from a ship to a pier.
Review Questions 1. What type of line are lines 1 and 6? 2. What type of motion is controlled by lines 2 and 4? 3. What is the difference between spring lines and breast lines? 4. What are the three types of chocks? 5. What does chaffing gear prevent?
Review Questions 6 . What is marlinspike seamanship? 7 . What is rope? 8 . What is line? 9 . How are fiber and wire rope measured differently?
Review Questions 10 . What advantage does synthetic line have over natural? What are the d isadvantages? 11 . What is the purpose of a splice?