Aids To Navigation


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  • Aids To Navigation

    1. 1. NS100 Fundamentals of Naval Science Visual Navigation Aids
    2. 2. Types of Aids to Navigation Buoys - Floating aids to navigation. Lights - Fixed aids to navigation with distinctive light characteristics that make them identifiable at night.
    3. 3. Major Lights
    4. 4. On the Range Range Lights
    5. 5. To the right of the range. Visual Range On the Range The location of the rear range relative to the front range will indicate your relationship to the range line.
    6. 6. Beacons <ul><li>Fixed aids to navigation used in U.S. waters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each has daymark ( or ) to denote right or left-side channel boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beacons may be unlighted (daybeacons) or lighted </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Types of Aids to Navigation Radio Beacon - used with a direction finding receiver, will yield an LOP.
    8. 8. RACON Buoys <ul><li>to identify aids to navigation, both seaborne (e.g. buoys) and land-based (e.g. lighthouses) </li></ul><ul><li>to identify landfall or positions on inconspicuous coastlines </li></ul><ul><li>to indicate navigable spans under bridges </li></ul><ul><li>to identify offshore oil platforms and similar structures </li></ul>
    9. 9. General Buoyage Classification Lateral - Used to indicate on which side the buoy should be passed and are used to mark channels.
    10. 10. Cardinal System of Buoyage
    11. 11. Buoy Description and Purpose Can Buoy 13
    12. 12. Buoy Description and Purpose Nun Buoy 12
    13. 13. Sound Buoys <ul><li>Bell </li></ul><ul><li>Gong </li></ul><ul><li>Whistle </li></ul><ul><li>Horn </li></ul>
    14. 14. Lighted Buoys
    15. 15. Combination Buoys <ul><li>Any buoy in which a light and a sound signal are combined </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighted bell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighted gong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighted whistle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighted horn </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Buoy Description and Purpose Buoys are painted different colors according to their purpose. Lateral Aids - Either red or green or the combination of the two. Cardinal Aids - Painted black and yellow.
    17. 17. Lateral Buoys either red or green, or a combination of the two. Numbered from seaward, meaning the numbers increase as you approach land.
    18. 19. Buoy Description and Purpose Safe Water Marks - presence of a channel. Fitted with a red ball topmark or a white light flashing MORSE ALPHA . Special Marks - Painted yellow. Isolated Danger Marks - Painted black and red.
    19. 20. Special Buoys <ul><li>Used to mark: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits of fish traps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable crossings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchorages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOAA weather buoys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Color is yellow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually unlighted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOAA weather buoys are lighted and typically use a flashing 4 or 6 second yellow light </li></ul></ul>13
    20. 21. Buoyage Systems There are two buoyage systems in the world today: IALA “A” and IALA “B”. International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA)
    21. 22. Buoyage Systems IALA “B” memory aids: Red Right Returning Even Red Nuns have Odd Green Cans
    22. 23. Light Attributes <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Phase Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Period </li></ul>
    23. 24. Color <ul><li>Common colors: </li></ul>White Red Green
    24. 25. Illustration Symbol and meaning F. = Fixed F.Fl. = Fixed and flashing F.Gp.Fl. = Fixed and group flashing Fl. = Flashing Gp. Fl. = Group flashing Gp. Fl. (1+2) = Composite group flashing Mo. (A) = Morse code Qk. Fl. = Quick flashing I.Qk.Fl. = Interrupted quick flashing E.Int. = Equal Interval (Isophase) Occ. =Occulting Gp.Occ. = Group occulting Gp.Occ. (2+3) = Composite group occulting
    25. 26. Lights and Lighted Buoys Lateral and Channel Buoys - red or green with flashing phase characteristics. U.S. Safe Water Marks - Show a white light with Morse “Alpha” ( ) with a period of about eight seconds. Fixed Lights and Lighthouses - variety of phase characteristics, lights, and colored sectors to distinguish from the background lights of the shore.
    26. 27. Channel Buoys
    27. 28. Safe Water Buoys
    28. 29. Preferred Channel Buoys
    29. 30. 16 14 12 10 Mast Aids To Navigation
    30. 31. Using Buoys and Lights in Piloting Buoys should never be used to fix your position! Lights and Lighthouses - fixed and provide for good visual fixing both during the day and at night.
    31. 32. Aids to navigation