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Aids To Navigation
 

Aids To Navigation

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Aids To Navigation Aids To Navigation Presentation Transcript

  • NS100 Fundamentals of Naval Science Visual Navigation Aids
  • Types of Aids to Navigation Buoys - Floating aids to navigation. Lights - Fixed aids to navigation with distinctive light characteristics that make them identifiable at night.
  • Major Lights
  • On the Range Range Lights
  • To the right of the range. Visual Range On the Range The location of the rear range relative to the front range will indicate your relationship to the range line.
  • Beacons
    • Fixed aids to navigation used in U.S. waters
      • Each has daymark ( or ) to denote right or left-side channel boundary
      • Beacons may be unlighted (daybeacons) or lighted
  • Types of Aids to Navigation Radio Beacon - used with a direction finding receiver, will yield an LOP.
  • RACON Buoys
    • to identify aids to navigation, both seaborne (e.g. buoys) and land-based (e.g. lighthouses)
    • to identify landfall or positions on inconspicuous coastlines
    • to indicate navigable spans under bridges
    • to identify offshore oil platforms and similar structures
  • General Buoyage Classification Lateral - Used to indicate on which side the buoy should be passed and are used to mark channels.
  • Cardinal System of Buoyage
  • Buoy Description and Purpose Can Buoy 13
  • Buoy Description and Purpose Nun Buoy 12
  • Sound Buoys
    • Bell
    • Gong
    • Whistle
    • Horn
  • Lighted Buoys
  • Combination Buoys
    • Any buoy in which a light and a sound signal are combined
    • Examples include:
      • Lighted bell
      • Lighted gong
      • Lighted whistle
      • Lighted horn
  • Buoy Description and Purpose Buoys are painted different colors according to their purpose. Lateral Aids - Either red or green or the combination of the two. Cardinal Aids - Painted black and yellow.
  • Lateral Buoys either red or green, or a combination of the two. Numbered from seaward, meaning the numbers increase as you approach land.
  •  
  • Buoy Description and Purpose Safe Water Marks - presence of a channel. Fitted with a red ball topmark or a white light flashing MORSE ALPHA . Special Marks - Painted yellow. Isolated Danger Marks - Painted black and red.
  • Special Buoys
    • Used to mark:
      • Prohibited areas
      • Limits of fish traps
      • Cable crossings
      • Anchorages
      • NOAA weather buoys
    • Color is yellow
      • Usually unlighted
      • NOAA weather buoys are lighted and typically use a flashing 4 or 6 second yellow light
    13
  • Buoyage Systems There are two buoyage systems in the world today: IALA “A” and IALA “B”. International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA)
  • Buoyage Systems IALA “B” memory aids: Red Right Returning Even Red Nuns have Odd Green Cans
  • Light Attributes
    • Color
    • Phase Characteristics
    • Period
  • Color
    • Common colors:
    White Red Green
  • Illustration Symbol and meaning F. = Fixed F.Fl. = Fixed and flashing F.Gp.Fl. = Fixed and group flashing Fl. = Flashing Gp. Fl. = Group flashing Gp. Fl. (1+2) = Composite group flashing Mo. (A) = Morse code Qk. Fl. = Quick flashing I.Qk.Fl. = Interrupted quick flashing E.Int. = Equal Interval (Isophase) Occ. =Occulting Gp.Occ. = Group occulting Gp.Occ. (2+3) = Composite group occulting
  • Lights and Lighted Buoys Lateral and Channel Buoys - red or green with flashing phase characteristics. U.S. Safe Water Marks - Show a white light with Morse “Alpha” ( ) with a period of about eight seconds. Fixed Lights and Lighthouses - variety of phase characteristics, lights, and colored sectors to distinguish from the background lights of the shore.
  • Channel Buoys
  • Safe Water Buoys
  • Preferred Channel Buoys
  • 16 14 12 10 Mast Aids To Navigation
  • Using Buoys and Lights in Piloting Buoys should never be used to fix your position! Lights and Lighthouses - fixed and provide for good visual fixing both during the day and at night.
  • Aids to navigation
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