Animal Reproduction

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Animal and human reproduction for students of 2º and 3rd ESO

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  • penge po madae exmaples ng animals na nag-uundergo ng asexual reproduction :(
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  • good for my repert in bio sci,, jejejjjeej
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  • Animal Reproduction — Presentation Transcript

    1. REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS
    2. There are two basic types of reproduction: sexual and asexual. Asexual reproduction involves only one parent that produces two or more genetically similar organisms. It occurs mainly in organisms with a simple structure. Sexual reproduction involves two parents. A male sex cell joins with a female sex cell (fertilization) and they form a new cell called a zygote . The zygote grows into a new organism.
    3. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Binary fission. An unicellular organism divides into two cells of the same size. It is used by most prokaryotes. The result is a living cell produced by division into two equal or near-equal parts. Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. This may be found in animal organisms such as the hydra.
    4. Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are a clone of the original organism. It is seen in some annelid worms and starfish). Polyembryony is the only form of asexual reproduction in vertebrates. An embryo is divided in several identical embryos that have independent development (identical twins)
    5. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Two parents of different sex are involved. The offspring are different from their parents and from each other
    6. REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS (GONADS) Gonads produce gametes (cells that fuse with another gamete during fertilization) The gonads in males are the testes (sing. testis) and the gonads in females are the ovaries . Testes produce sperm cells ( small and motile) Ovaries produce ova (sing. ovum) (large and non-motile)
    7. TYPES OF FERTILIZATION External fertilization occurs in some animals living in water, like fish or amphibians. The female releases a large amount of ova and the male releases the sperm cells. Sperm cells join ova by chance .
    8. TYPES OF FERTILIZATION Internal fertilization . The male introduce sperm cells in the female’s body. It occurs in terrestrial animals, sharks and rays. The embryo can develop in different ways: Oviparity. Oviparous lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother. Ovoviviparity. Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mother's body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. Vivipary. A viviparous animal is an animal where the embryo develops inside the body of the mother, as opposed to outside in an egg. The mother then gives live birth.
    9. DEVELOPMENT AND METAMORPHOSIS We call development the process by which an animal grows to reach their adult size. Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a big change in the animal's form or structure through cell growth and differentiation .
    10. INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS Some insects like grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches or dragonflies have a similar appearance to their parents when they are born. The development of larva often proceeds in repeated stages of growth and ecdysis (moulting). These stages are called instars
    11. COMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS Other insects, like beetles, butterflies and flies, are very different from their parents at birth. These insects pass through a larval stage, then enter an inactive state called pupa, or chrysalis, and finally emerge as adults.
    12. FROG METAMORPHOSIS
    13. REPRODUCTION IN MAMMALS Mammals reproduce through internal fertilization and are viviparous . Male mammals have a penis that introduces sperm into the female’s body, where fertilization occurs. Most female mammals are only fertile during certain periods (in heat) when they couple . The embryo develops in the uterus (womb). It exchanges substances with the mother’s blood through the placenta, which is attached to the fetus ' abdomen via an umbilical cord . The offspring are fed the mother’s milk produced by mammary glands .
    14. MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
    15. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
    16.
    17. GESTATION Gestation , called pregnancy in humans, is the period of time during which the fetus develops, dividing via mitosis inside the female. The gestation period varies greatly from species to species; it is 38 weeks in humans, 56–60 in giraffes and 16 days in hamsters.
    18. BIRTH Once the fetus is sufficiently developed, chemical signals start the process of birth, which begins with contractions of the uterus and the dilation of the cervix. The fetus then descends to the cervix, where it is pushed out into the vagina, and eventually out of the female. The newborn should typically begin respiration on its own shortly after birth. Not long after, the placenta is passed as well.
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Animal Reproduction

  1. 1. REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS
  2. 2. <ul><li>There are two basic types of reproduction: sexual and asexual. </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction involves only one parent that produces two or more genetically similar organisms. It occurs mainly in organisms with a simple structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction involves two parents. A male sex cell joins with a female sex cell (fertilization) and they form a new cell called a zygote . The zygote grows into a new organism. </li></ul>
  3. 3. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION <ul><li>Binary fission. An unicellular organism divides into two cells of the same size. It is used by most prokaryotes. The result is a living cell produced by division into two equal or near-equal parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. This may be found in animal organisms such as the hydra. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are a clone of the original organism. It is seen in some annelid worms and starfish). </li></ul><ul><li>Polyembryony is the only form of asexual reproduction in vertebrates. An embryo is divided in several identical embryos that have independent development (identical twins) </li></ul>
  5. 5. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION <ul><li>Two parents of different sex are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>The offspring are different from their parents and from each other </li></ul>
  6. 6. REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS (GONADS) <ul><li>Gonads produce gametes (cells that fuse with another gamete during fertilization) </li></ul><ul><li>The gonads in males are the testes (sing. testis) and the gonads in females are the ovaries . </li></ul><ul><li>Testes produce sperm cells ( small and motile) </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries produce ova (sing. ovum) (large and non-motile) </li></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF FERTILIZATION <ul><li>External fertilization occurs in some animals living in water, like fish or amphibians. The female releases a large amount of ova and the male releases the sperm cells. Sperm cells join ova by chance . </li></ul>
  8. 8. TYPES OF FERTILIZATION <ul><li>Internal fertilization . The male introduce sperm cells in the female’s body. It occurs in terrestrial animals, sharks and rays. </li></ul><ul><li>The embryo can develop in different ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oviparity. Oviparous lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovoviviparity. Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mother's body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivipary. A viviparous animal is an animal where the embryo develops inside the body of the mother, as opposed to outside in an egg. The mother then gives live birth. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. DEVELOPMENT AND METAMORPHOSIS <ul><li>We call development the process by which an animal grows to reach their adult size. </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a big change in the animal's form or structure through cell growth and differentiation . </li></ul>
  10. 10. INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS <ul><li>Some insects like grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches or dragonflies have a similar appearance to their parents when they are born. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of larva often proceeds in repeated stages of growth and ecdysis (moulting). These stages are called instars </li></ul>
  11. 11. COMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS <ul><li>Other insects, like beetles, butterflies and flies, are very different from their parents at birth. </li></ul><ul><li>These insects pass through a larval stage, then enter an inactive state called pupa, or chrysalis, and finally emerge as adults. </li></ul>
  12. 12. FROG METAMORPHOSIS
  13. 13. REPRODUCTION IN MAMMALS <ul><li>Mammals reproduce through internal fertilization and are viviparous . </li></ul><ul><li>Male mammals have a penis that introduces sperm into the female’s body, where fertilization occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most female mammals are only fertile during certain periods (in heat) when they couple . </li></ul><ul><li>The embryo develops in the uterus (womb). It exchanges substances with the mother’s blood through the placenta, which is attached to the fetus ' abdomen via an umbilical cord . </li></ul><ul><li>The offspring are fed the mother’s milk produced by mammary glands . </li></ul>
  14. 14. MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
  15. 15. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
  16. 17. GESTATION <ul><li>Gestation , called pregnancy in humans, is the period of time during which the fetus develops, dividing via mitosis inside the female. </li></ul><ul><li>The gestation period varies greatly from species to species; it is 38 weeks in humans, 56–60 in giraffes and 16 days in hamsters. </li></ul>
  17. 18. BIRTH <ul><li>Once the fetus is sufficiently developed, chemical signals start the process of birth, which begins with contractions of the uterus and the dilation of the cervix. </li></ul><ul><li>The fetus then descends to the cervix, where it is pushed out into the vagina, and eventually out of the female. </li></ul><ul><li>The newborn should typically begin respiration on its own shortly after birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Not long after, the placenta is passed as well. </li></ul>

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