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architect in a foreign culture

architect in a foreign culture



Nineteen students, five weeks in Mozambique, one school built in twelve days

Nineteen students, five weeks in Mozambique, one school built in twelve days



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  • very good work! congrats! i live in mozambique. Can i have a copy for further investigation if possible? tanx jano
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    architect in a foreign culture architect in a foreign culture Presentation Transcript

    • Five Weeks In Africa How to be an architect in a foreign culture? Bergen Scool of Architecture - Mastercourse Autumn 2009 1
    • Table of contents Introduction Letter from Irmã Catarina 3 7 A glance from the outside 9 Press Release 11 Task 1: Representation 12 Task 2> Information gathering 13 BAS Master Mozambique travel plan 2009 14 The Journey 17 Norway - South Africa 18 Mozambique 20 Maputo 22 Chibuto - Chimundo 24 Irmã Catarina 26 Aidglobal 27 Knowing Chimundo 29 Bairro Chimundo 30 Registration-map (zone 1) 32 Typology & materials 34 Material price-list 35 Irmã Catharina´s plot 36 Analysis of site 38 Masterplan and footprint 40 Sketching the footprint 41 Premises and concept-building 42 The building 45 Concept and program 46 The closed room 47 Foot print and foundation 48 The sand walls 49 The bottle light wall 50 The open room 52 The floor 53 The doors 54 The poles 55 The roof 56 The roof and the climate 57 The construction 58
    • Introduction by Bror Ragnar Hansen, Architect. Coordinator and assistant teacher for the study and research trip to South Africa and Mozambique. Bergen School of Architecture - BAS Master Mozambique September 2009. As part of its Masters degree curriculum, Bergen School of Architecture BAS includes a The objective comprehensive program for sustainable development, focusing on landscape and climate The objective of “being an architect in a foreign culture” was to register, learn and forming a basis for architecture. Sustainability has been introduced as a central element reflect upon the cultural, political and social patterns in which the students were met in all teaching, and the aim is to make it a key component in all professional discussions, with during the trip. In Chimundo, the registrations and analysis made by the students research and development as well as in its student projects. were to become the basis and backgound of how to approach a masterplan for the site of Irma Catarina. This resulted in a building designed for academic proposes, that hopefully can provide Being an architect in a foreign culture economical support to the community in order to build future living quarters for A 4-6 week field study to countries with different cultures than that of our own, is of the orphan children, among other functions. utmost importance in understanding “the greater picture”. The destinations, topics and When arriving back in Bergen, the task was to work further with the site of Irma duration vary from year to year. On September 13th, 19 architect students from BAS Catarina, designing a set of small buildings linked together with a social character. travelled on a 5-week study and research trip to South Africa and Mozambique. Preparations International staff This trip was planned from april 2009. Establishing contacts in South Africa and The Portuguese architect André Fontes led the first two weeks. His teaching methods Mozambique, coordinating the different elements for such an adventure, takes time! Prior prepared the students for the tasks. The following topics were introduced: to leaving for Africa the students also had a two-week preparation period in Bergen. Visas to apply, vaccinations to take, tickets to ride. A workshop and a string of lectures were held. 1. Preparing the eyes “to see”: Expression, process, materials, architecture/ All this, in order to make the trip as good and streamlined as possibly. structure, composition and atmospheres The world of art 2. Process developing: The concept, The idea, context, impact, personality, As part of our toolbox in becoming functional and good architects we make use of the world atmospheres, processes and materials. of art. All our courses have this element of approach, what we define as DAV (¨Den André Verda¨ - ¨The Other World¨). We believe that by investigating extensively in this sphere, 3. “To see” (the site plan) Landscape, urban systems, urban spaces, construction the possibility to develop a free and personal expression is present¨. When in Mozambique processes, material expression, we invited a local artist Berry Bickle, a Zimbabwean living in Maputo, to do a workshop with and the student’s own observations. us. 4. Project Developing: Drafting and creating the tools to synchronize technical Main focus drawings, process, perspectives and Our main focus of the study-trip was the emerging project of sister Catarina. A catholic models. 1:1 sketching. nun in the rural setting of Chimundo, outside the town of Chibuto, which is situated approximately 80 km north west of Xai Xai - Mozambique. A small Portuguese NGO, Aidglobal, was linked to the sister. 3
    • Responding The way forward. It was not an initial intention to physically realize the students masterplan proposals, but rather On October 19th the students returned to Bergen to continue work on their ideas for a to use the results as part of an application for future funding. However, the need to improve the final presentation in late January 2010. There is no doubt that their design results will existing conditions were pending, so the students decided, in cooperation with Irmã Catarina on be innovative with beautiful practical ideas. These are to be communicated back to Irmã the third week, to build a building designed for academic proposes that hopefully can provide Catarina and the NGO- AidGlobal. Some designs will be used as proposals for further economical support to build future living quarters for orphan children, among other functions. development and funding. The students took use of the tasks given by teacher André Fontes, simultaniously as the building raised from the red soil. The Norwegian architect responsible for the 3 master courses at BAS this We have opened our eyes and minds to new realities. As well being mutually inspired autumn, Sixten Rahlff, joined the students and the coordinator in the further decision-making and and touched by the local people and the different contexts we all live in. In doing so, this building process for the last two weeks. year’s course naturally raises the following questions: Should BAS follow-up this project next year? If so, on what premises? How can we improve the course? Can we include What can we do as architects to improve the lives of children growing up in basic living other stakeholders? conditions? Open invitation Coordination We have an open invitation to return and continue this project. Mozambican artists, An essential part of the coordinators duties as an architect, was to establish and maintain good architects and The Mozambican institute for Architecture and Design, should be natural relations with the local people, representatives of the local government, architects, NGOs and partners in the future. The Ambassador and staff at the Royal Norwegian Embassy in other authorities during the whole period. This included presentations on many levels such as the Maputo were very positive to our initiatives and further development of the project. Mozambican institute for Architecture and Design at Universidade de Eduardo Mondlane (UEM), and the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Maputo. Since living conditions throughout the three-week The issue of sustainability period on the site in Chimundo, were basic for the participants, a high level of awareness on BAS will present the results so far, at the Copenhagen Climate ExChange exhibition maintaining an acceptable health standard was crucial to the project. Despite this efforts, some in December 2009, in conjunction with the Climate Conference (COP15) in Denmark. were having trouble, requiring medical attention and treatment. We raise the topic of sustainability and how the educational system is coping with the realistic needs this world requires. Students will be presenting this project at the “Our education is detached from reality” exhibition and interact with companies and organisations dealing with the issues of This comment from Iwan, a 2.year Mozambican architect student after our project presentation sustainability in architecture and other related fields. at UEM, was a great compliment to the BAS students. The Mozambican students and Dean of the Mozambican institute for Architecture and Design in Maputo, were amazed of our teaching Through the devoted work of Irmã Catarina and her partners at this evolving community methods and the results. The way we responded to a need and the way we created new spatial centre, the main beneficiaries of our brief intervention are the children of Chimundo. structures combining local material with conventional building methods. Parallel to the students further design proposals, she is already planning a new bathroom facilities for the children. With mixed background and experiences, the students and teachers from BAS amounted a very functional and cooperative building-team. Together with the local people, we managed to This Lady will never rest until her vision is fulfilled. implement the trainee centre in only 12 days, despite a limited budget. Did we: Bror Ragnar Hansen reach our goals? - “Something better than nothing”? What impact have we made as architects from a foreign culture - in a foreign culture? Architect and coordinator for the study and research trip to South Africa and Mozambique Bergen School of Architecture - BAS Master Mozambique September 2009 Did we: initiated and facilitated positive sustainable development strategies? The project blog: www.basmozambique.wordpress.com integrate the construction into it’s urban context? become better architects by living and working 5 weeks in a culture different from ours? meet their expectations? 4
    • 5
    • 6
    • Letter from Irmã Catarina Translated into english by Filipe Avila Galvão 7
    • 8
    • A glance from the outside Reflections from Norway 9
    • Our two weeks before leaving for South Africa and Mozambique were in retrospect a mozaic of research and assignments to prepare us for what was to come. The following pages are in short our introduction to this course and an introduction to this document. Pictures of the site that were sent us by Aid Global 10
    • Press Release Aug 31 Dear all 1-4 sept BAS Master Mozambique student presentations: Task 1: Representation and Task 2: Country A weekplan for Bergen September and press release. information Place: BAS 0900-1600 PRESS RELEASE: Bergen Architect School - BAS Master Mozambique September 2009 http://basmozambique. 7. sept BAS Lecture wordpress.com/about-the-course/ Bror R. Hansen and Sixten Rahlff. “Being an architect in a foreign culture - Working 13. September 2009 in a foreign environment”. Background and 19 architect students from Bergen Architect School (BAS) Bergen Norway, will travel together with experiences 3 teachers on a 5 week study and research trip to South Africa and Mozambique as part of a Master Place: store auditorium. Time: 0900-1200 course called: 8. sept BAS Lecture Cecilie Andersson Architect and PhD Candidate at Being an architect in a foreign culture NTNU. Fieldwork and lessons learned China 06. The main goal is to learn about another culture through practical approach as small planning or Place: store auditorium Time: 0900-1000 building projects. We seek to come in contact with local architects and students, city planners and artists that can help us with such a contact and task. It is not a main goal that the students BAS Lecture realize their proposal, but to be practical participants in collaboration between local people, local Benjamin Barth (architect student , BAS) environment, local department, planners and other students. However the results can be used as “participation” - participatory research- lessons part of an application for future funding. learned from workshop with Architecture Sans Frontiers in Brasil spring Our main focus of the study-trip is an orphanage in the rural setting of Chimundo, a small place Place: store auditorium Time: 1000-1100 near the town of Xai Xai -Mozambique. Aid Global and Program Manager Filipe Galvão. Living conditions will be basic for the students. BAS Lecture and Workshop Paal Wendelboo presents his world famous In Maputo we will cooperate with Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) - Faculty of Architecture invention, the energy saving oven “Peko Pe”. and Physical Planning, Jose Forjaz Architects and hopefully the artist Berry Bickle and the He is there between 1200 og 1600. Photographer Mauro Pinto. The students will be construction ovens this day. which hopefully will result in serving a hot meal. On October 18th they will return to Bergen and continue to work on their proposals for a final http://www.pekope.net/ presentation January 2010. Place: store auditorium: Time: 1200 and working hall from 1400-1600. The objective is to design a set of small buildings linked together with a social character. Therefore a building will be designed for academic proposes and the other for living quarters for children. This 9. sept BAS Lecture group of buildings also provides the design of an aviary that will financially support the community Bjørn Enge Bertelsen PhD Candidate, Department of for humanitarian purposes. Social Anthropology University of Bergen, on the topic : “Mozambique” Place: store auditorium Time: 1000-1200
    • Task 1: Representation Describe yourself. Be personal, clear and to the point. THE SHARK Once upon a time there were some kids. They were down at the pier. Then came a man-eating shark and said, “it´s my birthday today and I need a girl. A curly girl”. He bit one curly girl, softly. Then her dad came…and pulled her and then she got up. But then the shark started to cry and said ” I jussst wanted tooo inviiiite her tooo my biiirthdayyyy”. And then the curly girl was allowed to go. “The Shark” , Olafia Zoega. “Growing up“, Anette Basso Silje Klepsvik, (every drawing represents a horizon from a memory of places Silje has lived) 12
    • Task 2: Information gathering Choose a theme from one of the following topics; Mozambique, South Africa or Africa. Energy potential attracts Italian companies A joint team of Mozambicans work integrating Mozambican and Italian frameworks to be created within days to discuss the development of a comprehensive program of cooperation within the energy domain. Italy is interested in implementing various projects in the area of renewable energy generation in Mozambique; bio-fuels, photovoltaic systems, wind and water being those that arouse more attention. Manica expects to export 700 tons of bananas to Europe Chimoio (canalmoz) - The province of Manica can export this year, about 700 tons of bananas to the European continent. With the intro- duction of new farming techniques, which consist of production based on the homogeneous culture, which is also known for production using patern culture, introduced last year, banana production has increased in Manica. Two articles from Mozambican daily news. Birgitte Haug Artikkel from : www.norway.org.mz/devcoop/energy/probec.htm, Anette Basso. 13
    • BAS Master Mozambique travel plan 2009 01 sep School starts Lectures, selfpresentations and workshops 12 sep Final preparations before departure 13 sep Travel Bergen – Johannesburg 14 sep Arrival in Johannesburg 15 sep Johannesburg (afternoon) – Nelspruit (Krugerpark safari) 16 sep Nelspruit cross border to Maputo 16 – 20 sep Maputo 17 sep Royal Norweg 18 sep UEM Tour 19 14
    • gian Embassy: Reception at ambassador Øyslebøs recidence. M Department for Architecture and Physical Planning r in Maputo Modernist architecture. With architect-students from Argentina and South Africa. 9-20 sep DAV Maputo. Artist Berry Bickle. 21 sep Maputo - Chimundo 21 sep - 14 oct Chimundo (with AidGlobal) 3 weeks 14 oct Chimundo - Xai Xai - Maputo 15 -16 oct Maputo Presentations of preliminary research, DAV Place: A suitable facility with public access 17 oct Maputo - Johannesburg 18 oct Johannesburg - Bergen 20 oct Bergen and BAS Work with design project and cross project courses. Presentation in mid January
    • The Journey From 60° North to 18° South
    • Norway - South Africa 5 AM, Bergen Airport Flesland. Nineteen architect students and one teacher stare with tired eyes at the information board. One hour until we fly on to Amsterdam and then off to Johannesburg, South Africa. Packs filled with anti-bacterial gel, sunscreen, malaria tablets and Lonely Planet Mosambique books. Not to forget the gifts for the kids. What lies before us is a little unclear and at the same time seems so amazing. 5 weeks of Africa. It´s a lifetime. It´s the 13th of september, the trees are still green... when we come back it will be winter and only two months to christmas! S-Africa- 49 mill. inhabitants A twelve hour flight with one stop in Amsterdam brings us to Johannesburg airport, the biggest and busiest airport in Africa. Travelling so fast between places is always a bit unrealistic and we do not feel we´re really in Africa quite yet despite of a little Capital- Johannesburg/Joburg incident at the airport where a man starts to organize us and our baggage into the cars that the hotel sent us. And of course he wants to get paid for it and makes a big fuzz... In the end we pay him and head to Game Lodge Hotel, our first stay. Entering our rooms, we find a little spider in the sheets, a bigger one in a sink. We have hammocks, ducklings, ostriches. Full breakfast is included. Not exactly what we imagined. Joburg- 10 mill. inhabitants South Africa is on the southern tip of Africa and has around 49 million inhabitants. Johannesburg or “Joburg“ has about 4 million inhabitants and the greater Joburg area over 10 million which makes the city one of the 40 largest in the world. We hear it´s a very Apartheid- 1949-1994. Blacks and dangerous town...“don´t go downtown...don´t do this...don´t do that“.... We do all of it. We travel around Joburg in taxis and chapas Whites segrigated. like we´ve never done anything else. We don´t feel the danger, we only hear about it. We go downtown to shop and look around and we go to the market. No one is robbed, or raped or beaten. One of us forgets an expensive camera in one of the taxis. Rings panicked to the taxi driver who comes back in an instance with the camera... Is this the dangerous town everybody has been talking about? We see the gated houses with big protective walls and barb wire. Huge dogs by every house. There aren´t so many people in the streets. Soweto- A black neighbourhood Are we just being simple? Later that night we hear on the news that a car like our taxi is hijacked by bandits that same day and a seperated from the city under shootout between the bandits and the police leave the bandits wounded or dead. This happens on the road to town. Same road we apartheid. have been travelling back and forth that very day. 18
    • About 10% of South Africans are white and we see many whites in Joburg and South Africa. We get to experience different areas of the city. Melville, Sancton city, Soweto, downtown. We ask around and everyone says Sancton city is the place to be. We hop into a taxi and off we go. We arrive at a huge shopping mall at Nelson Mandela Square. Huge statue of Mandela with a quite small head. We look around for a short while and then return to the hotel. It´s a difficult city to travel around in and it helps to have a guide. A guide brings us to Soweto. Soweto was a separate city from the late 1970s until the 1990s. Originally an acronym for “SOuth-WEstern TOwnships”, Soweto originated as a collection of settlements on the outskirts of Johannesburg populated mostly by native African workers in the gold mining industry. The Apartheid regime (1949-1994) separated Soweto from Johannesburg and made it a completely black Area. Apartheid was abolished in 1994 when Nelson Mandela was made president after decades of emprisonment. We leave Joburg after two nights, and head to Kruger Park. 19.000 km2 of game reserve. The biggest in South-Africa. There we stay over-night and get up at the break of dawn to experience the wildlife. It´s amazing. An angry elephant, a jogging hyena on the road, chubby zebras, a mother leopard with two cubs, astonished architect students. We see four out of the big five and with cameras full we head to Mozambique. Let the adventure begin. 19
    • Tanzania Zambia Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe Madagaskar Xai-Xai Maputo S-Africa Swaziland
    • Chibuto District Mosambique
    • Mozambique We have no problems with crossing from S-Africa to Mozambique. We show our passports and walk right over. We see the difference right away. Now we are almost the only white people and we stick out like a sore thumb. It is clear that South Africa is much more westernized. Here we don´t see Kentucky Fried Chicken and McDonalds, and people are more friendly. They seem curious about this bus stuffed with white students with camera lenses in stead of eyes. We are thrilled. Most of us haven´t been here before and everything is new and exciting. When we pass through the landscape from the border towards Maputo we see the flatness with some The 7th poorest countries in the world trees and hills in the far. There were people walking by the road, especially women, carrying water or baggage on their head and often with a baby on the back, tucked in a capulana-cloth. There were salestands as well, colourful, some were empty and some full with activity. When we approach the capital, the housing becomes denser and more and more people and movement. The houses 800 000 km2 in size stand closer and closer together and the traffic increases. There is a big difference between the rural and the urban Mozambique. The more rural parts we travelled through can be caracterized by scattered housing and few people, with the landscape being relatively flat, especially along the coastal stretch of the southernmost part of the country. This was also the only part we got to experience on our trip. The urban enviroment seemed to be strongly coloured by the Portugese colonial times, with influence of 23 mill. inhabitants Arab, Indian, and Chinese cultures, but with an African feel. This country was so different from South Africa, were we had been constantly warned about crime and safety cautions. The overall feel of Mozambique was that we were safe and welcomed. We got warned about the local police though, who is said to be corrupt, and fines you for not having your passport to identify you (which Capital - Maputo they are not allowed to by law). Mozambique is in southeastern Africa and is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest. It got independent from Portugal in 1975 after being made a Portugese colony in 1505. It´s a very poor country that also has suffered a civil war from 1977-1992, just after A Portugese colony till 1975 the independence from Portuguese rule. The country has not yet managed to get back on it´s feet. Mozambique has amongst the lowest life expectancies on earth, and the economy is still in ruins. We got to experience the local politics in several different situations. The elections were coming up and there was full campaign Democratic government - Frelimo the governing party 22
    • going on. Mozambique has two main parties, anti-Communist RENAMO and the Marxist FRELIMO. These were the ones who fought with each other during the civil war, and they are still the two main parties and share the votes almost equal. Frelimo has the biggest share of the votes though, and we mostly saw Frelimo campaigners, posters and speakers where we travelled. The Chibuto district, where we spent most of our time, is one of the few 100% Frelimo areas. The president, Guebuza, visited Chibuto and Chimundo during our stay there, to hold a campaign rally for the up-coming elections. This was a huge fiest where many of the locals attended as well as many of us. We heard news that a Renamo campaigner that came to the city of Chibuto was brutally beaten by Frelimo supporters at the same time as we stayed there. Travelling around in the country was fairly easy for us. We hired “chapas” (local minibuses) or larger buses to take us where we needed and we were often stopped by the police that took one look into the car, saw the pale faces, and sent us off again. The main roads were good and it didn´t take long to cruise from one place to the other. We mainly stayed inland but the capital is situated by the sea as well as we went to Xai Xai and stayed by the beach for a weekend. The place was magical, abandoned hotels and restaurants by a white vacant beach. A decaying facade of the old colonial times like all over Mozambique. 23
    • Maputo We arrived the capital city of Mozambique with the first task in mind: what is your first impression of Maputo? What was our first impression of the capital Maputo? Maputo was our first encounter with the urban Mozambique. The town, dominated by the Portuguese colonial times, revealed itself to Maputo- Capital of Mozambique us as a vibrant and architecturally beautiful city. We were overwhelmed by it’s beauty, especially after looking at Mozambiques open and rural landscape from the back seat of a warm minibus, or a “Chapa” since early morning. 1,3 million inhabitants It was afternoon, and near sunset, but the city was still in full activity; large groups of uniformed children walking home from school, sellers with a full range of used shoes and clothes still sat on the street and negotiated, a lot of people were just hanging around and unlike in South Africa, we saw no white people here. The street was full of life, and during our stay in Maputo, we learned that this was how the city functioned: the pavement, being almost as wide as the street itself, was the meeting place, the market, and “the Port City with harbour based economy social centre”. It was here that merchants put out blankets with souvenirs, bags and Africa-knick-knacks for tourists. It was here we bought oranges and nuts, was followed by eager sellers for half an hour, and it was here flower-sellers sat down on a chair right on the sidewalk with a bucket of flowers that they sold for about five kroner a piece. The more organized had booths that looked like containers where you could buy everything from groceries to beer and soft drinks that you had to drink right on the spot so they Grid structure with modernistic could get the bottle back when you were finished; the mortage was precious. “This looke a bit more like Africa” someone stated as portugeese architecture we drove into Maputo this warm afternoon. Maputo as a city is easy to understand and get around, because of the grid structure. We did not get lost here, and from the main- street you could always spot the sea. Decaying pavements and housing 24
    • During our stay in Maputo, the local architect school became our meeting place. Here we met visiting architect-students from both South Africa and Argentina, we met with the local students who also held a barbecue-party for us on our last day before departure, and we met the artist Berry Brickle, who had worked a lot with memories and public places in her own work. Brickle wanted us to see the street with new eyes; what can the street and the pavement evoke of memories and associations? Why do you make this association? What are you thinking when you are in exactly this place? The streets and sidewalks in Maputo were decaying. There were cracks and holes in the asphalt, and some places the sidewalk just solved up into sand and gravel. Because of economical issues in the municipality, the decay is growing. This can also be seen in the amount of old, beautiful buildings decaying. In a couple of hours we walked up and down the street outside the architect school, and we solved the problem in various ways; Some took a direct look on how and what the street and sidewalk evoked of memories, while one group took hold of the little things it takes to make the street look better and work better; this group of Norwegian students took some mozambiquan students and collected small rocks that they put around a tree where the asphalt was torn away. After five days in the urban Mozambique, we were ready to set off to the more rural parts: Chimundo. 25
    • Chibuto-Chimundo From Maputo we drive toward our final stop Chimundo, a small village a few miles outside the town Chibuto. Our excitement rises synchronously with the temperature, what will we find in Chimundo? Who will we meet? Will we have to dig our own toilet? Will we get to shower during these three weeks? Can we buy food? We arrive late in the afternoon, after a whole day of driving. The road in the village is a path of red sand. We pass straw huts, people waving to us, and finally an ally surrounded by stonehouses, before we roll into the yard of the orphanage-home of Irmã Catarina, our final stop. A group of curious, young kids surrounds the Chibuto- Principal city of the Chibuto car. They´re grabbing our hands, some wants to be lifted up. In the shade of a tree an old lady is cooking, under another three district. a woman is sleeping. The children are running around and wants our attention. The oral communication is poor, but we can still understand that they are both curious and excited to have us there. The sun goes down early in Mozambique and our large, newly purchased tent must immediately be set up before dark, since at the countryside, there is no light after sunset. We find a place under the big tree that we later will name the “mother tree”, and Located in the Gaza district, Moz. we manage to put it up just in time. Over us the Southern Hemisphere’s starry front out-folds. Here, the moon is not “standing”, but “lying”. The village is dark, the ground is sandy, above us lies the Milky Way - more clearly than we have ever seen it, silhouettes in the dark greets us Buena Noite - good evening. We´re walking in the sand with our headlights on. This is the first of many trips to what becomes our permanent place to eat; the local restaurant Casa Guevane. Chimundo as village has around Chibuto district- 58 000 inhabitants three thousand inhabitants. Here you can find two restaurants, some sort of a cinema, a hair-dresser and a couple of kiosks - all made of straw. Here is also a gathering place with a stage where some of us chose to go to see Mozambiques President Guebuza be welcomed by the local people singing and dancing, in the run of the election campaign. The next days we get to know the yard better, in the main house we take short, cold showers. Here is a also water toilet, which Chimundo- a burrough of Chibuto with sometimes has water. In the mainhouse we are served lunch and breakfast in the cramped and dark hallway - peanut butter, rolls 4000 inhabitants and “percolated” instant coffee - we all wonder what “percolated” means. Outside the house is an outdoor kitchen, and inside - an extremely warm kitchen with electricity. We become familiar with the procedures; the small church’s calling to the worhsip-service Sundays at 7 am, The dark, small stonebuilding that serves as classrooms for way too many children - the first children has normally arrived when we eat breakfast at six am - here most people gets up at sunset at five am. 26
    • Our teacher Andrè Fontes wants us to understand the logic of the place; how it has evolved from the first building Irmã Catarina raised next to the large, shadowy “mother tree”, and how it later has become a place with a main building, church building, a chicken-house in the shadow and the schoolbuilding as the first thing one meets while entering the courtyard. The outdoor toilets are strawhuts with a hole in the ground, and the water tanks are located close to the main house to collect water from the roof. The water tanks are again related to the small water crane standing in the middle of the yard - here the old ladies collects water for cooking, we use it to wash our hands and legs while working, and the children drink water straight from the crane. Although we drink water from bottles, for health’s sake, the water, like everything else - food, materials and tools, are collected from Chibuto. For many of us, this becomes the highlight of the trip; to sit in the back the open truck of the old Toyota Stallion on the way into town. If we were passing people waving to us, it meant we had to stop and give them a lift. Knocking in the side of the car meant they wanted to get off. To be stared at by the locals, as the only white people in the entire city other than Philipe in Aid Global, we were quickly used to. During our stay we got familiar with the word Mulungo. Some of us thought it meant “hi”, and waved back and said “mulungo”. As everybody laughed, we were told it meant “whitie”, and it soon became our favourite word on the whole trip - by both them and us - the mulungos. 27
    • Irmã Catarina On our arrival to the site we meet a strong grey haired woman surrounded by kids. Tired from travelling in a not very spacious bus we are instantly overwhelmed by the happy faces of the children and the hospitality of Irmã Catarina. Offloading the car goes quickly with the help of the children who are faster and stronger than we are. The smaller children are studying us from the side, slowly approaching us with curiosity, and suddenly all of them are all over A nun operating with charity work in us, eager to befriend us and learn our names. Chimundo/Chibuto, Moz. As we get introduced to Irma Catarina and her work here in Chimundo, we also get introduced to the site and the children playing around. The ones most eager to welcome us are the smaller children attending the small daytime school and older children who get to Managing a kindergarden and a trainee stay around after their school is finished for the day. Irmã Catarina’s pupils are mostly children from poor homes, orphans or center for adult education abused children. Her objective is to give them a place to stay during the daytime to minimize the risk of them being exploited in different ways. The older children are welcomed to her plot to play around in safe surroundings and/or to help out with different household tasks. Irmã Catarina’s dream is to build up workshop settings to teach the older kids different skills so they can learn how to work for a living, and not get in trouble. Started in Chimundo 2004 Irmã Catarina has many dreams that she is working her way towards fulfilling. Her little day care/school, her safe haven for the older kids, and her English/computer training centre is part of a dream to make a educational unit and an orphanage on her plot. Wants to build an orphanage on her plot 28
    • Aidglobal In 2004 the Chimundo story of Irmã Catarina started. Before that being stationed in Chibuto with Irmá Franciscanas de nossa senhora das vitórias, a trip to Chimundo and seeing the situation for children at daytime made her want to do something. She started under the biggest cashew-nut tree on her plot by cooking small meals with her helper and soon built the first building on the plot. Since then more houses have risen to meet the growing need around her affairs. As our stay evolves into a week of discussions and analyses before deciding to nail a master plan for the plot, our engagement to the situation lead us to want to build a small school building to contain the trainee centre which future at this time was uncertain. We got a clear go for our plans to build, and we kept the dialog going as to how. She was very pleased to see the building moving forward. During our working Irmã Catarina became as a beloving grandma to us. At 6 o’clock she prepared our breakfast and around 12 our lunch was ready. Irmã Catarina, always afraid we would not eat enough, cooked us enormous amount of food. Our concern as to whether we were a burden to her she denied and said, “ This is nothing. I have been responsible for 500 refugees before”. Seeing all of us as the building continued she was very proud and as it was she took the shovel and took part. She was very happy for the inspiration she told us we put out in the society. When girls carrying a child, firewood or water or just slandering by she told them ”Look there is girls on the roof, this could also be you!” It was during hospital treatment in Portugal in she got in contact with the organization Aid Global, searching for funding for her project. She got them interested. To develop Irmã Catarina’s project in Chimundo they wanted to search for people and put out an advert in a newspaper in Portugal. Architect Andre Fontes happened to see the advert and thought it to be an appropriate project for us students at Bergen school of Architecture to be involved in. 29
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    • Knowing Chimundo Getting to know the people, the place and the environment 31
    • Bairro Chimundo Zone 1 c - typical local building composition - one plot per ‘extended’ family, 40x35 - composition of several small houses - mostly bamboo-houses - orientation towards an inner courtyard and the street - outdoor space of great importance - vegetation used for defining space; creating shadow, shelter, borders and pathways -outdoor toilets placed in the back Zone 2 - result of aid-financed recovery after flood in 2000 - Sant Egidio (Italy) - 2 families per plot, 40x35 - one house per family - 4 houses share coomon bathroom in backyard - brickhouses - orientation towards street - little definition of borders Zone 3 - expanded (newer) area - 1 family per plot 60x35 - higher priceclass - brickhouses, often 2 floors, no zone 3 stndr form - placement in the middle of the plot - tall brick-fences Irmã Catharina’s plot - given a plot equal to the size of a standard bloc; 140x80 zone 1 zone 2 32 Zones in Chimundo 1 : 10 000
    • handa chibut o city b. can b. 25 d e jun ho sa b. chimundo m or a m ac h el b. uahamuza 33
    • Registration-map (zone 1) Many small houses oriented towards an inner courtyard. bamboo brick 34
    • zone 3 zone 1 zone 2 Zones in Chimundo 1 : 10 000 35
    • Typology & materials in Chimundo Hut with circular plan and strawcovered roof House with rectangular plan, timber frame construction covered Tin roof is transacting heat quickly and the timber with straw walls and tin roof. poles are in direct contact with the soil, risking moisture damage. vegetation as tree as shelter traditional square bamboo house same bamboo further extention barrier round bamboo house with corregated house with -typical shape of bamboo house iron roof extention brick house 36
    • Material price-list The costs of materials. MATERIAL Price (MT) Wood and straw: caniso (bamboo) 35 esteira (straw mat) 30 estacas (pole) 50/60 timber (pine): 38x38x5400 mm 176 38x114x5400 mm 399 50x76x6600 mm 554 Metal products: 360x65 cm corrugated iron 300 200x150 cm sheet 1600 ferro (reinforcement bars): 6mm x 600cm 33 8mm x 600cm 54 10mm x 600cm 120 6x2,4 m rebar grid 1600 Concrete, sand and gravel concrete bag (50 kgs) 300 gravel 1000 areia (sand) fine 2000 areia (sand) rough 1500 Bricks blocos (bricks) 40x20: x10 12 x15 14 x20 18 ventiladores 25x25x7 cm 20 rice-bags 10
    • Irmã Catarina´s plot 3 4 Irmã’s project began by organising activities for local children under the “Mother Tree” (1). Two elderly women are working for Irmã and are living in a small two-room straw-clad building (2). A brick building located north on the plot is presently filling the role as schoolhouse and daycare center (3). A pavillion nearby is providing a place for shadow and outside assemby for activities like the daycare (4). The largest building is the main house, which contains two 7 2 5 bedrooms, an office, a bathroom, a kitchen and a semi- climatised space facing the yard (5). Between the main house and the mother tree is a small wooden framed hut under construction (6). The newest addition prior to our arrival is the hen house located west on the site (7). 1 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 38
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    • Analysis of site architect students chicken sound Analysis of the site was a 10 day process of drawing and analysing places and functions on the plot, investigating different typologies of housing and systems surrounding buildings and everyday activities. We also did material and building-method analysis from all over the town of Chimundo, seeing how they applied materials, looked at material prices and methods of building. As well as gettiong to know the site and the plot of Irmã Catharina we got to know the people of Chimundo through these investigations. That made it easier later on to get hold of materials and equipment for building. architect students sun view walking water wind 40
    • The main house Zones Hygiene 41
    • Masterplan and footprint Group 1 Group 2 Defining a direction 3 main axis lines Identifying public/private Focal point After the analysis phase we formed groups for a Common area Tree define space masterplan discussion. We formed four different groups that each came up with their own masterplan suggestion that then was discussed. There were many common interests and a final masterplan was made. Out from that final common plan we had a new discussion we called the “footprint”, which ment where to place the building and how big of a footprint the building would make. The same four groups came up with different ideas and then we decided to take one of the ideas further. Group 3 Group 4 Administration Common vs private space Private Workshop Education Education Common masterplan substraction Definition Crossing axes Centre Trees Zones private education area animal kitchen administration public orphanage 42
    • 1 Sketching the footprint 2 3 4 43
    • Public Education Common area Trainee 40 Trainee centre Admin m2 centre Orphanage eng IT 1 Private 2 3 Irmã’s project Trainee centre Inner courtyard Inside/outside 3 zones with an inner 1st priority: the trainee - it started underneath the - educate local teachers - local reference - the outdoor space is common space centre tree locally used for most day- - will finance the to-day tasks orphanage Premises and concept-building Closed room: IT Open room: english The tree Adding on Orientation - secure - flexible use - as defining space - as expansion is - towards an inner - permanent & semi- - temporary materials needed courtyard permanent materials - extended space towards - dust proof outside 44
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    • The building 12 days of construction 47
    • Concept and program The closed room The closed room would accomodate the computer classes and provide the needed protection against rain, dust, noise and Program theft, while also giving a level and solid floor for the computers. The building would be a place for learning. Irmã Catarina’s education programme It therefore followed that the closed room required a solid for youth and adults needed new spaces to be able to continue in the future. The construction of a permanent nature. programme needed spaces for two different classes: one in English and one in computers. Concept We early identified that the two activities in the program had different needs and requirements. The computer class required a space that would be safe from theft, dust and moisture. For the English class, the need for protection was less urgent. We therefore decided to let the two elements in the program shine through to the concept. The concept for the building laid down the theoretical framework for two spaces, each with it’s own qualities: a closed room for the computer class and an open room for the English class. The open room The open room for the English class would be a more flexible and open space. The simpler needs of this class put less requirements on safety and protection than the closed room and could therefore be defined by a lighter way of construction. Both the walls and floor would thus be less solid and set, providing flexibility while also giving protection against rain and dust. 48
    • The closed room The closed room, intentionally to be used for computer lessons, needs to meet certain criteria’s of safety, temperature, ventilation and dust. After studying local building techniques and materials, we began looking at different solutions to meet these requirements. To keep the temperature down, we decide to use thermal mass elements in the two sun exposed walls in north and west. To let some light and air into the space, we also wanted to use a row of traditional ventilator bricks placed high up on the walls, covered by textile to prevent dust and rain intrusion. The south wall would open more to the diffuse light and also work more actively towards the tun and entrance situation. Between the two educational rooms, we wanted the opportunity to use them separately or in a more open situation. We build a solid acoustic brick wall with a wide metal sliding wall. 49
    • Foot print and foundation The first step after programming and establishing the concept, was to lay down the foot print of the building and making the physical foundations. The outline for the foundations were measured up and marked. Then the digging of the ditches began. The concrete was mixed by hand and then poured in a 5 cm thick layer in the ditches. Reinforcement bars were then laid and another 15 cm layer of concrete was poured and levelled. Reinforcement bars for the columns of the closed room were also inserted at this stage. After the concrete had set, we laid to bands of 15 cm wide concrete bricks for the foundation wall. Sketch plan of foundations Sketch section of foundation The foundation wall Deciding the footprint Digging the ditch Getting ready to mix and pour concrete Mixing concrete by hand Pouring the concrete for the foundation 50
    • The sand walls In order to keep a cool climate inside the space, we introduce thermal mass elements made out of sand elements in the two most sun- exposed walls (east and north). These elements will have great thermal properties because they collect heat during the day and emit it during the night. Stacked rice bags filled with local sand and is a cheap and easy way to build these walls. The materials are also local and recycled. Section of the sand wall The two sun exposed walls made as thermal mass The first bags are filled with concrete to stabilize. Stacking Metal wire for attaching further layers Rebar grid layer for protection Layer of air between bag wall and the outer straw wall 51
    • The bottle light wall The south faced wall opens towards the indirect light from the sun, to get some light into the room, while still avoiding the sun heating. In order of safety, regular windows are not a good solution. Instead we choose to work with concrete ventilators and also to introduce the usage of bottles for light and construction material. Cutting the bottles with parafin, thread and water Stacking and concrete work Bricks and bottle pattern coming up Detail from inside Brushed with fine concrete 52
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    • The open room The decision to create an open and closed room came about during our process of what to build. The need was primarily two classrooms; English and computers. The students agreed on building a closed room for computers, and a more open structure for teaching English. The open room was to be defined by columns and overhanging roof. And if time, close it more in, with doors and walls. Making of the reinforced concrete foundation The foundation wall for the open room Ftting of the straw to the wooden frames of the doors of the The doors are being installed to the primary construction open room 54
    • The floor In contrast to the concrete floor in the closed room, we wanted the floor in the open room to relate to the outside surroundings, the red sand. So we decided on earth; rammed earth, just the natural red sand/earth or a mixture with cement. The finishing solution became a mixture of cement, gravel and red sand. Experimenting with different mixures of sand and cement for the floor.
    • The doors As the wall and doors are considered to be changeable for new needs and situations in the future, we decided they should be made of cheap, local, sustainable, and maybe light materials. So we looked at the cheapest and easiest local material which is the straw, which can be replaced annually. It’s also an simple way of constructing that can easily be learned and performed. To make it moveable so the user can decide which façade to open, we chose wood to frame the straw. When making the straw wall, the more straw one puts inside of the frame, the stronger the wall becomes, and more unlikely to lose the straw pieces. It is impossible to achieve both transparency and solidity in such case, that’s why it came out condensed. The framed doors with straw, can be opened up to the closed courtyard to the south, and to the public road to the north, according to different situations. while the walls are closed towards west and by the entrance.
    • The poles The poles was to be a continuation of the light roof, but also to lock down the trusses in a secure way. With the double roof, the construction was more exposed to the wind. The poles and the cross-beams became important in solving this, technically. The traditional way of using poles was to dig them down in the ground, thus making them vulnerable to moisture and decay. It was therefore important for us to raise the wooden poles above ground level. Metal pole climbers were not available, so it became necessary for us to make our own design which then would be produced in a local metal shop. Detail drawing of the poles and the connection the the foundation
    • The roof We started to look into different ways of building a roof with the materials we had available. We came to the conclusion that a roof of straw or corrugated iron were our options. A roof of straw would have been an inexpensive, but also the most difficult and time consuming roof to build, so we went for the corrugated iron roof. Corrugated iron is a light and strong material but also the most expensive material we used. The size of the buildings in the area were actually based on the size of the iron sheet. Cutting the iron sheets in two is time consuming and would require both expensive equipment and electricity. So we let the corrugated iron decide the size of our building too. 58 Cross section 1:100 Longitudional section 1:100
    • The roof and the climate Hiding from the sun The warm climate was one of the most important issues we dealt with in the design process. In the spring and summertime it is normally more than 30°c in the middle of the day. Iron transact heat very well, something we experienced when the iron sheets on the finished roof were to hot to touch with our bare hands. We decided to build a double roof to get rid of the heat before it went down in the classrooms. Gathering water It is common to see local buildings with metal roofs that gather the rain into cisterns or prefabricated water tanks. Our roof is angled slightly, so as to lead rainwater down into a cistern located by the mango tree on the north side of the building. The cistern is made of brick and concrete, and is designed so that it is possible to sit on it. The idea is that the cistern, the building and the mango tree will work together to define a meeting place in the shadows. 59
    • The construction Vertical support Beams Reinforcement Wood is a rather exclusive material in the Chibuto area, but still a lot cheaper than steel and iron constructions. We had discussions about which dimensions to use. The intention to build a light roof and a limited selection of material dimensions led us to the choice of a quit thin barge (38 mm x 38 mm). To make them strong enough we sometimes had to glue and nail together two and two barges, and every joint in the main construction was strengthened with a tin plate. The material was often very bendy, but after some swearing and re-bending, the roof ended up almost perfectly straight. The constructive concept of the roof is to make the roof as on solid element by using the constructive qualities of the beams, the metal roof and additional reinforcement. The solid element will rest on wooden columns and on the closed room. Column details 60
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    • Material Cost Exchange rate NOK to MT 5,05 Exchange rate NOK to ZAR 1,25 Exchange rate NOK to SEK 0,85 BUILDING MT NOK BAS 198.760,00 39.358,42 AidGlobal 40.250,00 7.970,30 Total 239.010,00 47.328,71 62
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    • In retrospect - Expectations vs. reality Twenty peoply stacked together for five weeks in various accomodations can be straining for anyone. Warm bus rides, hot and burning days with physical building, cold nights, cramped mealtimes. Yet it went remarkably well. There was a lot of discussion but few arguments. It was like something happened we can´t explain. We just went into a working modus and worked non-stop for twelve days to finish this building because we did not want to start something and then leave it behind half-done. That would be useless to Irmã Catarina and useless to us. We had to come to a common understanding - FINISH WHAT WE START AND DO IT WELL. We were not functioning as NGO´s. We were very uncertain to our roll in this new situation. We were out in an african village/town, surrounded by children and people all day long that expected us to do something. But what? We had a faint picture of building a chicken house before we left Norway. When we got down to Chimundo the chicken house was already built. Through registrations and continuous dialogue with Irmã Catarina and with studying local building methods and materials we felt ready. We wanted to build a trainee center so that Irmã Catarina could continue to fund her daycare center. The “african way” combined with our own knowledge evolved into something great. Something we became very proud of. A building that belonged in the setting but at the same time was showing something new. We got to use methods they never had seen before as well as we learned so much from them. Seeing us the first 10 days going around with our sketch books, drawing, discussing and thinking was something the locals were not used to and they saw upon as a little strange. We only got to know that after the building was finished though. However, when they saw us starting to build, working from dusk to dawn, they got curious and interested, and often came to help out. We became a part of the community while we stayed there and it was hard to leave. It was so sad to see the building disappear in the horizon from the back of the chapa when we drove away. It wasn´t completely finished and we did not know if it ever would be. We had prolonged our stay about two days and dropped our Maputo stop on the way out of the country to get an extra 2 days of work. We chose rather to finish as much as we could and drive straight to South-Africa. That was a wise choice because we got the roof up just in the last minute! Allthough almost all of us got stomach problems during our stay and our helth was a bit up and down, the long sunny days kept us going strong and we didn´t loose focus in our final goal. But now we are back home and Chimundo is far away and we rely on news from Filipe, the Aid Global employee in Chimundo. The house still needs electricity but it has doors and the floor in the open room is ready so it is good to know that they have finished what needed to be finished. We have been working with funding and raising money for the project so that Irmã Catarina can build the orphanage she dreams of having on her plot. Hopefully we can raise enough money so that someone from our group can go back and continue the work or Irmã Catarina can get someone to build for her. We are now working on a masterplan and future solution for the plot so she can have drawings available. This is an experience we shall never forget. It shows how much can be done in a short amount of time and with cooperation between parties. The students. 64
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    • THANK YOU! Irmã Catarina and her amazing staff Mr. Filipe Galvão and Aid Global The Mosambican Institute for Architecture and Design Maputo, UEM Artist Mrs. Berry Brickle The Royal Norwegian Embassy in Maputo Mr. Frascisco Soares Manlhate, President of Chibuto City Council Mr. Vilanculos, the local architect of Chibuto The fantastic people of Chimundo and Chibuto! 66
    • Students: Maria Flores Adamsen, Anette Margrete Basso, Stine Bjar, Xiao (Monica) Duo, Kristian Endresen, Birgitte Haug, Tale Marie Håheim, Gøran Johansen, Silje Klepsvik, Tord Knapstad, Siri Nicolaisen, Larisa Sarailija, Naeem Searle, Ina Sem-Olsen, Dan Paul Stavaru, Irmelin Rose Fisch Vågen, Mathias Wijnen, Olafia Zoega, Eirik Solheim Aakhus Teachers: Sixten Rahlff, Architect. Master course coordinator, teacher. André Fontes, Architect. Teacher. Bror Ragnar Hansen, Architect. Coordinator and assistant teacher. The project blog: www.basmozambique.wordpress.com B E RGEN A RK I T E K T S KOL E B E RGEN S C H OO L OF ARCH I T EC T U R E 67