Computer Malware


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Computer Malware

  2. 2. <ul><li>Malware is a general term for any type of unwanted software that does mischief or permanent damage to your computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Malware is created by people to intentionally do mischief or damage to your computer. </li></ul>
  3. 3. In the following slides + a series of short videos,we will explore exactly what types of computer Malware exist, and how you can protect your computer from them.
  4. 4. *A computer virus is a piece of malicious computer code that attaches itself to a software program, email or computer file without your permission.*It can damage your software, hardware and files. They are generally spread via email attachments or Internet downloads. They run without your knowledge. A Basic Definition of a Computer Virus VIDEO What is a Computer Virus
  5. 5. TROJANS *This is an average computer program that says it will do one thing [it says can it is a game, calendar, weather monitor],*But instead when you run the program it damages your computer.
  6. 6. RATS - Remote Access Trojans <ul><li>This is a Trojan that infects your computer the same way a Trojan Horse does, BUT it lets a criminal view, change, monitor, record or control your computer through your Internet connection. </li></ul><ul><li>They can : </li></ul><ul><li>Expose you to scams by making your computer think that a fraudulent website is actually a website you trust, therefore gaining access to your passwords and other information that will allow the criminal to steal your money or identity </li></ul><ul><li>Find your Files and view, copy, alter or delete them. </li></ul><ul><li>Create pop-ups/Capture video and audio and send to criminals PC. </li></ul><ul><li>Record your typing and send the information to another computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Run or end a program, process or connection on your computer </li></ul><ul><li>Use your computer as part of a Zombie Army or BOT , </li></ul>
  7. 7. Large groups of computers that criminals control that are used to overwhelm servers with messages, or spread viruses and spyware. Zombie Armies or BOTNETS VIDEO ON BOTNETS
  8. 8. WORMS * A piece of computer code that is able to send itself to many computers by taking control of a computers ability to transport files and information. They get into your computer via email. *Worms multiply and use up a computers memory causing the computer to stop. They can now also cause damage to your computer.
  9. 10. Trojan Horses and Worms are both considered to be Viruses. What do Trojans and Worms have in Common? They both multiply, and spread themselves to other computers and can cause damage. What makes Trojans and Worms different? Trojans get into your computer via a program then damage and destroy programs and files- . Worms get into your computer usually via email and can damage your computer or cause a computer to stop by multiplying and using up all a computers memory VIRUS/WORM VIDEO
  10. 11. Trojan Worm Spread to other computers Destroy files and programs. Enter via a program Can damage your computers files and Multiply, take up your computers memory and stops your computer. Enter via email.
  11. 12. What is a Logic Bomb? A Logic Bomb starts when a specific event occurs. It can perform a variety of malicious tasks such as releasing a virus, worm or other code to attack a system. In and of itself it cannot cause physical damage to any of the computer components.
  12. 13. What is Spyware? Spyware downloads into your computer without you knowing that. It can collect personal information about you such as passwords, credit card numbers and web sites you visit, and transmit this to a third party. It can also change the configuration of your computer, or put advertisements on your computer. SPYWARE VIDEO
  13. 14. What is Adware? Software that displays banners or pop-up ads on your computer. It downloads to your computer when you access certain Internet sites, or when you agree to download it when using certain freeware or shareware. Adware can contain Spyware. It could track your files and where you surf on the Internet and report this information back to a third party.
  14. 15. What is Spam? <ul><li>Spam is Junk email that you did not ask for . </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to reduce Spam : </li></ul><ul><li>Delete junk e-mail messages without opening them </li></ul><ul><li>Don't reply to spam </li></ul><ul><li>Don't give personal information in an e-mail or instant message. </li></ul><ul><li>Think twice before you open attachments or click links in e-mail or instant messages, </li></ul><ul><li>Don't buy anything or give to any charity promoted through spam. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't forward chain e-mail messages. </li></ul><ul><li>You should : </li></ul><ul><li>Report abusive, harassing, or threatening e-mail messages to your Internet Service Provider </li></ul><ul><li>Report Phishing scams and other fraudulent e-mail to the company that has been misrepresented. </li></ul>VIDEO: SPAM
  15. 16. What is Phishing? This is another way hackers try to get personal information from you. They use email to do this. They send you a fake request acting like it is from a bank, or other institution asking for personal information. You click a link in the email and it takes you to a fake website imitating the institution. If you give your personal information it can result in Identity Theft. VIDEO: PHISHING
  16. 17. What is a Browser Hijacker? *A program that puts itself as your browsers’ home page. *It often shows ads for pornography and adds pornography bookmarks. *It does NOT damage your computer. Using the free program “Browser Hijack” will stop this form of Malware.
  17. 18. What is a Hoax? *A fake computer message or chain letter. It comes via email. They are written for one purpose- to be sent to everyone you know. They can be a warning for a new virus, or ask you to forward the email to all your friends in the name of a fictitious cause, or promote a moneymaking scheme. Some hoaxes tell you that you must delete certain files on your computer or it will stop working. * If you delete those files your computer may really stop working.
  18. 19. Hello Disney fans, And thank you for signing up for Bill Gates' Beta Email Tracking. My name is Walt Disney Jr. Here at Disney we are working with Microsoft which has just compiled an e-mail tracing program that tracks everyone to whom this message is forwarded to. It does this through an unique IP (Internet Protocol) address log book database. We are experimenting with this and need your help. Forward this to everyone you know and if it reaches 13,000 people, 1,300 of the people on the list will receive $5,000, and the rest will receive a free trip for two to Disney World for one week during the summer of 1999 at our expense. Enjoy. Note: Duplicate entries will not be counted. You will be notified by email with further instructions once this email has reached 13,000 people. Your friends, Walt Disney Jr., Disney, Bill Gates & The Microsoft Development Team. Example of a non-threatening Hoax Link to Other Hoaxes
  19. 20. What is Social Engineering? The use of social tricks or psychology to gain access to secured systems. The goal is to trick people into revealing passwords and other information. An example is when a hacker calls a company pretending to be an employee in order to learn secrets about an internal network. Sometimes this method is used in emails, such as a title ‘You have Won a Prize’ and in the email they want you to reveal personal information that might gain them access to your bank accounts, etc.
  20. 21. What is Antivirus software? Software that detects viruses coming into your computer and attempts to get rid of them. This HELPS your computer.
  21. 22. Some ways to Avoid Viruses: <ul><li>Never open an email from a stranger </li></ul><ul><li>Never open an email attachment even from someone you know unless you know exactly what the email attachment is. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Anti-virus software and keep it up to date </li></ul><ul><li>Keep current with Microsoft Windows ‘Updates’ </li></ul><ul><li>Disable ‘Preview files’ in your email program </li></ul><ul><li>Disable ‘Java scripting’ and ‘Flash’ in your web browser. Only allow them when you know for certain that you are at a ‘safe’ website. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Avoiding Viruses continued.. <ul><li>Use a Firewall </li></ul>What is a Firewall? <ul><li>Firewalls can be either software or hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>A firewall is essential in helping to keep out hackers, viruses and worms that try to reach your computer over the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of a hardware firewall is a router. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of a software firewall is Comodo Firewall which blocks outgoing information such as Spyware trying to communicate with a third party or Bots. Windows XP also comes with a firewall, but it only monitors incoming attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>You should also use Antivirus and Antispyware software. </li></ul>VIDEO ON FIREWALLS/HACKERS
  23. 24. Example of Firewall Program [Zone Alarm] protecting a PC
  24. 25. Some ways to Avoid Spyware: <ul><li>Make sure you run one or more Antispyware applications </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you have software and hardware Firewalls, and Antivirus software. </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of peer-to-peer file sharing services. Most include spyware in their installation packages </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out for Cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Delete unsolicited email before you open them. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not install anything without knowing what it is. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect yourself against drive-by downloads. Make sure your browsers security setting is at least Medium. Deny any unrequested Active X installs </li></ul><ul><li>Keep up to date on Spyware. Check out for the latest information </li></ul>
  25. 26. Safe Computing Practices <ul><li>Keep MS Windows updated </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful what you download, especially any freeware or peer-to-peer files. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid questionable web sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Never give out any personal information on line. </li></ul><ul><li>Use antivirus and antispyware software. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a browser other than IE Explorer, such as ‘Firefox’ or ‘Opera’ which have less security risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a program such as ‘Drop My Rights’ or log into your computer under a LIMITED ACCOUNT. This will stop Malware from going into important system files. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider a Virtual OS browser for the ultimate in Internet safety. </li></ul>VIDEO: PRIVACY
  26. 27. Passwords You use Passwords to log in to your accounts on the Internet. Criminals would love to get a hold of yours so they could pretend to be you and do online transactions as you. Creating strong passwords is Very Important for your Internet Security. Refer to the handout “Strong Passwords: How to Create and Use Them” and see some examples in this video
  27. 28. Being Cautious And Observant Will Help you Avoid Computer Malware!