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  • Notes Subject Leaders’ Notes Before giving this workshop, please work through the self-study version found at http://www.azteachscience.co.uk. You may run the workshop from this PowerPoint presentation, print out the slides for use with an overhead transparency projector, or print onto A4 paper. Part of the presentation uses audio files which you can run on a suitably equipped computer by clicking on the links on the slides or in the speaker’s notes. You will need a computer with a sound card and speakers. When giving a presentation, print out the pages of speaker’s notes to give you scripted advice. You may customise both the speaker’s notes and the slides by using a suitable version of PowerPoint. It would be a good idea to have available; an apple, a potato, a knife and cutting boards and a tank of water, in case the teachers want to try the featured investigation themselves!
  • In this exercise you need to select a statement from the right hand side of the screen and drag it with your mouse across to what you think is its appropriate level in the outcomes sheet on the left side of the screen. Whilst this exercise can be undertaken individually an important aspect is the debate and discussion it generates when two or more people are working collaboratively.
  • In this exercise you need to select a statement from the right hand side of the screen and drag it with your mouse across to what you think is its appropriate level in the outcomes sheet on the left side of the screen. Whilst this exercise can be undertaken individually an important aspect is the debate and discussion it generates when two or more people are working collaboratively.
  • In this exercise you need to select a statement from the right hand side of the screen and drag it with your mouse across to what you think is its appropriate level in the outcomes sheet on the left side of the screen. Whilst this exercise can be undertaken individually an important aspect is the debate and discussion it generates when two or more people are working collaboratively.
  • The STRATA scheme outcome sheet is one suggested progression within the P levels. The highlighted statements show where there is a match. Discuss the differences between the two progressions.
  • The STRATA scheme outcome sheet is one suggested progression within the P levels. The highlighted statements show where there is a match. Discuss the differences between the two progressions.
  • Use the outcome sheet on the left to help with your assessment of Leanne. In addition the 3 clips raise a number of questions for discussion. These can be found in Further Questions
  • The STRATA scheme outcome sheet is one suggested progression within the P levels. The highlighted statements show where there is a match. Discuss the differences between the two progressions.
  • The STRATA scheme outcome sheet is one suggested progression within the P levels. The highlighted statements show where there is a match. Discuss the differences between the two progressions.
  • The STRATA scheme outcome sheet is one suggested progression within the P levels. The highlighted statements show where there is a match. Discuss the differences between the two progressions.
  • The STRATA scheme outcome sheet is one suggested progression within the P levels. The highlighted statements show where there is a match. Discuss the differences between the two progressions.
  • Use the outcome sheet on the left to help with your assessment of Leanne. In addition the 3 clips raise a number of questions for discussion. These can be found in Further Questions
  • Transcript

    • 1. Continuing Professional Development Units Science and Special Educational Needs Science and Special Educational Needs Start
    • 2. Introduction These units have been developed by Cambridgeshire teachers, involved in the STRATA project, to support the work of teachers of pupils with Special Educational Needs in Science. They can be used in any order either by individual teachers, small groups of teachers, for whole staff training or for developing the work of teaching assistants. Even though the activities may focus on a particular level of pupil, the principles of good teaching and learning they exemplify are transferable to all pupils. Continued… Next Continuing Professional Development Unit for Teachers of Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Science
    • 3. The main menu lists the FIVE units and within some of these are a number of tasks to select from. To return to the main menu at any point click the Menu button. Although some of the STRATA materials are used in the activities you do not have to be using the scheme in order to benefit from this professional development. If you want to find out about the STRATA scheme you can click on the STRATA button on the right hand side to take you directly to the website. Continued… Next Continuing Professional Development Unit for Teachers of Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Science
    • 4. Introduction The activities in these units can be approached in any order either by individual teachers, or by small groups working together or as a whole staff INSET session. Many special school pupils and their teachers use Rebus symbols to support face -to -face communication. A number of new science specific symbols have been developed and these are available from Widgit software. Further information can be found on their website at:- www. widgit .com . Next
    • 5. Main Menu <ul><li>1 Becoming familiar with the P levels </li></ul><ul><li>3 click and drag exercises using the P levels. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Using the P levels to assess children’s progress and attainment </li></ul><ul><li>3 video clips of Leanne to assess! </li></ul><ul><li>3 Using assessment to guide planning </li></ul><ul><li>Watch Chloe, Hannah and Kirsten to assess them and plan the next steps. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Children’s recording of science </li></ul><ul><li>Think about why you ask children to record their science work. Look at a number of examples for pupils' recording and discuss the questions raised by these pieces of work. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Questioning and using vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to a teacher working with a KS3 class and how she helps pupils with their understanding of vocabulary associated with forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>Click on the appropriate activity above
    • 6. 1 BECOMING FAMILIAR WITH THE P LEVELS <ul><li>This is a click and drag exercise to help you </li></ul><ul><li>become familiar with the P levels and </li></ul><ul><li>progression through them in a specific </li></ul><ul><li>context. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the activity are some further </li></ul><ul><li>ideas for CPD. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>You can try any or all of the 3 topics: </li></ul><ul><li>Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Separating Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>To start the activity click ‘next’. </li></ul>Next You will need the Flash MX plug-in to see the following animation – click here to download. Menu
    • 7. Next If this click and drag exercise doesn’t play automatically, right click above and select ‘Play’ from the menu. <ul><li>Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Separating Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul>
    • 8. Next If this click and drag exercise doesn’t play automatically, right click above and select ‘Play’ from the menu. <ul><li>Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Separating Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul>
    • 9. Next If this click and drag exercise doesn’t play automatically, right click above and select ‘Play’ from the menu. <ul><li>Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Separating Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul>
    • 10. Further Ideas for INSET Activities <ul><li>Print out your version of the progression and compare it with versions from other colleagues. Discuss the differences in your thinking! </li></ul><ul><li>STRATA sheets are available for each unit of the scheme of work and could form the basis of a paper exercise. Copy the STRATA sheet onto card and then cut up the statements for colleagues to re-order. A blank grid similar to the one used in the click and drag exercise will also be needed. </li></ul><ul><li>The STRATA sheets can also be used for recording children’s attainment and progress. Discuss how this sheet could support the assessment and recording of science in your school. Some ideas are given in the STRATA scheme. </li></ul>Example of a P level outcomes sheet Next Menu <ul><li>Body Parts ( print ). </li></ul><ul><li>Human and Other Animals 1a Parts of Body ( print ). </li></ul><ul><li>Senses ( print ). </li></ul>
    • 11. Further Ideas for INSET Activities <ul><li>Discuss how these STRATA sheets might be used to support and enhance the work of the teaching assistants in your school. </li></ul>Next Menu
    • 12. 2 USING THE P LEVELS TO ASSESS CHILDREN’S PROGRESS AND ATTAINMENT Leanne is a lower KS2 pupil. Find out what level she is working at!   Watch all three clips of Leanne during some lessons on the topic of ‘Sound’ and assess her level. Click ‘next’ to watch the video clips. Next Menu
    • 13. STRATA sheet for Outcomes for ‘SOUND’ <ul><li>P1 (i) </li></ul><ul><li>Is present during experience of sounds, may show no response. </li></ul><ul><li>May be resistant. </li></ul><ul><li>P1 (ii) </li></ul><ul><li>Appears to show awareness of sounds e.g. turns head, blinks (not necessarily towards the source). </li></ul><ul><li>P2 (i) </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to attend and respond (may be inconsistent) to sounds e.g. may turn head, focus briefly on source, smiles. </li></ul><ul><li>P2 (ii) </li></ul><ul><li>Shows a differentiated response to sounds e.g. smiles to one sound, startles to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Attends for longer e.g. focuses for longer on sound source. </li></ul><ul><li>P3 (i) </li></ul><ul><li>Requests activity e.g. reaches out towards sound sources. </li></ul><ul><li>P3 (ii) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates activities related to sound e.g. activates sound beam, tries to operate tape or CD player. </li></ul><ul><li>P4 </li></ul><ul><li>Imitates sounds e.g. in action songs. </li></ul><ul><li>P5 </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to share and turn take, e.g. passes sound source onto next person. </li></ul><ul><li>P6 </li></ul><ul><li>Shows active participation e.g. strives to make sounds using instruments, responds to others by copying, makes clear choices between sound sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Matches sound to source from choice of 2 (concretes objects in classroom). </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Predicts’ by making a simple statement e.g.when making shakers indicates they are noisy. </li></ul><ul><li>P7 </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to differentiate between sounds e.g can identify a loud or a soft sound , can make a loud or soft sound… </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to locate sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Predicts' by making a general statement e.g. when making shakers they say that they need something inside. </li></ul><ul><li>P8 </li></ul><ul><li>Produces a variety of sounds with own body or an instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to use some relevant vocabulary e.g. drum, xylophone, loud, soft. </li></ul><ul><li>Names source of some environmental sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Predicts’ by talking about something they encountered e.g. I put my hands on my ears when there are loud noises. </li></ul><ul><li>N.C Level 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Gives example of warning sound e.g. “nee now” (ambulance). </li></ul><ul><li>Explains simply why we need warning sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes a guess about what will happen. </li></ul>Click these images to view the videos Next Menu
    • 14. Further Questions Discuss the following questions with a colleague and what the implications are for your own practice. <ul><li>What steps does the teacher take to assess Leanne’s understanding of loudness during the clip with the alarm clock? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think Leanne is clear about the difference between hitting and shaking? </li></ul><ul><li>In the clip with yoghurt pot telephones, what do you think is holding Leanne’s attention? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think Leanne associates the yoghurt pot with hearing and sound? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Next Menu
    • 15. Further Questions Discuss the following questions with a colleague and what the implications are for your own practice. <ul><li>What level did you assess Leanne at, and did your colleague(s) agree? </li></ul><ul><li>What else could you do to check your assessment of Leanne’s level? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>How could you use the outcome sheets to support your teaching and learning? Click here for ideas . </li></ul><ul><li>The yoghurt pot string telephones are a very common activity in teaching sound. Can you see any conceptual or practical issues with this activity? Do you think this is an appropriate activity for a child at Leanne’s level of understanding? Click here for some issues . </li></ul>Next Menu
    • 16. Ideas for Question 7 <ul><li>To set your learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>To plan in progression for pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>To plan appropriate next steps in an activity/ topic. </li></ul><ul><li>To support teaching assistants working with pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>As a recording sheet for a lesson or unit. </li></ul><ul><li>As a recording sheet to pass on to the next teacher or science co-ordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>To set targets for pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>To write reports. </li></ul>You could use the outcome sheets from the STRATA scheme: Back Menu
    • 17. Issues for Question 8 <ul><li>Many children do not associate ears with hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Young children associate sound production with the physical properties of the material making the sound or their own actions. </li></ul><ul><li>The string needs to be long enough so that pupils cannot hear the originating voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about ways to stop the string pulling out of the pot. </li></ul><ul><li>The string telephones show that sound travels through solid materials. This is in the KS2 programme of study. </li></ul>Back Menu
    • 18. 3 USING ASSESSMENT TO GUIDE PLANNING The following three video clips show some Year 2 pupils in a mixed Special School that has a range of PMLD, SLD, MLD and EBD pupils. These science lessons are on body parts and life processes. Next Menu Instructions Choose one of the three children on the next page to assess, and then plan your next steps using the outcome sheets. You might find it helpful to look at some of the suggested activities in these units from the STRATA Scheme of Work. <ul><li>Body Parts ( print ). </li></ul><ul><li>Human and Other Animals 1a Parts of Body ( print ). </li></ul><ul><li>Senses ( print ). </li></ul>
    • 19. Is there an activity that could be used with all 3 children, which would enable them all to progress? Or would you need to plan different activities? Use the Progression Skills Sheets to help you. P6 - NC Level 1 NC Level 1 – Level 4 Chloe Hannah Kirsten <ul><li>Body Parts </li></ul>STRATA Outcome Sheets for:   Click these images to view the videos Next Menu
    • 20. 4 CHILDREN’S RECORDING OF SCIENCE <ul><li>A) Stretching elastic bands </li></ul><ul><li>B) Changing the brightness </li></ul><ul><li>C) S olid , liquid or gas </li></ul><ul><li>D) M ixing chemicals with water </li></ul><ul><li>E) E ffect of salt on ice </li></ul><ul><li>F) C onduction of heat in spoons </li></ul>Use the Progression Skills Sheets to help you. P6 - NC Level 1 NC Level 1 – Level 4 1) Think about why you ask children to record their work. 2) Choose a sample of children’s recording in science from these examples. Each has a number of questions to consider. By clicking on the questions you get a suggested answer of some possible ideas. Next Menu Click here for ideas
    • 21. 4 CHILDREN’S RECORDING OF SCIENCE <ul><li>Is it for the teacher’s benefit, e.g. assessment, proof that a topic has been covered, to have work put in a pupil’s folder, for parents’ evening, for Ofsted or for the next teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it for the pupils’ benefit, e.g. to reinforce learning, to enable interpretation and evaluation of their work? Or can it serve several purposes? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you effectively assess a pupil from a piece of work? Does the piece of work really reflect what the pupil has learnt, and how would you know? </li></ul>If you want to look at samples of pupils’ work go back to the previous page. Why do we record? Think about why you ask children to record their science work: Next Menu
    • 22. A) Stretching Elastic Bands These Skills Progression sheets can help you assess the skill level. P6 - NC Level 1 NC Level 1 – Level 4 This investigation into how an elastic band stretches was carried out by small groups of Year 7 pupils. They were told to measure the length of the band to the nearest cm. All pupils were told how to label the axis and a copy for reference was placed on the overhead projector. Have a closer look at the pupils’ work on this page by clicking on the pictures. On the next page there are some questions for you to consider. Menu Next Questions are continued on the next page. You click to enlarge and then print the image above.
    • 23. A) Stretching Elastic Bands: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What feedback would you give this pupil to help him develop the skill of drawing a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of recording? </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful is this type of pre-drawn format for a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this particular format present any problems for pupils? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions could you ask to ascertain whether the pupil understands what the graph is showing? </li></ul><ul><li>Would a bar graph have been a better way of presenting the results? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 24. A) Stretching Elastic Bands: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What feedback would you give this pupil to help him develop the skill of drawing a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of recording? </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful is this type of pre-drawn format for a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this particular format present any problems for pupils? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions could you ask to ascertain whether the pupil understands what the graph is showing? </li></ul><ul><li>Would a bar graph have been a better way of presenting the results? </li></ul>In order to help a pupil understand what the graph is showing the teacher would need to ask the pupil to interpret the graph in their own words i.e. ‘tell the story of the line’. This could be supported by a set of pre-prepared phrases for the pupil to select from. Next Menu
    • 25. A) Stretching Elastic Bands: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What feedback would you give this pupil to help him develop the skill of drawing a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of recording? </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful is this type of pre-drawn format for a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this particular format present any problems for pupils? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions could you ask to ascertain whether the pupil understands what the graph is showing? </li></ul><ul><li>Would a bar graph have been a better way of presenting the results? </li></ul>This would be level 2-3 depending on how much help the pupil had. A pupil reaching level 3 would need to be starting to draw the axis independently. Next Menu
    • 26. A) Stretching Elastic Bands: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What feedback would you give this pupil to help him develop the skill of drawing a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of recording? </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful is this type of pre-drawn format for a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this particular format present any problems for pupils? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions could you ask to ascertain whether the pupil understands what the graph is showing? </li></ul><ul><li>Would a bar graph have been a better way of presenting the results? </li></ul>The title Line Graph needs to be removed and a space left for a proper title – so a teacher needs to be prepared to adapt any commercially bought resources for the benefit of pupils. It can provide a structure if the lesson objective is not focusing on developing the skill of drawing a graph. It is important to be aware that a pupil could use the format without any real understanding of the purpose of a graph or what the graph is showing. The teacher could also put a picture on the axis as a pictorial clue.
    • 27. A) Stretching Elastic Bands: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What feedback would you give this pupil to help him develop the skill of drawing a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of recording? </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful is this type of pre-drawn format for a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this particular format present any problems for pupils? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions could you ask to ascertain whether the pupil understands what the graph is showing? </li></ul><ul><li>Would a bar graph have been a better way of presenting the results? </li></ul>There are no ‘in between’ markings so it is important that the pupil is clear about how much the gap is and that they can estimate the numbers in between each of the marked points. The boxes may be too small for pupils to write in. Next Menu
    • 28. A) Stretching Elastic Bands: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What feedback would you give this pupil to help him develop the skill of drawing a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of recording? </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful is this type of pre-drawn format for a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this particular format present any problems for pupils? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions could you ask to ascertain whether the pupil understands what the graph is showing? </li></ul><ul><li>Would a bar graph have been a better way of presenting the results? </li></ul>Begin with some questions that ask them to find a specific piece of information first e.g. ‘What length is the band with 800g?’ Then move on to ask questions about the line itself e.g. ‘Does the line go up, down or stay level?’ Finally ask questions about the pattern the line might be showing e.g. ‘What happens to the line as the number of grams increases?’ Menu Next
    • 29. A) Stretching Elastic Bands: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What feedback would you give this pupil to help him develop the skill of drawing a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of recording? </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful is this type of pre-drawn format for a graph? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this particular format present any problems for pupils? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions could you ask to ascertain whether the pupil understands what the graph is showing? </li></ul><ul><li>Would a bar graph have been a better way of presenting the results? </li></ul>No, because both axis are numerical. For a bar chart the x axis needs to be discrete categories/variables. Next Menu
    • 30. B) Changing the Brightness Changing the Brightness we caN make a lamP brigHTter if we put to BaTTers in Then we get more power going round It will lighT uP wiTh Two BaTTers This is because it PusHisH more power round the circuit. In this Year 8 lesson on electricity pupils were asked to explore the effect of using one, and then two cells, (called batteries by the pupils) on the brightness of the bulb. They then had to explain, independently, why the bulb becomes brighter. P6 - NC Level 1 NC Level 1 – Level 4 Next Menu These Skills Progression sheets can help you assess the skill level. Questions are continued on the next page. You click to enlarge and then print the image above.
    • 31. B) Changing the Brightness: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of explaining? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any misconceptions in the work that you should be aware of? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions might you ask this pupil to extend her thinking? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 32. B) Changing the Brightness: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) The pupil is not just describing what she did but has included a ‘because’ that links cause and effect. This is typical of a level 3 pupil. <ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of explaining? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any misconceptions in the work that you should be aware of? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions might you ask this pupil to extend her thinking? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 33. B) Changing the Brightness: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) The pupil is using the word ‘power’ – this is not the scientifically correct usage but it is used in everyday terminology. The teacher needs to decide if, and when, it is appropriate to make this distinction to the pupil. <ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of explaining? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any misconceptions in the work that you should be aware of? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions might you ask this pupil to extend her thinking? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 34. B) Changing the Brightness: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) e.g. ‘What do you think would happen if you put 3 or more batteries in the circuit?’ ‘Is there anything you need to remember when connecting more than one battery together?’ <ul><li>What level would you award this pupil for the skill of explaining? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any misconceptions in the work that you should be aware of? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions might you ask this pupil to extend her thinking? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 35. C) Solid, Liquid or Gas Year 7 pupils were provided with samples of solids, liquids and gases and had to go round the room, placing items in the appropriate columns. Gases (pretend!) were provided in plastic bags tied at the top and labeled. As extension work the pupils had to add their own examples. The table was pre-drawn (on the board), with headings, as these pupils could not draw their own without support and doing so would have detracted from the task. This is why it is important that a teacher is clear about the objective for the lesson. In this case the teacher was not looking for the skill of drawing a table, so giving this to the pupils enabled the objective of sorting solids, liquids and gases to be achieved. P6 - NC Level 1 NC Level 1 – Level 4 Next Menu These Skills Progression sheets can help you assess the skill level. Questions are continued on the next page. You click to enlarge and then print the image above.
    • 36. C) Solid, Liquid or Gas: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>Do you think this pupil is clear about the differences between solids, liquids and gases? </li></ul><ul><li>What would you plan for the next steps? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the comment be extended to provide more developmental feedback? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do you think pupils have with this area of the curriculum? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 37. C) Solid, Liquid or Gas: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) Generally the pupil seems clear about the differences. Ice was put in two columns because it had started to melt during the session and so both states were present together. Liquid nitrogen has been put in both columns and was difficult for the pupil to decide because the name had both a liquid and gas name in it. Also compressed gases are liquids which pupils will hear if the canister is shaken. <ul><li>Do you think this pupil is clear about the differences between solids, liquids and gases? </li></ul><ul><li>What would you plan for the next steps? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the comment be extended to provide more developmental feedback? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do you think pupils have with this area of the curriculum? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 38. C) Solid, Liquid or Gas: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) This could lead onto the features of solids, liquids and gases which are then used to classify more complex materials. Or it could lead into changing materials from one state to another. <ul><li>Do you think this pupil is clear about the differences between solids, liquids and gases? </li></ul><ul><li>What would you plan for the next steps? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the comment be extended to provide more developmental feedback? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do you think pupils have with this area of the curriculum? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 39. C) Solid, Liquid or Gas: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) Ask him to review the substances that were incorrectly placed or ask why he had placed them in the columns he did. Highlight, or mark in some way, those that he was unsure about or put an extra column in the table for those materials that he was unsure about. This makes it acceptable to be ‘not sure’ and reinforces the notion that science isn’t about finding the correct answer! <ul><li>Do you think this pupil is clear about the differences between solids, liquids and gases? </li></ul><ul><li>What would you plan for the next steps? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the comment be extended to provide more developmental feedback? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do you think pupils have with this area of the curriculum? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 40. C) Solid, Liquid or Gas: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) This could lead onto the features of solids, liquids and gases which are then used to classify more complex materials. Or it could lead into changing materials from one state to another. <ul><li>Do you think this pupil is clear about the differences between solids, liquids and gases? </li></ul><ul><li>What would you plan for the next steps? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the comment be extended to provide more developmental feedback? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do you think pupils have with this area of the curriculum? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 41. D) Mixing Chemicals with Water This was an introductory lesson for Year 7 and 8 on dissolving. The Year 8 pupils had better literacy skills and coped well with the written format the table was drawn on the board and the words ‘dissolved’, ‘soluble’ and chemical names were given. The pictorial recording sheet was for Year 7s who could not copy from the board. They were able to draw results with some support from the class teacher and teaching assistant. P6 - NC Level 1 NC Level 1 – Level 4 Menu Next These Skills Progression sheets can help you assess the skill level. Questions are continued on the next page. You click to enlarge and then print the images above.
    • 42. D) Mixing Chemicals with Water: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>Look at both sets of recording. What, if any, are the differences in the observations that are recorded? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think the pupils are clear about the concept of dissolving? What questions could you ask? </li></ul><ul><li>What other words do pupils often use instead of dissolving? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think would be an appropriate activity to follow up on this one? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 43. D) Mixing Chemicals with Water: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>Look at both sets of recording. What, if any, are the differences in the observations that are recorded? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think the pupils are clear about the concept of dissolving? What questions could you ask? </li></ul><ul><li>What other words do pupils often use instead of dissolving? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think would be an appropriate activity to follow up on this one? </li></ul>The pictorial sheet uses more scientific language and the table is more descriptive. More words doesn’t necessarily mean more understanding and many pupils in special schools are visual learners. A lot of detail can be shown in a diagram. If the skill of observing is the objective then giving a pictorial sheet helps the pupil demonstrate this skill at an appropriate level. If the skill of drawing a table is the objective then giving a pre drawn sheet limits the level a pupil can reach. Use questioning, or another activity, to ensure the pupil understands the terminology being used. Menu Next
    • 44. D) Mixing Chemicals with Water: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>Look at both sets of recording. What, if any, are the differences in the observations that are recorded? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think the pupils are clear about the concept of dissolving? What questions could you ask? </li></ul><ul><li>What other words do pupils often use instead of dissolving? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think would be an appropriate activity to follow up on this one? </li></ul>Ask pupils to draw, describe or role play what happens in dissolving. Ask pupils what would happen if we put the jar on a set of scales as sugar was added i.e. the mass would increase. Ask why the water has changed colour. Menu Next
    • 45. D) Mixing Chemicals with Water: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>Look at both sets of recording. What, if any, are the differences in the observations that are recorded? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think the pupils are clear about the concept of dissolving? What questions could you ask? </li></ul><ul><li>What other words do pupils often use instead of dissolving? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think would be an appropriate activity to follow up on this one? </li></ul>e.g. melt – this involves only one substance changing state whereas dissolving involves 2 substances; disappear – can leave out and let the water evaporate and the solid is left behind or, if safe, can taste the solution and notice it is different to water, turns into water, goes away. Menu Next
    • 46. D) Mixing Chemicals with Water: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>Look at both sets of recording. What, if any, are the differences in the observations that are recorded? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think the pupils are clear about the concept of dissolving? What questions could you ask? </li></ul><ul><li>What other words do pupils often use instead of dissolving? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think would be an appropriate activity to follow up on this one? </li></ul>An investigation to vary the things that could affect dissolving such as temperature of the water, amount of water and amount of solid. Applications in everyday life such as when is it useful to dissolve sugar. Could observe other changes when materials are mixed not just dissolving e.g. fizzing with bicarbonate of soda, pasta or rice swelling, custard powder changing colour, plaster of Paris getting hot, tea leaves causing a colour change but the leaves appearing to be the same size. Menu Next
    • 47. E) Effect of Salt on Ice A Year 8 lesson, where pupils were given two small beakers each containing an ice cube and a thermometer. They sprinkled salt on one of the cubes and were told to write down what happened every 5 minutes. They decided how to record their work and carried this out independently. P6 - NC Level 1 NC Level 1 – Level 4 Next Menu These Skills Progression sheets can help you assess the skill level. Questions are continued on the next page. You click to enlarge and then print the image above.
    • 48. E) Effect of Salt on Ice: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What level would you give this pupil for recording? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you help her develop the skill further? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 49. E) Effect of Salt on Ice: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) The pupil has taken reasonably accurate readings but the long hand method of recording makes it difficult to see any patterns. It makes it more likely there will be literacy mistakes, which could compromise the recording and make assessment more difficult. For the skill of recording the pupil appears to be between NC level 2 and 3. Times are recorded sequentially but some readings are inaccurate, no units for temperature and further down the list it does not distinguish between ‘with’ and ‘without’. <ul><li>What level would you give this pupil for recording? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>How could you help her develop the skill further? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 50. E) Effect of Salt on Ice: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) The pupil needs to see the same results in a table and compare the two methods for ease of reading and interpreting. She needs to be encouraged to put units after any numbers and to record any additional observations during the investigations. Data-loggers could be used to take the temperature readings: the results could have been recorded on a spread sheet and then a graph drawn which pupils could interpret. The Internet could be used to find out about using salt on icy roads. <ul><li>What level would you give this pupil for recording? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you help her develop the skill further? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 51. F) Conduction of Heat in Spoons James carried out the investigation in the morning and what he did can be seen on the drawing below. After lunch he used the ICT lesson to record what he had found out. P6 - NC Level 1 NC Level 1 – Level 4 Next Menu These Skills Progression sheets can help you assess the skill level. Questions are continued on the next page. You click to enlarge and then print the images above.
    • 52. F) Conduction of Heat in Spoons: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>Do you think James missed the point of the investigation, did not understand what he was doing and why or had forgotten what he did? </li></ul><ul><li>How much guidance should a teacher give to pupils when recording? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it matter if what is recorded is not actually what happened or what they found out? </li></ul><ul><li>What would the next steps be for James? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 53. F) Conduction of Heat in Spoons: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>Do you think James missed the point of the investigation, did not understand what he was doing and why or had forgotten what he did? </li></ul><ul><li>How much guidance should a teacher give to pupils when recording? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it matter if what is recorded is not actually what happened or what they found out? </li></ul><ul><li>What would the next steps be for James? </li></ul>Many pupils with special needs have problems remembering what they did between the morning and the afternoon sessions. Having the apparatus present can act as a reminder. The ICT lesson could have been an opportunity to use data-loggers. It is important that the lesson objective is very clear. Was the lesson about finding out that heat moves differently through different materials or was it about James being able to compare what he thought would happen with what did happen? Menu Next
    • 54. F) Conduction of Heat in Spoons: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) It should be remembered that if a pupil is going to achieve the higher levels in the skills then they need to work more independently. If a pupil is being assessed then support needs to be thought through. For example, if the task is within the pupil’s capability then very little help should be given. It might be that a pupil’s ability to record is not the objective and therefore giving a pre-drawn format to record on would enable the pupil to demonstrate a higher level in another skill or area of knowledge. All staff need to be clear about the reason for the activity and the outcomes that are being looked for. <ul><li>Do you think James missed the point of the investigation, did not understand what he was doing and why or had forgotten what he did? </li></ul><ul><li>How much guidance should a teacher give to pupils when recording? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it matter if what is recorded is not actually what happened or what they found out? </li></ul><ul><li>What would the next steps be for James? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 55. F) Conduction of Heat in Spoons: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) The answer to this would be different if it is for teacher assessment rather than pupil learning. Many pupils will give you the answer they think you want even if the results don’t show that. They need to be reassured that science does not give the ‘right answer’ – often it leads to more questions! <ul><li>Do you think James missed the point of the investigation, did not understand what he was doing and why or had forgotten what he did? </li></ul><ul><li>How much guidance should a teacher give to pupils when recording? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it matter if what is recorded is not actually what happened or what they found out? </li></ul><ul><li>What would the next steps be for James? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 56. F) Conduction of Heat in Spoons: Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) For many pupils, too many variables can confuse the issue. James could repeat the investigation using just 2 spoons and placing them in hot water for the same time and then comparing one with the other. Using an egg timer removes the number element, which can add to the confusion. If you felt that James had understood the idea of heat traveling he could be asked to look for everyday examples e.g. cooker, fire, radiators. <ul><li>Do you think James missed the point of the investigation, did not understand what he was doing and why or had forgotten what he did? </li></ul><ul><li>How much guidance should a teacher give to pupils when recording? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it matter if what is recorded is not actually what happened or what they found out? </li></ul><ul><li>What would the next steps be for James? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 57. 5 QUESTIONING AND USING VOCABULARY This Year 8 science lesson on forces focuses on the use of vocabulary. In the introduction to the lesson, the teacher had already placed the words, one at a time, on the overhead projector and the pupils had read them out as she did this. She was matching the pupils’ ability to read to the difficulty of the word and directing the activity. Listen to the next part of the lesson where the teacher is looking at the pupils’ understanding of the meaning of the vocabulary. Click next to listen to the audio clip. Next Menu
    • 58. 5 QUESTIONING AND USING VOCABULARY AUDIO clip Next Menu Clicking the questions on the following page will bring up some suggested ideas. Stop sound
    • 59. Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What techniques does the teacher use to draw out and support the pupils in this process? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at your scheme of work and discuss which vocabulary different pupils should encounter or learn. </li></ul><ul><li>What other activities could you devise using science words? </li></ul>Menu Next
    • 60. Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) Menu Repeats the question; leaves thinking time; clear enunciation; pace; precise construction of sentences; no conversational ‘fillers’ e.g. ‘you know’ ; use of praise; targeting pupils so they will be able to achieve; tone of voice; repeats the answer if necessary because the answer wasn’t clear; words are there all the time as a visual prompt. <ul><li>What techniques does the teacher use to draw out and support the pupils in this process? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at your scheme of work and discuss which vocabulary different pupils should encounter or learn. </li></ul><ul><li>What other activities could you devise using science words? </li></ul>Next
    • 61. Menu Widget symbols are now available for a lot of science vocabulary. Whilst many pupils like to encounter new words, especially if they sound different, it is not necessary for them to remember them all. It can be useful to identify the few words you would like all pupils to know and then others that would be for the more able pupils. Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) <ul><li>What techniques does the teacher use to draw out and support the pupils in this process? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at your scheme of work and discuss which vocabulary different pupils should encounter or learn. </li></ul><ul><li>What other activities could you devise using science words? </li></ul>Next
    • 62. Questions (Click on the questions for some suggested ideas.) Menu Next ‘ Pictionary’ – pupils draw or act out the word. Pair like words-pelmanism. Play hangman; make a simple crossword; use the words in the Clicker programme . <ul><li>What techniques does the teacher use to draw out and support the pupils in this process? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at your scheme of work and discuss which vocabulary different pupils should encounter or learn. </li></ul><ul><li>What other activities could you devise using science words? </li></ul>
    • 63. Summary <ul><li>Science should be accessible to all children if you use everyday contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities need to be age appropriate and in a different context if the topic is revisited. </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils with Special Educational Needs will make progress even if the steps are very small but only if the activity is structured to allow this to happen. </li></ul>Next Menu
    • 64. Next Menu ISSEN - Inclusive Science and Special Educational Needs is a collaboration project between the ASE and NASEN. The website is:- http://www. issen .org. uk /Articles/All_Articles. htm To contact the ASE go to:- http://www. ase .org. uk Key Stage 3 Strategy:- http://www.standards. dfes . gov . uk /keystage3/publications Article in School Science Review The School Science Review Special SEN Issue June 2002 Vol 83, Issue 305 also summarizes key outcomes from Cambridgeshire’s AZSTT project. Useful contacts and information
    • 65. Science and Special Educational Needs You have reached the end of this workshop. We hope that it has promoted some stimulating discussion about the work of teachers of pupils with Special Educational Needs in Science. Thank you for your support.

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