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  • Timing: 3 minutes Trainer Notes: Modify slide depending on available presenters TELL PARTICIPANTS: Welcome to Day One of the English Language Learners: Culture, Equity & Language Training Module Thank you for coming today. Today’s presenters are: (name the presenters) Recognize members from region, local affiliate, and any community guest or community participants.
  • Timing: 10 minutes Trainers Notes: For groups of less than 30, this activity may be conducted as a whole-group brainstorm, with contributions solicited and recorded on chart paper. For larger groups, each table group should work on two or three ideas to contribute to the whole group’s list of agreements in order to allow everyone to participate. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Make sure you have the training materials. These include a PowerPoint presentation with Trainer Notes; Handout Packet and CDs. Go through them briefly to point out the salient features that participants will need to access during the course of the training. Explain the “Parking Lot” chart by saying: One of our posted charts is entitled, “Parking Lot.” The intent of the “Parking Lot” chart is for participants to post questions or issues that come up for you during the training. These are questions or issues that you would like the trainers to address during some part of the training. We (the trainers) will be sure to periodically review what has been posted and address as appropriate either during the training or before/after breaks. Review any housekeeping details with the group; location of bathrooms and fire exits, details on group meals, information specific to the workshop (i.e., announcements by the hosting organization).
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #1 Trainer notes: Review these Community Agreements with participants and add any other rules they feel are needed. Be sure that the group agrees to any proposed new rules before adding them. Get their agreement to honor these rules during the training. Post the rules on a chart in the room-with any additions-so they are always aware of them. TELL PARTICIPANTS: We have developed general ground rules or norms for how we will operate during this training, The rules you see listed here are intended to ensure that we have everyone’s participation and that we have a good teaching and learning environment. Are there any rules you see posted here that concern you? [ Allow time for responses.] Are there any rules that you would like to add? [With group’s permission, add to chart.] Can we agree to honor these rules during the training? Thank you!
  • Timing: 10 minutes Handout #1-A: Overview of Three-Day Training Module Trainers Notes: Give participants an overview of the entire three-day training. For a more in-depth look at all three days refer to each day’s agenda in Handout Packet: Day One #1-C, Day Two #2-B, Day Three #3-B. TELL PARTICIPANTS: This is a three-day training. The components are Culture and Equity; Language Acquisition Theory and Language Acquisition Stages; Classroom Conditions; and Planning Lessons for English Language Development. For a more in-depth look at all three days please look at all three day agenda’s. These can be found in your Handout Packets. For Day One #1-C, for Day Two #2-B, and for Day Three #3-B Today’s focus will be on issues of Culture, Equity and Language Acquisition Theory and the Implications of Culture, Equity and Language for Classroom and overall School Practice. We will be examining obstacles to success that culturally and linguistically diverse students face in the educational system when behaviors of teaching do not adhere to equity practices and equal access to learning. Why culture and equity? To be successful in the education of English language learners, one must understand that it is a complex issue that involves an understanding/inclusion of culture and equity. As educators working with ELLs, it is important to develop an understanding of how our beliefs, values, and behaviors related to culture, language, racial identity, and equity affect our practice in the classroom and school. Thus, this is the link into understanding how critical culture and equity is in all content work in closing the achievement gaps for ELLs. The teaching and learning of ELL methodology and pedagogy cannot be taught effectively without understanding the guiding principals of how to successfully teach English language learners. This is why we begin the training with an introduction to these issues. NEA has developed further training on the issues of culture (C.A.R.E. – Care, Abilities, Resiliency and Effort). Research suggests that when a teacher understands a student’s background, culture and language, and uses these characteristics as strengths to build upon, the student is validated and more likely to succeed. It is in these ways that teachers be assured that they will be addressing issues of equity in their classrooms. This training is intended to support teachers in closing the achievement gaps and serve as a resource that has research-based and classroom-focused instructional and advocacy strategies to help educators: Adopt teaching strategies to engage ELL students in academic learning, English language development and self-esteem in social development. Recognize and build on cultural and equity assumptions and culturally relevant instruction. Create classroom and school environments that facilitate language learning. Engage, understand and capitalize on language acquisition theory. Recognize language development stages and practice instructional teaching and learning behaviors in the classroom and school.
  • Timing: 2 minutes Handout #1-B: Day One Outcomes Trainers Notes: Review the outcomes for the day. Make sure that all participants have the Day One Outcomes Handout (#1-B) from packet. TELL PARTICIPANTS: These are the learning outcomes for today. The outcomes are designed to assist you to identify key concepts, apply concepts to your professional practice, and identify ideas, practices and strategies that you can use in your classroom and throughout your school with all English language learners. Today our outcome focus will be on issues of culture, equity and language acquisition theory and the implications for classroom and school practices. We will examine obstacles to success that culturally and linguistically diverse students face in the educational system when behaviors of teaching with equity practices and equal access to learning is not adhered to. We will examine and practice the guiding principles of culture, equity and language acquisition theory and the relationship to closing the achievement gaps for English language learners. In your handout packet there are various activities, expect to have many hands-on experiences. Today you will be engaged in group work, teamwork, partner work and independent work as we explore culture and equity issues, language acquisition theory and language development for English language learners. Are there any questions or clarifications?
  • Timing: 2 minutes Handout #1-B: Day One Outcomes Trainers Notes: Review the outcomes for the day. Make sure that all participants have the Day One Outcomes Handout (#1-B) from packet. TELL PARTICIPANTS: These are the learning outcomes for today. The outcomes are designed to assist you to identify key concepts, apply concepts to your professional practice, and identify ideas, practices and strategies that you can use in your classroom and throughout your school with all English language learners. Today our outcome focus will be on issues of culture, equity and language acquisition theory and the implications for classroom and school practices. We will examine obstacles to success that culturally and linguistically diverse students face in the educational system when behaviors of teaching with equity practices and equal access to learning is not adhered to. We will examine and practice the guiding principles of culture, equity and language acquisition theory and the relationship to closing the achievement gaps for English language learners. In your handout packet there are various activities, expect to have many hands-on experiences. Today you will be engaged in group work, teamwork, partner work and independent work as we explore culture and equity issues, language acquisition theory and language development for English language learners. Are there any questions or clarifications?
  • Timing: 10 minutes Handout #1-D & 1-E: Demographics Reading & Map Trainers Notes: Make sure everyone has the handout on Demographics. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Statistics show that there is an increase in the numbers of English language learners in public schools across the U. S. In these activities we will get an opportunity to further discuss implications of the growing population of ELLs. Take a few minutes to read the handout on “Demographics.” At the trainer’s signal, turn to a table partner and share your reactions, insights about the reading. Is this new information? Are there English language learners in your schools? (Allow time for responses.) Is there anyone who wants to share with the whole group? (Look for a show of hands.)
  • Timing: 20 minutes Handout #1-F & 1-Fa: Did You Know? & Did You Know? (Answer Key) Trainers Notes: Make sure that you have the answer sheet from the Handout Packet. Ask participants to refrain from looking at answer sheet until after the activity is over. This activity can be adapted to a variety of ethnic groups by substituting demographic information. TELL PARTICIPANTS: In this activity, we will learn more about the numbers of English language learners in our schools. Please do not look at the answer sheet until the activity is over. At your table groups, use a “round robin” format to take turns reading the following list of statements regarding English language learners. Discuss possible answers among your group. At the trainer’s signal, stop and listen to the “correct” answers. How many did you correctly answer? Were you on target? Were there any surprises? (Allow time for responses.)
  • Timing: 20 minutes Handout #1-G: What’s In My Name Trainers Notes: Depending on the size of the group, use a method of pairing participants. For example: Stand up — choose a partner whose birthday falls in the same month, whose last name begins with the same letter, etc. In crowded rooms, have participants turn to the person beside them. Give participants a few minutes to pair up. If individuals are having trouble finding a partner, step in and arbitrarily pair them up to move the activity forward. Review the directions on the screen. The focus of the activity is to share the story of their name, whatever that story is, and whatever they are comfortable sharing. Each person has two minutes to share their story; you will let them know when it is time to change speakers to be sure both speakers get to share. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Find a partner from somewhere in the room whose birthday is the same month as yours. Stand up and start calling out the month of your birth until you find a match! Once you find your partner, remain standing. Find your partner! Allow a few minutes for pairing; pair individuals as needed. Now let’s look at the assignment. You will each have two minutes to talk and tell your partner the story of your name. You can choose to tell your partner anything you wish to share about your name: what it means, who you were named for, who named you, or anything else that is associated with your name. Some people don’t like their names or wish they had a different name. If you could choose any other name, what would it be, and why? You will have two minutes to talk about your name so don’t feel like you have to rush. Keep talking until you hear me call “time,” then switch and then let your partner talk. Any questions? The first person to talk should be the person whose name is closest to the beginning of the month. Start sharing! Trainers Notes: Announce the time to switch speakers. At the end of the total time (4-5 minutes) ask participants to stop but to stay with their partners during the debrief. When you ask them to share what they heard, remind them to be brief — you are looking for the high points, not the entire story. Try to hear from all parts of the room and a diverse group of speakers. Only one partner in a pair needs to share. Depending on time, let as many people speak as possible. Alternative: With a small group, you can choose to let every person be introduced by their partner, using the story of their name. As time allows, ask as many of the questions below as you can and let a few participants respond. Comments or stories from participants may lead you to other appropriate questions to enhance the learning of the group. Key learnings for this activity include the appreciation of our differences and our similarities, an understanding of the cultural connections reflected in our names, and the importance of respecting names and their significance to the individual. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Time’s up! Stay with your partner and let’s talk about what you heard. Please keep your responses brief so we can hear from several people. Who has an interesting story to share? [Call on a participant to share; comment as appropriate.] Thanks. Who learned something new about a friend or colleague? [Call on a few more participants to share; comment as appropriate.] Great stories! Why do you think it is important to know the stories of our names? What do we learn about each other through our names? How might you use this with your colleagues? How might you use this with your students? Elementary teachers, when you use this activity with your students, you might want to read the book Chrysanthemum by Kevin Henkes.
  • Timing: 10 minutes Handout #1-H: T-Shirt Trainers Notes: Read the poem through and invite participants to make connections to any of the What’s in My Name stories they may have shared in the previous activity. This T-Shirt poem activity is designed to recognize the importance of validation of self-esteem and invisible/visible, psychological, social and achievement gap consciousness. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Our names are the very essence of our identity and who we are. It is critical that we demonstrate respect for our students by making an effort to pronounce their names correctly. Historically, teachers have often taken liberties with students’ names by translating names for our own comfort. It is easier to say George than try to pronounce “Jorge” in Spanish. However, when this happens, educators can intentionally or unintentionally send the message to students to conform, assimilate, or acculturate to be from the dominant culture. As educators, we need to be mindful of unintended consequences. It is important to not undermine students’ identity by changing their names unless permission is given by the student. The unintended disrespect can affect self-esteem. Think about the importance of self-esteem if Jorge had not brought this issue up to his teacher and the advocacy role he is taking on behalf of other culturally and linguistically diverse learners in this classroom.
  • Timing: 10 minutes Trainers Notes: Review the slide on “Two Very Different Views of the English Language Learner.” Talk about changing the way we view students whose first language is not English. TELL PARTICIPANTS: In this workshop, we want to change the way we view diverse students and the students in your classrooms who may be struggling to be successful. We are shifting our focus from looking at the deficits that students bring into the classroom to looking at the assets that they bring with them. So we are moving from looking at our students as culturally and linguistically deprived, to looking at them as culturally and linguistically enriched, viewing their language learning of English as an asset, something valuable in our classrooms. We define culture as the everyday experiences that shape us into the individuals that we are. It goes beyond race and ethnicity to include language, economics, and other dimensions of diversity. Every student brings a culture into the classroom, as do you, and that culture influences learning and teaching. In today’s agenda under Culture and Equity, we’ll talk about those cultures, what they mean to academic success, and how you can use the cultures of your students to build a supportive and equal classroom for all students. Instead of viewing as failing or low achieving (because their first language is not English) we want to think about the unrecognized or underdeveloped abilities that they may have. We want to change the discussion from looking at students as “at-risk” to looking at them as resilient. When we talk about resilience, we are talking about that ability to bounce back in the face of risk or adversity due to their language or culture, and how this applies in both social and academic settings. Finally, we want to remind ourselves that all children are motivated at 3:00 p.m.! Our challenge is to tap into their motivation and turn it in the direction of academics and learning by using language acquisition and ELL teaching skills. As we learn more about our students’ everyday lives, we learn about what interests and motivates them by inviting them to share their culture and language. In looking at “Two Very Different Views of the English Language Learner,” we are looking at changing the way we think about our students.
  • Timing:15 minutes Trainer notes: Move this slide as needed
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #1-I: Introductory Quote for Culture and Equity Handout #1-Ia: Implications of Culture and Equity for Classroom Practice with English Language Learners Handout #1-Ib: Closing the Equity Gap—Three Essential Factors of Our Common Commitment to Equity for English Language Learners Trainers Notes: Read this quote first and process the short activity. When finished (remember this is short), read the next two slides. One is another quote and the other is a message on closing the ELL equity gap. The activity for each slide is the same. (post-its). Use these three slides as a transition into the section on Culture and Equity. Make sure to post one or two large blank pieces of chart paper entitled, “Quotes for Culture and Equity.” Have post-its on all tables. Participants will write responses on post-its and place on charts. TELL PARTICIPANTS: First we will read the next three slides, then do the same post-its activity for each. The first two slides are quotes and the third slide is a message on closing the ELL equity gap. These quotes and the message on closing the equity gap for ELLs is from Toward Equity: Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society . The Toward Equity training was developed from the work of researchers and practitioners who had been successful in supporting the academic success of English language learners. After we are finished with reviewing the quotes and the message on the next three slides, we will transfer the learning from the quotes and message to an activity that we will do and learn about the Five Principles upon which “Toward Equity” is built and how those principles relate to our work with English language learners. The purpose for these quotes and the message on the next three slides are to examine the predictability of obstacles to success that culturally and linguistically diverse students face in the educational system; and for us as educators to further develop our effectiveness in the teaching of every ELL student with predictable practices and behaviors of equity and equal access to learning. Trainer’s Notes: Now ask someone to read the quote on this slide only. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Will someone please quickly read this quote aloud? Now that we have read this quote on this slide, let’s reflect and write a response and/or insight on one of the post-its at your table. When you finish, you may bring the post-it note and place on one of the charts labeled, “Quote for Culture and Equity.” We will leave these posted for you to read throughout the training. You will now have a few minutes to write your reflection. Trainer’s Notes: Now go to the next slide and go through the same process, remember this is a short transition activity.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #1-Ia: Implications of Culture and Equity for Classroom Practice with English Language Learners Trainers Notes: Read this quote and process the short activity. When finished (remember this is short), then read the next slide. The activity for each slide is the same. (post-its). This slide is to be used as a transition into the section on Culture and Equity. Make sure to post one or two large blank pieces of chart paper entitled, “Quotes for Culture and Equity.” Have post-its on all tables. Participants will write responses on post-its and place on charts. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Before we read this slide as a group, let’s revisit further details about Culture and Equity. This quote, the previous quote and the message on Closing the Equity Gap for English Language Learners on the next slide are from Toward Equity: Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society . The Toward Equity training was developed from the work of researchers and practitioners who had been successful in supporting the academic success of English language learners. After we are finished with reviewing the quotes and the message on these three slides, we will transfer the learning from the quotes and message to an activity that we will do and learn about the Five Principles upon which Toward Equity is built and how those principles relate to our work with English language learners. The purpose for these quotes and the message on these three slides are to examine the predictability of obstacles to success that culturally and linguistically diverse students face in the educational system; and for us as educators to further develop our effectiveness in the teaching of every ELL student with predictable practices and behaviors of equity and equal access to learning. Trainers Notes: Now ask someone to read the quote on this slide only. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Will someone please quickly read this quote aloud? Now that we have read this quote on this slide, let’s reflect and write a response and/or insight on one of the post-its at your table. When you finish, you may bring the post-it note and place on one of the charts labeled, “Quote for Culture and Equity.” We will leave these posted for you to read throughout the training. You will now have a few minutes to write your reflection. Trainers Notes: Now go to the next slide and go through the same process, remember this is a short transition activity.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #1-Ib: Closing the Equity Gap—Three Essential Factors of Our Common Commitment to Equity for English Language Learners. Trainers Notes: Read this message on Closing the English Language Learner Equity Gap. This message and the two previous quotes are to be used as a transition into the section on Culture and Equity. Make sure to post one or two large blank pieces of chart paper entitled, “Quotes for Culture and Equity.” Have post-its on all tables. Participants will write responses on post-its and place on charts. TELL PARTICIPANTS: As we did with the two previous quotes, we will review this message on Closing the English Language Learner Equity Gap. These quotes and the message on Closing the Equity Gap for English Language Learners is from Toward Equity: Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society . The Toward Equity training was developed from the work of researchers and practitioners who had been successful in supporting the academic success of English language learners. After we are finished with reviewing the quotes and the message on these three slides, we will transfer the learning from the quotes and message to an activity that we will do and learn about the Five Principles upon which Toward Equity is built and how those principles relate to our work with English language learners. The purpose for these quotes and the message on these three slides are to examine the predictability of obstacles to success that culturally and linguistically diverse students face in the educational system; and for us as educators to further develop our effectiveness in the teaching of every ELL student with predictable practices and behaviors of equity and equal access to learning. Trainers Notes: Now ask someone to read the message about equity on this slide. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Will someone please quickly read this message aloud? Now that we have read this message on this slide, let’s reflect and write a response and/or insight on one of the post-its at your table. When you finish, you may bring the post-it note and place on one of the charts labeled, “Quote for Culture and Equity.” We will leave these posted for you to read throughout the training. You will now have a few minutes to write your reflection. Trainers Notes: Now go to the next slide, The Five Guiding Principles.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #1-J: Five Guiding Principles Trainers Notes: This activity is based on the understanding that each of us as educators can make a difference in the academic success of English language learners. Five principles drawn from the work of educational researchers and practitioners can guide us in becoming culturally responsive and ensuring equity for our students. Read the slide out loud and/or ask for volunteers. Following the slides of the Five Guiding Principles, will be an activity where participants will be asked to make posters of each principle (Visual Representation activity). Be mindful to give participants this information up front. After you present all five principles, you will be forming five table groups. The task will be to develop a visual representation of each principle. It is okay to assign two tables per principle, depending on the number of participants. TELL PARTICIPANTS: This activity introduces us to five principles drawn from educational researchers and practitioners who have done extensive work with English language learners. These five principles can guide us in becoming culturally responsive educators who ensure equity for our English language learners. In your Handout Packet, you will find the Five Guiding Principles. These principles are from Toward Equity: Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society . Toward Equity is a training that was developed for all beginning teachers in California as the state recognized that the numbers of English language learners in their schools was increasing dramatically. Principle #1 addresses the notion that educators who are committed to ensuring equity for all students understand that their views and practice as teachers are influenced by their backgrounds and experiences. Where did they grow up? Was it a segregated neighborhood? Do they come from backgrounds of privilege? How is this different than that of your students? Responsible educators are aware of the history of discrimination and exclusion against diverse racial and ethnic groups in schools. They examine how their own attitudes, expectations, and interactions can influence their teaching . Educators who are successful with English language learners understand that they must teach for social justice. Indicators of this component will be that educators plan lessons for English language learners around issues of social justice. For example, an educator might develop lessons around issues of civil rights, immigration, prejudice and stereotypes. (Mendoza-Reis, 2003)
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout # 1-J : Five Guiding Principles Trainers Notes: Read the slide out loud and/or ask for volunteers. Remind them about the upcoming Visual Representation activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Principle #2 stresses that effective education for English language learners involves connecting learning to students’ lives. Students are more engaged when they see a connection between school and home. It is important to implement a relevant and challenging curriculum for our English language learners. At the same time, it is important to understand that English language learners also have a right to the complex knowledge and academic skills they will need to be successful.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout # 1-J: Five Guiding Principles Trainers Notes: Read the slide out loud and/or ask for volunteers. Remind them about the upcoming Visual Representation activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Principle #3 stresses that it is important to understand that how we organize instruction can influence who learns what in our classrooms. Educators need to pay attention to both the social organization of a classroom (such as grouping practices) as well as the physical organization of a classroom (such as rows or table groups) (McGinty, I. and Mendoza-Reis, 1998) It is equally important to structure dialogue and interaction in classrooms with English language learners in order to maximize learning.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout # 1-J: Five Guiding Principles Trainers Notes: Read the slide out loud and/or ask for volunteers. Remind them about the upcoming Visual Representation activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Principle #4 stresses that in order to ensure success for English language learners, teachers must clearly communicate the importance of skills students will need to be successful. Clearly, this speaks to standards-based teaching for English language learners. By teaching students a useful knowledge of the conventions and strategies valued in current social, political and economic institutions, teachers can offer English language learners the capacity to succeed in society as well as the power to transform it.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout # 1-J: Five Guiding Principles Trainers Notes: Read the slide out loud and/or ask for volunteers. Remind them about the upcoming Visual Representation activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Principle #5 stresses that English language learners will benefit from a rich, interactive relationship between the school and their families and community. It is important to become advocates for families of English language learners by giving them the information about schooling that they need to access learning for their children. Teachers can include the expertise, experiences and stories of family and community members in classrooms.
  • Timing: 30 minutes Handout #1-K: Visual Representation of Guiding Principles Trainers Notes: There are many ways to group participants. For this activity, have participants count off and work in number groups (all the 1s, all the 2s, etc). You will have to make sure that you divide participants in five groups so that there is one group per principle. Make sure that you have chart paper and color markers for this activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: In this activity, you will have an opportunity to further discuss these principles and to develop a “visual representation” of each principle. Once you are in your new number group, we will assign you one of the Guiding Principles. Your task is to create a visual representation of your principle. Develop a poster and/or picture that depicts important points about your principle. Decide how to explain your representation to the whole group through a single statement and write that statement at the bottom of your poster. Choose someone to report on your poster to the group.
  • Timing: 10 minutes Handout #1-L: “What is Culture and Equity?” Think-Pair-Share Trainers Notes: Reflect on this prompt beforehand so that you can give an example or use the following: “ From my family I learned to value and appreciate different types of music. Because my grandfather was from Mexico, we always listened to the music of the “maestros” such as Pedro Infante and Jorge Negrete. My grandmother and aunts, however, were from Anaheim, Calif., and loved the music of the big bands such as Tommy Dorsey. It was not unusual for me to listen (loudly) to both of these types of music in one day. Therefore, to this day, I can appreciate and value a variety of music.” (Cabral, 2007). Trainer may use this quote or make up one that is reflective of the trainer or may choose to make up another quote that is a reflection of other cultural experiences. Make sure you have handouts #1-I, #1-Ia and #1-Ib available. These slides have the quotes and the message on closing the equity gap for ELLs. Trainer will refer to these as the operational ancher for this activity on this slide. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Think back to the two quotes and the message of closing the equity gap for ELLs that we reflected on before the Five Guided Principles activity. Take a minute to find these handouts, they are #1-I, #1-Ia and #1-Ib. We will be using these quotes and message on closing the equity gap for ELLs as the operational anchor for this activity and develop an understanding of how our beliefs, values, and behaviors related to culture, language, racial identity, and equity impact our teaching practice with ELLs in the classroom and school. We are going to explore the issue of culture and equity as it relates to us as educators of English language learners. This is important because in this country the majority of our teaching force is not from the same cultural and linguistic background as many students. While the teaching force remains largely white, the student population is growing increasingly diverse Educators report that they feel more comfortable with students who are from similar backgrounds as themselves. They need to learn to feel comfortable in teaching students who are not from similar backgrounds. Take a moment to reflect on the prompt on your handout. Here is an example I can share: read and share the story from above under the trainer’s notes or another one. Share your insights with a table partner. Take a few minutes to share out with your table group. Notice any commonalities and differences among your group. Now we will further explore the issue of culture and equity through a team word-web activity.
  • Timing: 20 minutes Handout #1-M: “What is Culture?” Team Word Web Trainers Notes: Participants can stay in their original table groups for this activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: For this activity, you will work with your table groups. In this activity, the “team word-web”, you will have a chance to work on the meaning of culture and equity to use and discuss its implications for your work in the classroom and school when teaching English language learners. In general, the team word-web is a way to gather the information, ideas, opinions and perceptions of people and synthesize them into categories. For the purpose of this activity, we will be using it to gather the above stated information but with special focus on developing our effectiveness as we work with every English language learner. Furthermore, the purpose is to develop the beginnings of an ongoing action plan in which we all can identify and commit to concrete steps for becoming more culturally and linguistically responsive and ensuring equity for ELLs in classrooms and schools. Remember the message on closing the ELL equity gap and the three essential factors of our common commitment to equity: (1) raising achievement of all ELLs; (2) narrow the gap between lowest and highest ELL performing students; (3) eliminate the predictability of the highest and lowest performing ELL students. Now reflect on this message and the purposes of this activity as you do this team work.
  • Trainer notes: Move or delete as needed
  • Timing: 15 minutes Handout #1-N: Find Someone Who… Trainers Notes: This activity serves as an energizer to get participants back into training mode after lunch. There are no right or wrong answers. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please find your Handout #1-N in your Handout Packet. Take a few minutes to read the prompts in the boxes. Put your initials in those boxes which have meaning to you. At the signal, you are to find others in the room who may know the answers to the boxes that remain. Remember that others may sign only one square on your sheet. Stop at the signal and/or when you have completed your grid!
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #1-O: Quick Write Trainers Notes: Give participants two or three minutes to write down their thoughts, then signal them to share with their partner. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Are there any questions from this morning’s session? Now we will begin this part of the session on language acquisition. Please find the “Quick Write” handout in your manual. Take a few minutes to quietly write down your definition of LANGUAGE. When you are finished, please share your definition with an elbow partner.
  • Timing: 10 minutes Trainers Notes: Introduce participants to the following section by providing them with an overview of the two major theorists that will be presented: Krashen and Cummins. Establish the foundational importance of theory to our work as practitioners teaching English language learners. Please note: it is necessary for any trainer presenting the work of Stephen Krashen to read the short article on “The Monitor Theory for Trainers” in the Web sites & Recommended Reading section of this training module. The reading is recommended to be read during the preparation and planning time well before the training. TELL PARTICIPANTS: For the purpose of this training we will present five major ideas from the work of Stephen Krashen but focus only on two of the major ideas of Krashen’s work and three from Jim Cummins work. We will examine the work from these two theories because historically they form the basis for much of our work as teachers of English language learners and inform our understanding of best practices. It is important to understand that while there are many other important concepts we could consider, the two from Krashen and the concepts ideas from Cummins form the foundation of this manual. It is also important to note that there are other linguists who assert that Krashen’s theories, while historically important, cannot be empirically tested or proven to be true. For further reading on this topic, please refer to the work of McLaughlin (1987). And for a brief reading on McLaughlin, please refer to the reading that is in the Web sites and Recommended Reading section of this three-day training module.
  • Timing: 9 minutes Trainers Notes: Please make sure you have read the reading on “The Monitor Theory for Trainers” well before this training session. This reading can be found in this three-day training module in the section on Web sites and Recommended Readings. The reading is not a required reading for participants, but it is recommended that the trainer please refer them to the reading, especially if they ask deeper questions about the theory and are interested in knowing more. Review the slide briefly and focus on pointing out the two main ideas that are circled. The Input and the Affective Filter. TELL PARTICIPANTS: First we will examine Krashen’s five Monitor Model Hypotheses Ideas: Acquisition-Learning, Natural Order, Monitor, Input and the Affective Filter Hypotheses. Why do these hypotheses and ideas mean to “us” as educators of ELLs? And what does this look like in my classroom? Simply stated, the “Acquisition-Learning” idea focuses on communication not correctness. When an ELL is speaking or responding, one should not always be stopping them to correct them. Let the spontaneous flow of how they are communicating occur; correction should come at another time. Simply stated, the “Monitor” idea asserts that an ELL, with time, will monitor their own producing of language based on what they have already learned or are learning. In the classroom this will look like, “Oh, yeah! I remember how to say that.” Or, “Oh, no I mean this.” “I wented yesterday to him house, oh, no no I mean I went yesterday to his house.” Simply stated, the “Natural Order” idea focuses on after an extended period of time the second language will occur naturally for an ELL without “thinking of how they are thinking.” The major ideas that we will be examining from Krashen’s work are these two: the “Input Hypothesis” and the “Affective Filter Hypothesis.” These two hypotheses, historically have been the most referred to as the foundation for ELL best practices used by educator’s/teacher’s of ELLs.
  • Time: 10 minutes Handout #1-P: Input Hypothesis Example Trainers Notes: Comparisons are appropriate here to the work of research theorist Lev Vygotsky and the Zone of Proximal Development in order to assist teachers with the i +1 construct. Simply stated, i=Input +=plus 1=one level slightly above their ability level (i+1). Lev Vygotsky is another theorist that simply states the Zone of Proximal Development to mean, with the help and or assistance of an educator/teacher/instructor or guidance close by. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Almost all educators are familiar with the work of Lev Vygotsky and the Zone of Proximal Development. Which simply means “assistance and or guidance close by to provide input.” For example, Lillie, the kindergarten student can try to write the word “sister” but can only write “str.” This is what this student can perform independent of any assistance from a educator. An educator, however, working with this student, can ASSIST this student to write the entire word “sister” by providing comprehensible input. For example: “Lillie, do you hear the sounds in the word, “sister”…ssss…what do you hear?...yes, that’s right. `I’…what do you hear? Yes, it’s the letter `I’….” And so on until the entire word is written correctly… What Lillie can write by herself (“str”) and what she can write with the help of the educator (“sister”) comprises the ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT. Krashen’s concept of i + 1 is a similar concept in that we provide students with linguistic comprehensible input (i) that is just slightly 1 level beyond their current ability level. If learners are not able to make meaning of what they hear, then they will not acquire language. What does this mean for us as educators? It means that we must design learning opportunities that provide students with abundant comprehensible input. Refer to Handout #1-P. Take a moment to read the scenario. Reflect and respond with a partner, keeping the Input Hypothesis in mind. The teacher in the scenario provided comprehensible input for the student, addressing the following language structures within her responses: irregular plural forms and use of articles in English. She also addressed the pronunciation of the ‘th’ morpheme. It is important to note that most errors ELL students make as they acquire English are normal, due to natural language development, and the same across language groups. Some errors, however, are due to the influence of the native language.
  • Time: 30 minutes Handout #1-Q: Role Play Trainers Notes: It is important that participants understand the complexity of learning a second language, as well as the stress that can result from trying to perform in that language. Try to access the emotional impact of a situation that typically produces anxiety and the resulting intellectual impediment. Make connections to students who are in a language-learning situation. Before they do the activity on #1-Q on role play, they will be turning to their elbow partner to discuss the scenario you will read to them from below from the first item on “tell participants.” TELL PARTICIPANTS: Imagine driving alone down a freeway in an unfamiliar city, late on a rainy night and you have missed the exit. Finally you exit the freeway two stops further than you wanted. You are disoriented and unable to find your way back on to the freeway despite being an experienced driver. Take a minute to do a quick write listing some of the feelings you would experience under these conditions. Turn to your elbow partner and talk about the situation and feelings you have listed. Think about a situation you have encountered when you were unable to communicate, to understand what was going on around you or to ask for the things you needed. How did you feel? What did you do? Perhaps you can remember a time you had to give a speech, take a test, or face some other stressful situation. Were you at your best? Were you able to think clearly, respond accurately, and perform to the best of your ability? If this has ever happened to you, then you understand the idea behind the Affective Filter. This is important to us as educators because one of our responsibilities as educators is to optimize the learning experience for the students in our classrooms. Lowering the Affective Filter for English learners in the classroom is key to providing an environment that promotes language acquisition. In your table groups, develop two role-play scenarios—one depicting a classroom situation that demonstrates the concept of a “raised affective filter,” the second, a classroom scene that demonstrates the concept of a “low affective filter.” Trainers Notes: Allow each group to perform their role play for the whole group.
  • Time: 1 minute Trainers Notes: The following reading notes are for the Trainer to read well in advanced, prior to the training . This slide is only for trainer to read from very quickly as a humor slide. It is also recommended that the trainer read the short reading briefs on “Theory for Trainers, Cummins Common Underlying Proficiency Model” and “Theory for Trainers Second Language Proficiency and Learning Theory.” These readings are to be read well in advanced , prior to the training. The readings are recommended for participants if they request in-depth information. It is recommended that you inform them of the existing readings as you review this section. BICS: Acronym for Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills, part of a theory of language proficiency developed by Jim Cummins (1984), which distinguishes BICS from CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency). BICS is often referred to as “playground English” or “survival English.” It is the basic language ability required for face-to-face communication where linguistic interactions are embedded in a situational context. This language, which is highly contextualized and often accompanied by gestures, is relatively undemanding cognitively and relies on the context to aid understanding. BICS is much more easily and quickly acquired than CALP, but is not sufficient to meet the cognitive and linguistic demands of an academic classroom. (Cummins, 1984; Baker & Jones, 1998). CALP: Developed by Jim Cummins (1984), Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency is the language ability required for academic achievement in a context-reduced environment. Examples of context-reduced environments include classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. CALP is distinguished from Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) (Baker, 2000). Discrete language skills: Grammatical and phonological knowledge, which is explicitly taught. In childhood, students learn letters and their sounds. Later, students learn about verb tenses, capitalization and punctuation (Cummins, 2001). TELL PARTICIPANTS: Now we examine three contributions from Jim Cummins’ language learning theory. His research suggests that there are three different language dimensions acquired or learned: Hmm, let’s see? Let’s examine the next few slides on these language learning theory contributions. It is important to point out that the following language contributes to underpin much of the work that has been done in the field of second language acquisition over the past 20 years. It is virtually impossible to proceed with the discussion of best practices without a rudimentary understanding of these concepts. It is extremely important to emphasize that these three dimensions of language are meant to explain a continuum in language acquisition. Educators should be cautioned not to teach any dimension in isolation.
  • Timing 10 minutes Trainers Notes: In either whole group or table groups, depending upon the number of participants in the room, engage participants in a discussion of the different ways we use language to communicate in our lives, to express our feelings, to get what we need, to interact with others. Make comparisons between the language of personal interaction and the language of school, the language required to learn complex, abstract information. Cummins’ first language theory contribution that will be discussed is Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills known as BICS. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Now we will examine Cummins’ first theory contribution on language acquisition referred to as Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills known as BICS, and is acquired relatively quickly by those learning a second language. Simply put in other words, CONVERSATIONAL BASIC FLUENCY! Is anyone familiar with this term? (If any participants raise their hand, call on them to share what they know, then adjust how much explanation as a trainer you will need to give based on readiness level of group). We use language to communicate with those around us. Think about the different purposes for language in your everyday life. You use language to express your love for family, friends, to order a hamburger at McDonald’s, to negotiate a lower interest rate on your home mortgage, and to learn what you need to know to do your job. Do you use the same vocabulary in all of those situations? Do you speak to your boss in the same way you speak to your spouse? Do you speak to your university professor in the same manner you speak to your students? These are all important questions to ask as we work and understand the various levels of ELL students that are in our classrooms. These questions serve as a good way to understand that our students must learn to use different stages of language as they are going through the process of acquiring English. Cummins analyzed this first level as BICS for everyday basic communication that may only have one, two, three or more sentences but very basic undemanding context. Now in your table groups discuss some different ways we use language to communicate in our lives, to express our feelings, to get what we need, to interact with others. (Give them time to do this.) While you were doing this, did you make comparisons between the language of personal interaction and the language of school, the language required to learn complex, abstract information? (Look for hands up.) This level will be the discussion on the next slide referred to as Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). Trainers Notes: Further explanation of these terms will appear in subsequent slides.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: This slide briefly shows Cummins’ second contribution on Language Learning Theory. This theory is referred to as Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). TELL PARTICIPANTS: Cummins’ second contribution on Language Learning Theory is referred to as a form of language that is more demanding. It includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material. Is anyone familiar with this term? (If hands go up, ask them to share. After they share, trainer will assess the readiness level of the participants and determine how much further explanation will be needed.) What does this look like for me as an educator? Academic language acquisition isn’t just the understanding of content area vocabulary. It includes skills that educators need to make sure that ELLs learn such as comparing, classifying, synthesizing, evaluating, and inferring. The language also becomes more cognitively demanding. New ideas, concepts and language are presented to the students at the same time. This form of language is known as Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) and takes seven to 10 years for language learners to completely develop.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Make this slide extremely user friendly. This is the “What” of what educators need to implement in everyday instruction. Emphasize the example below and ask for just a few responses to demonstrate that they understand. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Who will please volunteer to read this slide? Thank you for reading. The word “metalinguistic” means knowledge about the structure and functions of language itself. This slide is simply saying in other words, although the surface aspects of different languages (e.g., pronunciation, fluency, etc.) are clearly separate, there is an underlying cognitive/academic proficiency that is common across languages. Example: In concrete terms, what this means is that in a bilingual program, for example, Spanish instruction that develops Spanish reading and writing skills is not just developing Spanish skills, it is also developing a deeper conceptual and linguistic proficiency that contributes significantly to the development of literacy in English. Would anyone like to comment more on this language learning theory? (If not, move on to next slide.)
  • Timing: 15 minutes Handout # 1-R & 1-Ra: Cummins’ Quadrant Activity and Cummins Quadrant Activity (Answer Key) Trainers Notes: This slide provides a graphic representation of Cummins’ concepts with each category divided into a Quadrant that is critical in understanding the BICS and CALP. Please make sure that as a trainer, the readings provided for you in this module section of recommended readings are read well in advance before this training. Please note that examples for each of these are on the next slide. This is the presentation teaching slide. TELL PARTICIPANTS: As we have examined, Cummins divided language tasks into two categories—the BICS and CALP. Once again, BICS=Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills and CALP=Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. The next slide will provide very specific examples. This slide is to serve as an explanation slide for what the information in each quadrant means and what they mean to you as an educator/teacher. He then divided them into four categories: BICS Context-Embedded Communication: Provides several communicative supports to the listener or reader, such as objects, gestures, or vocal inflections, which help make the information comprehensible. Examples are one-to-one social conversation with physical gestures, or story telling activities that include visual props. Context- Reduced Communication: Relies heavily on students’ background knowledge and knowledge specific vocabulary, grammar and ways of expressing the meaning. CALP Cognitively Undemanding Communication: Conversational interactions that typically involve high frequency words and straightforward forms. Cognitively Demanding Communication: Interactions or situations that demand use of academic knowledge and language. Please find Handout# 1-R. In groups of four, please determine which scenario matches which quadrant. Trainers Notes: Give participants up to three minutes to discuss in their groups before bringing them back together. Referring to each quadrant, ask for volunteers to share the scenario that matches the quadrant. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Which scenario would fit in the Context-Embedded Cognitively Undemanding quadrant? Which scenario would fit in the Context-Reduced Cognitively Undemanding quadrant?
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: To be used with previous slide on Quadrants. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Students with limited English proficiency often achieve communicative competence more rapidly than academic competence. Therefore, tasks in the A quadrant should be relatively easy for ELLs, since they rely on contextual clues and are less dependent on academic language. However, the most common types of instructional tasks are found in quadrant D. They are the most difficult. These tasks offer few contextual clues. They include reading a text (without visual clues), understanding math concepts, doing math word problems, writing compositions, listening to lectures, and taking tests. Cummins hypothesizes that children must attain grade-level cognitive academic proficiency if they are to experience success in academic tasks that are typically context-reduced and cognitively demanding. Time spent developing academic skills in the language the student understands is not time lost, since these skills are transferable to English. For educators in the classroom, this means: Encouraging lots of reading in their primary language as a plus either at home, school or both. Providing an abundance of visuals, hands-on activities, and cooperative learning with many clubs and guidance.
  • Trainer notes: While participants are on break, distribute materials for table sort activity to each table.
  • Time: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Review previous slide when participants return from break. Continue discussion from previous slides, providing examples. Solicit additional examples for each quadrant from participants. TELL PARTICIPANTS: We now will review the slide that we worked on before the break on Examples of BICS, CALP on Language Acquisition Theory. Let’s discuss more examples for the BICS and CALP for the quadrants.
  • Timing: 30 minutes Handout #1-S & 1-Sb: Table Sort & Sortable Components for Table Sort Trainers Notes: Before the session, ensure that sortable components for Table Sort are cut apart and put into envelopes for participants to sort in this activity. Provide participants with materials for Table Sort activity (Quadrants and sortable academic tasks). Circulate to provide assistance as participants sort tasks into the appropriate quadrant. TELL PARTICIPANTS: On your table, you will find a graphic representation of Cummins’ Quadrants, along with a variety of academic tasks that involve language. As a group, your job is to sort the tasks into the appropriate quadrants based on Cummins’ criteria. Think about the complexity of the task, as well as whether the task is context reduced or context imbedded. I will be available to help if you get stuck. Trainers Notes: When participants have completed sort, display answers on the following slide. Provide time for reflection and application to classroom practice. Make connections as needed. Use the next slide as an answer key.
  • Handout #1-Sa: Quadrants Sort Answer Key Trainer notes: Use this slide as an answer key
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #1-T: CUP Graphic Trainers Notes: This graphic will appear again after an in-depth explanation of Common Underlying Proficiency. This graphic is presented to participants at this point to provide a conceptual framework. TELL PARTICIPANTS: The third construct from the work of Jim Cummins is the concept of Common Underlying Proficiency . This graphic representation will serve as the basis for our discussion of this fundamental theory. Please find your Handout #1-T and fill in the sections as we discuss them.
  • Time: 10 minutes Trainers Notes: Let participants know that this is Cummins’ third Language Learning Theory contribution. Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP): Cummins' theory that two languages work in an integrated manner in one underlying, central thinking system. Skills that are not directly connected to a particular language, such as subtraction, using a computer, or reading, may be transferred from one language to another once the concept is understood since they exist as part of the common proficiency. Skills that are specific to a language (idioms, punctuation) may be kept separate (Baker & Jones, 1998). Please make sure that as trainers, you read the readings in the section on Web Sites and Recommended Readings well in advanced before this training. These are also recommended readings for participants but not required. Please make sure they know that they are in this module for their reference if there is a desire to know more on this theory and his other theories. TELL PARTICIPANTS: This is Cummins’ third Language Learning Theory contribution. Please refer to the readings in the Web Site and Recommendation Readings section of this module if you are interested in more in-depth information on Cummins’ theories. Imagine that you have been hired to drive an 18-wheel truck, delivering vegetables to local grocery stores. You are worried about your first day on the job because you have never driven a truck before. How will you know what to do? Hmmm… Let’s see. You do know how to drive a car. You know the laws that govern traffic and you know how to get around town. There are some new skills you will need to learn in order to perform your new job, but you have ability and knowledge that you can draw from. You don’t have to learn everything from the ground up! That’s the way Common Underlying Proficiency works for language learning. Students draw on the knowledge and abilities they have about their first language to develop proficiency in their second language. That is, the stronger foundation the students have in their first language (L1), the more knowledge and abilities they will have to draw upon towards developing their second language (L2). For example, if a student learns to read in their first language, then they do not have to learn how to “read” all over again when learning a second language. Similarly, if a student learns math concepts like addition and subtraction in their primary language, they do not have to re-learn the concept when learning a second language. This is the reason that students can take what they know in one language and transfer those skills to their second language. On the surface, two languages may seem separate and distinct; however, there is one operating system responsible for language processing. Students draw on their first language (L1) to develop proficiency in their second language (L2). So, what are the implications for practice? Think – Transfer! Transfer of cognitive knowledge from one language to another.
  • Timing – 10 minutes Trainers Notes: These are some examples of the elements of language that make up Common Underlying Proficiency and contribute to transfer. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Think about the elements of language that make up our base of knowledge and skills in our first language (L1). Phonological Awareness: We understand that letters make sounds. We know that letters are put together to form words and words are joined to make sentences. We can change the tone of our voices to express emotion, to indicate whether we are asking a question or making an exclamation (Intonation). All of these understandings form an enormous pool of knowledge that allows us to communicate with others. Cognate Vocabulary: When we begin to learn a new language, we begin with what we already know. Our brains naturally look for patterns and similarities in order to make sense out of what we are hearing and seeing, to connect the unknown to the known. And it’s even better when there are words that are similar in both languages! Transfer works differently for different language groups. If I know my alphabet in Spanish, I know most of my alphabet in English. However, if I know how to read in Arabic, I have to change my concept of directionality in order to read in English. If I speak Italian, I am used to conjugating verbs, but if I speak Thai, verb conjugations are a new concept for me. While students from Brazil will recognize the addition of an ‘s’ to create a plural noun, students from many Asian language backgrounds will find this concept difficult because there is no plural morpheme in most Asian languages.
  • Timing: 10 minutes Trainers Notes: Explain the following concepts related to Common Underlying Proficiency using the graphic on this slide: ELLs develop various literacy abilities in L1 that are then available to them when reading or writing in either language. ELLs who remain proficient in L1 also develop abilities specific to their bilingual state (e.g., use of cognates—words that are similar in both languages). Differences in literacy performance may be due to different ways ELLs develop and draw on this common underlying reservoir of literacy abilities (Genesee & Christian, 2005). TELL PARTICIPANTS: The reason Common Underlying Proficiency is important to us as educators is the concept of transfer , or the idea that knowledge and skills a student owns in one language can easily transfer to the second language. Therefore, the more knowledge and skills in the student’s first language (L1) the more success the student will have in transferring information for understanding and thus acquiring English (L2). Can you think of some examples of this phenomenon? In your table groups, share any examples that you can think of that illustrate this concept.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Review the learning outcomes that were reviewed at the beginning of the day. The outcomes were provided for participants at the beginning of the day’s training. Participants should be able to identify key concepts, apply concepts to their professional practice, and identify one idea they will use in their classrooms. TELL PARTICIPANTS: These are the learning outcomes that we reviewed at the beginning of the day. Did we meet our objectives? Can we quickly identify key concepts? After today’s training are you able to: Add to your repertoire of effective strategies for ELL students? Identify key concepts? Apply concepts to your professional practice? Identify one idea you will use in your classrooms? Let’s share out how these concepts will be applicable to your professional practice, identify one idea.
  • Time: 5 minutes Handout # 1-U: Day One Reflection Trainers Notes: The reflection for Day One is found in the Handout Packet. Review concepts on posted agenda that were covered during the day’s training and solicit examples of responses from participants. Allow time for reflection and then provide an opportunity for participants to share their responses with the whole group if they wish. Before closing, be sure to address issues still in the Parking Lot and provide a preview of concepts to be covered in the Day Two training. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Today’s agenda is posted on the wall. Let’s review some of the concepts. Who would like to give an example of a concept that stood out the most you? In a few seconds you will have time to fill out the reflection page on your own. When you are finished please leave the reflection sheet on the center of the table. Tomorrow we will discuss more about language acquisition theory, and we will revisit the stages of language acquisition. Let’s make sure we address any concerns, questions or issues that are still left in the Parking Lot, or any other information that you need before we close for the day.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainer notes: Welcome everyone to Day Two Ask if anyone has any questions, comments or concerns regarding Day One Ensure that everyone is in agreement and that the Community Agreement activity is a positive, community-building experience. Go over any of the items that were posted in the “parking lot” or “bin”. Periodically review what has been posted and address as appropriate either during the training or before/after breaks. Review any housekeeping details with the group; location of bathrooms and fire exits, details on group meals, information specific to the workshop (i.e. announcements by the hosting organization.). Ensure all participants have their Day Two Handout Packet. Go through it briefly to point out the salient features that participants will need to access during the course of the training.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #2 Trainer notes: Review these Community Agreements with participants and add any other rules they feel are needed. Be sure that the group agrees to any proposed new rules before adding them. Get their agreement to honor these rules during the training. Post the rules on a chart in the room-with any additions-so they are always aware of them. TELL PARTICIPANTS: We have developed general ground rules or norms for how we will operate during this training, The rules you see listed here are intended to ensure that we have everyone’s participation and that we have a good teaching and learning environment. Are there any rules you see posted here that concern you? [ Allow time for responses.] Are there any rules that you would like to add? [With group’s permission, add to chart.] Can we agree to honor these rules during the training? Thank you!
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #2-A: Day Two Outcomes Trainer Notes : Review the outcomes for the day. Make sure that all participants have the day two outcomes handout (#2-A) from the Handout Packet. Address any concerns or issues that came up from yesterday’s reflections. TELL PARTICIPANTS: These are the learning outcomes for today. The outcomes are designed to assist you to identify key concepts, apply concepts to your professional practice, and identify ideas, transferring theory to practices and strategies that you can use in your classroom. Like yesterday, expect this day to also be a very participatory day. We will be engaged in hands on activities and be working in groups as we review culture and equity issues, language acquisition, language development, optimal classroom conditions and bridging theory to practice.
  • Time: 5 minutes Handout #2-B: Day Two Agenda Trainers notes: Welcome participants back to training. Make sure they have the agenda from the handout packet (#2-B) and or post on the wall. Review agenda sections, make sure they know that each section has various activities and group participation and interaction. Address issues from yesterday’s parking lot as they relate to the agenda. Review any Reflections from yesterday’s Reflection activity as they relate to the agenda. Review the agenda, including the approximate timing of breaks and meals, and the start and stop time. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Let’s review the agenda for our training for today. In each of the sections we will be actively engaged in hands on activities, group participation, and engaging conversations and dialogue about all learnings. Are there any questions and or clarifications about our agenda?
  • Timing: 10 minutes Handout #2-C: Educator Check-In Trainer Notes: This is a review of the previous session’s activities related to Culture and Equity. It is meant as a self-reflection activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: At your table, take 3-5 minutes and individually review the list of strategies; check off the items that you do on a consistent basis in your work. Identify three priority items that you would like to explore in order to improve your practice. Discuss your responses with a table partner.
  • Timing: 20 minutes Handout # 2-D, 2-E & 2-F Trainer notes: For this activity, it would be helpful to have the visual representations (Guiding Principles activities) from the previous session posted to refer to. Make sure everyone has the handouts for this activity. This activity may be conducted as a competition, with the first table group or team to finish winning. Review the Five Guiding Principles with the group, referring to the visual representations and the handout. Do the first indicator with the group as a sample, then allow participants to work together to match the indicators to the principles (in pairs, triads, or table groups). Provide a time reminder after participants have had 8-10 minutes to work. Bring the group back together to discuss responses, Remind participants that there is no one correct answer; rather, the activity is designed to encourage reflection. TELL PARTICIPANTS: For this activity, you will review the list of Indicators of Teaching for Culture & Equity from the previous activity (Handout #2-C). Your task is to compare the indicators to the Five Guiding Principles. Let’s do the first one together. I know the cultural background of each of my students and use this knowledge as a resource for instructional activities. Which Guiding Principle is a match for this indicator? Now work with a table partner to match the indicators to the principles. Remember that you have 8-10 minutes to work. Remember that there is no one correct answer; rather, the activity is designed to encourage reflection. Would anyone like to share?
  • Timing: 15 minutes Handout #2-G: Overview of Second Language Acquisition Theory Trainers Notes: Allow participants time to read the excerpt. You may want to mention that this is an excerpt from a publication by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory entitled Strategies and Resources for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners . This document is available in its entirety online. Refer participants to the Resource section of their materials packet. Signal participants when they are at 10 minutes to begin sharing. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Find and read the excerpt called Overview of Second Language Acquisition Theory . You will have 10 minutes. This reading summarizes some of the key concepts of Language Acquisition Theory that we have discussed or will be discussing in our session today. When you have finished reading the article, tell a partner: a) one thing from the reading that you thought was interesting or memorable; b) one thing from the reading that you would like to know more about. In the next activity we are going to apply what we have learned so far to create a poster. You may want to keep your Language Acquisition Reading handy to serve as a resource for this activity.
  • Timing: 30 minutes Trainers Notes: Provide participants with large poster paper and markers for this activity. Provide time reminders and remind groups to select a spokesperson/spokespeople to share their poster with the group. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Review the resources available in their Handout Packet (the reading they have just completed and the handouts from the previous session) to serve as support for the poster activity. Brainstorm and chart the possible topics for this activity: Input Hypothesis, Affective Filter, Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS), Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP). TELL PARTICIPANTS: With your table group, make a poster that illustrates the key concepts of Language Acquisition Theory shared in the presentation and the readings. We will share out the key concepts on each group’s poster. Be creative in conceptualizing and communicating these concepts.
  • Trainer notes: Move this slide as needed
  • Timing: 20 minutes Handout #2-H: Anticipation Guide Trainers Notes: Trainer will need to review the handout before the participants are asked to write responses to the first four statements on the Anticipation Guide provided in their Handout Packet #2-H. Participants should respond agree or disagree . Discuss the four statements with the entire group. Allow time for participants to respond to the two reflection questions on the Anticipation Guide. Have participants turn to an elbow partner and share their responses. Allow participants to share their ideas with the whole group. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please note that, before we begin our discussion of the Stages of Language Acquisition, you will be responding to an Anticipation Guide. This is one type of advance organizer that you can use in your own classroom to access students’ prior knowledge about a topic, engage them with content, and assess what they know before you begin an instructional sequence. Remember that you are approaching this Anticipation Guide with some prior knowledge because of the reading you did at the beginning of the session. Think about how that knowledge helped you respond to the questions. What connections can you make to the other aspects of Language Acquisition Theory we have discussed? Does accessing prior knowledge have any relationship to the Affective Filter? Now I will ask that you look at your Handout #2-H: Anticipation Guide. Please write responses to the first four statements on the Anticipation Guide handout. You should respond agree or disagree . Now let us discuss the four statements as an entire group. Next I will give you time to respond to the two reflection questions at the bottom portion of the Anticipation Guide. When you are finished you may turn to an elbow partner and share your responses until everyone is finished. Let us now share some of our responses with the entire group.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #2-Ha: Stages of Language Acquisition Trainers Notes: Introduce the concept of Stages of Language Acquisition. Refer to handout and receive the bullet points. TELL PARTICIPANTS: While you may not have experienced learning a second language, surely you have experience with learning your first! If you are a parent you have observed the process as you witnessed your own children acquire language. We can use our understanding of learning a first language to help us understand the process of learning a second language. The process includes predictable, sequential stages, through which learners progress at varied, individualized rates. The better we understand the process, the better prepared we will be to assist our students through each stage of language acquisition. In this section, we will look closely at each stage of language acquisition and the strategies that assist students in each stage. You might notice that throughout this training you are participating in some cooperative learning activities. The purpose is twofold. First the cooperative learning structures are designed to help you process the information you are learning. Second, cooperative learning is an important teaching strategy to use for English learners. The use of cooperative learning in the classroom increases the participation of all students and it provides authentic opportunities for ELL students to practice using their developing English skills in an academic setting with their peers.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainer notes: These stages focus on oral language production and did not take into consideration the other aspects of language such as active listening, reading and writing. Briefly discuss slides. More details and discussion about language acquisition levels will occur with subsequent slides. Focus the discussions on the ways educators can support the language learning for their students at each level. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell are the two theorists who first identified the stages of language development. They believe that language learners go through the same stages of acquisition whether the learner is acquiring their first, second, third, or subsequent language. We will briefly review the descriptors for each of the stages of language development. In twos or threes, please share examples of what you know about Krashen’s and Terrell’s four stages and how this information may apply to your classroom.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout # 2-I : Note-taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Trainer Notes: Note the addition of Stage 5 or Advanced Language Proficiency. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please take out Handout # 2-I , the note taking guide for stages of language acquisition. This guide will help you take notes on the key characteristics of each stage of language acquisition. Note the addition of a fifth stage. Even though a student may be at the advanced level, they are still learning the language. Discuss in your table groups what some of the learning needs are for a student at this level of proficiency. The current five stages of language development have evolved from Krashen and Terrell’s four stages of oral language development. These five stages take into consideration the fact that at the very early stages of language development the focus is on input and oral language. As production increases then all aspects of language development are included ( speaking, active listening, reading and writing). We are now going to look at each of these stages a little more in depth. Trainer notes: The table discussions for the following slides will focus on the strategies and activities (differentiated instruction, cooperative learning, varying questions and assignments, etc.) that a teacher may use to meet the needs of students at each level as opposed to the discussion with the previous set of slides that focused on students’ language development needs.
  • Timing: 3 minutes Handout # 2-I: Note-taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Trainer Notes: Briefly expand on the key points and emphasize the need for language “input”. Remind them of the handout #2-I for note taking during this time. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please make sure that you have your handout #2-I, the note taking guide for stages of language acquisition. This guide will help you take notes on the key characteristics of each stage of language acquisition. You may choose to use additional paper or another form for your note taking. Even though the language learner is not ready to produce verbally, it is of utmost importance that they receive abundant language input. Including them in all language activities will help increase their vocabulary. Once again, fill in your note-taking guide as we discuss the characteristics of each stage this will help for lesson planning.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #2-I: Note-taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Handout #2-Ia: Stage 1 Pre-Production Trainers Notes: Describe the characteristics of a student at this stage of language acquisition. Remind them of the Handout #2-I for note taking during this time. Review each bullet point under student behavior and teacher strategies. If time allows, solicit ideas from participants for possible teacher strategies before revealing the strategies on this slide. Do this by covering the teacher strategies side of this slide. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please make sure that you have your Handout #2-I, the Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition. This guide will help you take notes on the key characteristics of each stage of language acquisition. You may choose to use additional paper or another form for your note taking. Stage 1 – Pre-production. Often called “the Silent Period.” Student develops their receptive language. Student points to an item/picture or person. Performing an act such as standing up or opening the door. Gesturing or nodding to show agreement or disagreement. Student can point out text features such as title, author, table of contents, headings. Student can respond to a story by drawing pictures to show story sequence. Saying yes or no. This period lasts from 10 hours to 6 months, and the child incorporates approximately 500 words. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Turn to an elbow partner and discuss what teachers might do in their classrooms to address the language learning needs of students at the preproduction stage.
  • Timing: 3 minutes Handout # 2-I : Note-taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Trainer notes: Briefly describe and expand on the progress a learner may demonstrates at this stage. Remind them of the handout #2-I for note taking during this time. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please make sure that you have your handout #2-I, the note taking guide for stages of language acquisition. This guide will help you take notes on the key characteristics of each stage of language acquisition. You may choose to use additional paper or another form for note taking. At this stage the learner is also able to produce language in other forms such as creating drawings labeled with one or two words. They demonstrate more active listening by responding in one or two words. Language learners at this stage can do more than point and gesture to demonstrate comprehension of their new language. Their attempts to respond to questions and participate in conversations should be encouraged. In your table groups, make a list of activities and strategies that teachers can use to support the language learning needs of a student at this level include in your list how the student will benefit from each of these ideas.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #2-I: Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Handout #2-Ib: Stage 2 Early Production Trainers Notes: Describe the characteristics of a student at this stage of language acquisition. Remind them of the Handout #2-I for note taking during this time. Review each bullet point under student behavior and teacher strategies. If time allows, solicit ideas from participants for possible teacher strategies before revealing the strategies on this slide. Do this by covering the Teacher Strategies. Tell Participants: Please make sure that you have your Handout #2-I, the Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition. This guide will help you take notes on the key characteristics of each stage of language acquisition. You may choose to use additional paper or another form for your note taking. Stage 2 - Early Production. Students show they understand and are learning to respond by: Answering yes or no. Answering questions with one-word responses. Putting two or more words together such as “small square.” Using repetitive language patterns such as “May I go to the bathroom?” “My name is Juan.” This period lasts an additional six months, and the child incorporates 1,000 receptive/active words. TELL PARTICIPANTS: During this stage of language acquisition, the focus is on building oral vocabulary while introducing a variety of understandable texts in English. We don’t wait until students are orally proficient in English to start making connections to text. Remember that students pass through each stage at their own rate and depending on many factors, especially their level of literacy in their first language. At all stages of language acquisition, classroom activities should include time to practice language structures.
  • Timing: 10 minutes Handout # 2-J: Round Robin Review on the First Two Stages of Language Acquisition Trainers Notes: Refer to handout #2-J. Participants will participate in a cooperative learning structure called Round Robin Review. Participants will generate oral responses to review questions. Their answers will be recorded by a member of their table group. Begin to model the activity by asking the participants a question and having someone respond in a complete sentence. Appoint a recorder for your table. This person will write down answers for your group. Go around the table, giving each person an opportunity to answer one of the questions. When it is your turn, you can choose to add to the previous person’s response or answer the next question. Keep going around the table until all the questions are answered. Decide who will share your table’s answers with the whole group. TELL PARTICIPANTS: As a teacher/educator in a classroom, you would read each question and elicit responses from the group before having them practice this structure in the cooperative group structure. Now we will participate in a cooperative learning structure that will demonstrate a way that students can practice asking and answering questions. Please turn to Handout # 2-J, Round Robin Review, and quickly read through the description of the activity. Appoint a recorder for your table. This person will write down answers for your group. Go around the table, giving each person an opportunity to answer one of the questions. When it is your turn, you can choose to add to the previous person’s response or answer the next question. Keep going around the table until all the questions are answered. Decide who will share your table’s answers with the whole group.
  • Timing: 3 minutes Handout # 2-I: Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Trainers Notes: Emphasize with participants the critical learning needs of this stage. Remind them of the Handout #2-I for note taking during this time. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please make sure that you have your Handout #2-I, the Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition. This guide will help you take notes on the key characteristics of each stage of language acquisition. You may choose to use additional paper or another form for your note taking. Students often remain in this stage for several years. Speech patterns may “fossilize”— that is, errors in grammar sometimes remain in the learner’s speech. Sometimes teachers are fooled or misguided by the level of oral fluency students have at this stage. They expect the academic performance of these students to reflect their oral fluency. When worksheets, written assignments, and work in reading comprehension are not completed to the level of that of native speakers, teachers often fault the student saying, “They can do it if they just try harder!” This is one of the most interesting and critical stages of language learning. Even though the oral language development is beginning to sound more fluent and the learner may actively participate in conversations, they have more difficulty with reading comprehension and written language than what their verbal abilities would indicate. In order for the language learner to progress, he/she needs continual support and explicit instruction. In your table groups, make a list of activities and strategies that teachers can use to support the language learning needs of a student at this level; include in your list how the student will benefit from each of these ideas.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #2-I: Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Handout #2-Ic: Stage 3 Speech Emergence Trainers Notes: Refer to handout #2-Ic. Describe the characteristics of a student at this stage of language acquisition. Review each bullet point under student behavior and teacher strategies. Chart paper and pens will be necessary. Remind participants of the Handout #2-I for note taking during this time. If time allows, solicit ideas from participants for possible educator strategies before revealing the strategies on this slide. Do this by covering the Teacher Strategies side of the slide. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please make sure that you have your Handout #2-I, the Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition. Stage 3 - Speech Emergence. Students show that they can use the language to communicate by: Using three or more words and short phrases such as, “I Like Pizza.” Using beginning dialog. Using full simple sentences such as “there are four pencils.” This period can last from one to three years. This is the stage of language development where social language (often called playground language) begins to approximate that of native English speaking students. It can cause some problems in the classroom because though the student may sound like they speak English fluently, their use of academic language may still be limited. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Think-Write-Pair-Share We are going to take a few moments to do a “quick write.” I would like you to write some of your thoughts about some of the challenges that a student at this level of language acquisition might face in a classroom and what are some strategies that educators could use to support them in their learning? Turn to an elbow partner and share your thoughts.
  • Timing: 3 minutes Handout # 2-I: Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Trainers Notes: Emphasize to participants that in addition to oral language proficiency demonstrated by the language learner, they may continue to have instructional needs in the area of complex language structures, reading comprehension and writing. Remind participants of the Handout #2-I for note taking during this time. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please make sure that you have your Handout #2-I, the Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition. At this stage the language learner may demonstrate considerable language proficiency in all areas (speaking, listening, reading, and writing). But they would benefit from continued language instruction in complex language structures, grammar, reading comprehension and writing. In your table groups, make a list of activities and strategies that teachers can use to support the language learning needs of a student at this level; include in your list how the student will benefit from each of these ideas. What table would you like to share out?
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #2-I: Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Handout #2-Id: Stage 4 Intermediate Language Proficiency Trainers Notes: Refer to handout #2-Id. Describe the characteristics of a student at this stage of language acquisition. Review each bullet point under student behavior and teacher strategies. Remind them of the Handout #2-I for note taking during this time. If time allows, solicit ideas from participants for possible teacher strategies before revealing the strategies on this slide. Do this by covering the Teacher Strategies side of the slide. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please make sure that you have your Handout #2-I, the Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition. This guide will help you to take notes on the key characteristics of each stage of language acquisition. You may choose to use additional paper or another form of note taking. Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency. Use complex sentence structure and advanced content vocabulary. Can work at grade level with support and have a vocabulary of 6,000 active words. Writing will be more advanced, but may contain many errors. Students may plateau at this stage if they are not provided instruction that supports developing their skills in cognitive academic language. What might this “LOOK” like in the classroom? Discuss how this would play out with a student behavior and a corresponding teacher strategy? Please discuss at your table and/or let us together share out.
  • Timing: 3 minutes Handout # 2-I: Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Trainers Notes: Make note that the language learner at this stage may still need fine tuning. TELL PARTICIPANTS: The language learner at this stage has language development needs similar to their native speaking peers. They still may need some support with more complex structures and understanding idioms. In your table groups, make a list of activities and strategies that teachers can use to support the language learning needs of a student at this level; include in your list how the student will benefit from each of these ideas.
  • Timing: 15 minutes Handout # 2-I: Note Taking Guide for Stages of Language Acquisition Trainers Notes: There is additional time allowed on this slide to permit participants to review their Note Taking Guide and ensure that it is complete for all five stages. Circulate through the room to provide assistance and go back to previous slides if participants request information they may have missed. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Before we start Stage 5: Advanced Fluency, note that there will be time for all of you to review your Note Taking Guide and for everyone to make sure that it is complete. This will also be the time for you to make sure it is complete. Stage 5: Advanced Fluency requires 5-10 years to achieve academic proficiency. Students may demonstrate near native ability in their second language. May still need some support in research and composition activities. Now you will have time to review your Note Taking Guide to ensure that it is complete and accurate before we move to the next activity. You may need to refer to the information on your notes in order to complete the next activity. Haynes, J. (2005). Stages of Language Acquisition . Everything ESL. Available at http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/language_stages.php
  • Timing 30 minutes Handout #2-K, 2-Ka-d, 2-L, 2-M, 2-N, 2-Na: Stages of Language Acquisition Charts, Case Study/Student Profiles, Teacher Profiles, Answer Sheet, Answer Key. Trainers Notes: Participants will work in pairs to read over the student and teacher profiles in the Participants’ Packet. First, they will determine the level of language acquisition for each student. Then, they will select the teacher profile that would best support that student in his/her language development. Ask for volunteers to share answers. Answers to exercise: Lee – Stage 1 – Mr. Jones Gazim – Stage 2 – Ms. Garcia Jose – Stage 3 – Mr. Richford Esperanza – Stage 4 – Mrs. Rubio TELL PARTICIPANTS: There are several pages in your Handout Packet you will use for the next activity. You will find case studies with profiles of students at various stages, a grid with the stages of language acquisition, and profiles of teachers describing classroom strategies and best practices for supporting language learners at the various levels of acquisition. Your task is to match the teacher (more specifically, the strategies and practices), to the student (or specific stage of language acquisition) who would most benefit from those strategies. Please refer back to your Note Taking Guide and your Stages of Language Acquisition Handout.
  • Facilitator notes: Move or delete as needed
  • Time: 10 minutes Handout # 2-O: Stand and Deliver Trainers Notes: Be sure to have chart paper and pens available for this activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Your groups will have about four minutes to make your lists. At the end of the four minutes, each group will count the number of items on their lists. The group that has the most entries on their list will read their list to the group. If you or the group wishes, have other participants share items that have not yet been shared.
  • Timing: 15 minutes Handout #2-P: Dialogue Journal Trainers Notes: This activity will serve as a transition from the Theories of Second Language Acquisition to the applications of those theories to educator practice. In addition to focusing participants on the need for effective instructional practices, this activity also allows them opportunity to experience the Dialogue Journal, a practice they can apply in their own classrooms. TELL PARTICIPANTS: In this activity we are going to use a Dialogue Journal to reflect on the application of Second Language Acquisition theories to our classroom practice. Read the journal entry on Handout #2-P and write a response in the space provided. As you read and respond, consider the feelings of the writer in this situation. What about her students? What connections can you make to the theories and principles we have discussed together? To your own experience? Share those connections in your written response. Is there anyone who would like to share their response with the group?
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: If participants are willing to share their responses to the Dialogue Journal activity, these will serve as an effective segue into the importance of creating a positive classroom environment. Principle 3 comes from the Five Guiding Principles presented in Day One. The principle states: Design and implement equitable opportunities that maximize student learning through full participation, interaction, and empowerment. If these are not posted around the room, please ask participants to recall them. They may take out their materials from the first day so give them time for this. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Krashen (1994) explains how a person’s ability to learn language is influenced by the emotional climate of his environment. Krashen conceptualized this emotional condition as an affective filter , which either blocks input or allows it to reach the Language Acquisition Device in the learner’s brain. The following elements are part of the affective filter: Anxiety: The lower the anxiety students feel about using the second language, the better they tend to acquire language. Motivation: High motivation and interaction assist in more second language acquisition. Self-confidence: The more self-confident students are, the better they tend to acquire language. The way that classrooms are organized, both socially and physically, affects student learning. (Social refers to the ways that teachers organize learning, for example, whole class, small groups; physical refers to the ways that teachers organize desks, tables, chairs, furniture.) The classroom “climate” is equally as important. (What is the culture and climate of the classroom? Does the classroom have a friendly environment? Is collaboration valued?) This section will explore the ways in which teachers can set up optimal classroom conditions that address the ways we support English language learners in the classroom.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Describe the elements of a positive classroom environment. Explain to participants that they will have an opportunity to share their ideas related to positive classroom conditions in the Carousel Activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: According to the work of O’Malley and Chamot (1990), successful language learners exhibit risk-taking behaviors in their learning processes. The importance, therefore, of creating an environment that encourages risk-taking must not be underestimated. We create a safe learning environment by affirming approximations, student attempts to use language, whether or not they are absolutely correct. We never allow students to tease or berate one another for their accent or pronunciation, and we eliminate sarcasm and caustic remarks from our own interactions with students. The focus should always be on communicative competence. To create a supportive climate where it is safe to take risks, we: Teach, model, and expect respectful behaviors. Correct errors in subtle, respectful ways, i.e., repeating response using correct forms. In order to optimize opportunities to use language in meaningful, nonthreatening ways, we: Provide opportunities for student-centered activities and peer interactions to develop English language skills. Vary grouping configurations in class providing for cooperative learning as well as individual learning. In order to affirm students’ language and culture, we: Provide abundant opportunities for students to share their culture and knowledge of the world. Recognize that native language is inextricably tied to personal identity — never forbid the use of the native language as a vehicle for personal communication. Recognize that a student’s native language is an asset, a tool for communication and learning that can be used to access prior knowledge and develop new conceptual understanding. Trainers Notes: Ask participants to contribute other ideas. Acknowledge participants’ ideas.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Describe the elements of a positive classroom environment. Explain to participants that they will have an opportunity to share their ideas related to positive classroom conditions in the Carousel Activity. TELL PARTICIPANTS: It is important to hold high expectations of our English language learners. High expectations are manifested by: Recognizing that a student’s stage of language proficiency is not an indicator of intelligence or potential. Ensure that all students have access to challenging academic standards that are appropriate to their age and grade level. High expectations for language learners grow out of our understanding that our students’ academic potential is not measured by their current level of language acquisition. They may know many things that they are not able to articulate in their second language. Or, they may have missed instruction in critical content concepts while they were busy learning to speak their second language. Differentiate instruction for student’s level of language acquisition. All students do not learn in the same way at the same time — recognize and plan for individual differences. Although the stages of language acquisition are relatively predictable, students may progress through those stages at different rates based on their educational background, aptitude, and motivation. Differentiated instruction does not mean “watered down” curriculum. The law requires that language learners are provided with access to the same challenging academic standards as their peers. The difference is the design of activities and in amount of support provided for students as instruction is delivered. Develop opportunities for families to participate in the educational process in an equal/equitable manner. Explore ways to open communication and dialogue with families. Provide classes that assist adult family members with learning English, citizenship, and parenting skills. Provide translated material or bilingual personnel. Invite family members into the classroom and provide equal/equitable access for hands-on experiences to understand classroom expectations on curriculum and process. Make learning materials available for check-out.
  • Timing: 20 minutes to record ideas, 10 minutes to share and explain Handout #2-Pa: Carousel Activity Trainers Notes: Refer to directions on handout #2-Pa. Make sure all participants have a handout in front of them. You can choose to write these directions on poster paper prior to the training of this activity. This activity requires that the posters or chart paper to be used at each station be prepared in advance with the titles of the six (6) elements of Positive Classroom Conditions. Create a supportive climate where it is safe to take risks. Optimize opportunities to use language in meaningful, non-threatening ways. Affirm students’ language and culture. That it is demonstrative of equal and equity access for all students. Maintain high expectations. Differentiate instruction for student’s level of language acquisition. Develop opportunities for families to participate in the educational process. Recognizes that families come in all kinds of groupings. Could be extended, could be Dad only or Mom only, or two dads two moms, etc. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please take out Handout #2-Pa: Carousel Activity. We are going to do a Carousel activity to generate ideas for what the school and the classroom teacher can do to create Positive Classroom Conditions for English language learners. Each poster represents one of the six elements of Positive Classroom Conditions. When your group gets to your assigned poster, begin by describing that element of Positive Classroom Conditions. Then begin a list for strategies or ideas that teachers and schools can do to create Positive Classroom Conditions (example: recognize that a student’s stage of language proficiency is not an indicator of intelligence or potential.) When you hear the signal to switch, you will move to the next poster. You do not have to add to the description of that element, but you will add to the list of ideas for creating positive conditions. We are going to number off in 5’s (point to participants and count, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.) Ones, you will start at poster one, twos at poster two, etc. Trainers Notes: Have each group bring the pen with them as they move from group to group. This way if someone has a question about the notes that another group made, it will be easier to track down who wrote it so that they could explain it. Give participants five minutes at the first poster as they have to write the descriptor and the strategies/ideas. Give them three minutes at the next poster. If you find that they don’t need three minutes, then reduce the time for each subsequent poster. Groups will return to the poster where they began this activity in order to explain/describe the content to the group. Allow about two minutes per poster for explanation and clarifying questions.
  • Trainer notes: Move this slide as needed
  • Timing: 15 minutes Handout #2-Q: I Already Do This! Trainers Notes: Make sure that everyone has the Handout #2-Q from the packet. Reinforce with them that they already are doing many positive things in their classroom to promote positive classroom conditions for English language learners. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please take out the “I Already Do This” activity in the Handout Packet #2-Q. Record what you already are doing in your classrooms to create positive classrooms conditions for English language learners. We (the trainers) will give you time to complete the writing on what you already do in your classrooms to set positive conditions for ELLs. When you are finished, please share out in your table groups. In closing of this activity, we (the trainers) want to reiterate the importance of enhancing the language learning environment by being mindful of these optimal classroom conditions.
  • Timing: 30 minutes Handout #2-R: Class Profile Activity Trainers Notes: This activity is the application of today’s concepts to practice. Participants will use what they know about their own students and apply the Stages of Language Acquisition to create a Class Profile. This profile will serve as the audience for the lesson plan they will develop in the next session. When participants have completed their profiles, divide them by grade levels or specialty areas to allow them to share their profiles. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Use the handout provided to create a Class Profile based on what you know about your students. If you are not currently working in the classroom, think about a classroom you are familiar with. In addition to the Stages of Language Acquisition, give consideration to the other unique needs of your students (culture, learning styles, and special abilities.) Include the evidence you are using to determine students’ stages of language acquisition, including assessments, language proficiency measures, observations, class work, etc. Compare your Class Profile with the others in your group. Are they similar or different? What might that mean for the lesson planning activity you will be doing tomorrow?
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Review the learning outcomes that were reviewed at the beginning of the day—they were provided for participants at the beginning of the day’s training. Participants should be able to identify one idea they will use in their classrooms. Review slide 83. TELL PARTICIPANTS: These are the learning outcomes that were reviewed as a group at the beginning of the day. Did we meet our objectives? After today’s training are you able to: Add to your repertoire of effective strategies for ELL students? Identify key concepts? Apply concepts to your professional practice? Identify one idea you will use in your classrooms? Let’s share out some of these targeted learnings.
  • Timing: 15 minutes Handout #2-S: Day One Reflection Trainers Notes: The reflection for Day Two is found in the Handout Packet. Review concepts on posted agenda that were covered during the day’s training and solicit examples of responses from participants. Allow time for reflection and then provide an opportunity for participants to share their responses with the whole group if they wish. Before closing, be sure to address issues still in the Parking Lot and provide a preview of concepts to be covered in the Day Three training. TELL PARTICIPNTS: Today’s agenda is posted on the wall. Let’s review some of the concepts. Who would like to give an example of a concept that stood out the most. In a few seconds you will have time to fill out the refection page on your own. When you are finished please leave on the center of the table. Tomorrow we will discuss promising practices and strategies in English language development for English language learners. We will spend time on lesson planning and putting theory to practice on lesson template analysis. Before we close, let’s make sure we address any issues that are still left on the Parking Lot, or any other information they you need.
  • Timing: 5 minutes (slides 83-85) Trainer notes: Review norms. Read agenda. Review any housekeeping details if needed. Review any Parking Lot issues from yesterday.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #3 Trainers Notes: Review these Community Agreements with participants and add any other rules they feel are needed. Be sure that the group agrees to any proposed new rules before adding them. Get their agreement to honor these rules during the training. Post the rules on a chart in the room—with any additions—so they are always aware of them. TELL PARTICIPANTS: We have developed general ground rules or norms for how we will operate during this training, The rules you see listed here are intended to ensure that we have everyone’s participation and that we have a good teaching and learning environment. Are there any rules you see posted here that concern you? [ Allow time for responses.] Are there any rules that you would like to add? [With group’s permission, add to chart.] Can we agree to honor these rules during the training? Thank you!
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #3-A: Day Three Outcomes Trainers Notes: Review the outcomes for the day. Make sure that all participants have the day three outcomes Handout (#3-B) from Handout Packet. Address any concerns or issues that came up from yesterday’s reflections. TELL PARTICIPANTS: These are the learning outcomes for today. The outcomes are designed to assist you to identify key concepts, apply concepts to your professional practice, and identify ideas, practices and strategies that you can use in your classroom. We will be working in groups of two or three to develop lessons that are reflective of what we learned about Culture, Equity and Language Acquisition and theory. Like yesterday, expect this day to also be a very participatory day. We will be engaged in hands-on activities and be working in groups as we examine critical elements of instructional design to promote English language development, theories of second language acquisition to classroom practice. Plus reviewing and developing lesson plans for ELLs reflecting Culture, Equity and Language Acquisition.
  • Time: 5 minutes Handout #3-B: Day Three Agenda Trainers Notes: Welcome participants back to training. Make sure they have the agenda from the Handout Packet (#3-B) and/or post on the wall. Review agenda sections; make sure they know that each section has various activities and group participation and interactions. Address issues from yesterday’s Parking Lot as they relate to the agenda. Review any reflections from yesterday’s Reflection activity as they relate to the agenda for today. Review the agenda, including the approximate timing of breaks and meals, and the start and stop time. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Let’s review the agenda for our training for today. In each of the sections we will be actively engaged in hands-on activities, group participation, and engaging conversations and dialogue and interactions about all learnings. Are there any questions and or clarifications about today’s agenda?
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Share quote and solicit comments. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Today we will be discussing promising practices in English language development. We will be discussing five concepts that are important for teachers to address in planning lessons for English language development. All of these are intended to support ELL students in developing academic language. This is the language that they will need to succeed in our schools. You will have several opportunities to develop and plan lessons using these five concepts as well as the stages of language acquisition from the past two days.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #3-C: English Language Development Lesson Template Activity Trainers Notes: This template will serve as an introduction to the English Language Development – Theory to Practice section. Call participants attention to the categories, as these represent the major concepts that will be presented in this session. TELL PARTICIPANTS: We have spent some time becoming familiar with the prerequisites for designing instruction for English language learners: Culture and Equity and English Language Acquisition Theories. We have also taken time to consider the importance of classroom conditions to successful instructional practice. We have created a class profile in order to better understand the unique needs of the ELL students we serve. Now it is time to apply those understandings to designing instruction for English language learners. There are a number of ways to approach effective instruction; however, the needs of English language learners are unique and require special attention to some specific concepts of instructional design and delivery. These are the five we will consider together: Comprehensible Input-concept 1 Scaffolding Instruction-concept 2 Language Structures and Functions-concept 3 Vocabulary Development-concept 4 Metacognitive Strategies-concept 5
  • Timing: 20 minutes Handout #3-D: English Language Development Lesson Template Analysis Trainers Notes: Make sure the lesson template is reviewed in Handout Packet (#3-D), then call participants’ attention to the six concepts listed under the component section of the template, as these represent the major concepts that will be presented in this session. Provide participants with 10-15 minutes to answer the questions provided in the handout, then 5-10 minutes for participants to share their responses with the group. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Please make sure you have the handout from the packet (#3-D) and note the concepts on the left side of the lesson template under the component section. We will be reviewing these in this lesson; they are: Comprehensible Input; Language Structures and Functions; Vocabulary Development/Grouping Strategies; and Metacognitive Strategies. You will have 10-15 minutes to respond to the questions in your handout (#3D). We (the trainers) will monitor while you work and we will check in with you in ten minutes to see if we are ready to share responses with the group.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Review Krashen’s Input Hypothesis from day one. Provide Handout #1-P for a review of (i+1) Input plus First Language to make comprehensible. Reminding participants of the purpose for providing comprehensible input. TELL PARTICIPANTS: In the review of Krashen’s Input Hypothesis from day one, we discussed several major distinct strategies for ensuring that comprehensible input is being structured into language. In the next slide, we will review several of these strategies. Remember that English language learners will have more success with language if input is made continuously comprehensible and meaningful to them. In the next slide, we will review several specific researched based strategies.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Refer to participants’ contributions (Lesson Plan Analysis) and build on them as much as possible. Add to participants’ ideas from the list above if necessary and solicit additional ideas. Provide examples of idiomatic speech and figurative language. Invite participants to share their own examples. TELL PARTICIPANTS: In this slide, it lists some strategies for Comprehensible Input. Modeling is saying and doing exactly what needs to be done by using visuals and hands-on activities, coupled with a level of vocabulary appropriate for ELL students. Demonstrations are excellent for ELL students at all levels of Language acquisition stages. A teacher or other students can demonstrate by performing, showing, drawing with opportunities to process content in an active and hands-on way. The key is teacher or student delivery that is context-rich based, and full of meaningful clues. Hands-on activities that engage ELL students and provide them with instructional support; as do a variety of visuals — pictures, posters, transparencies, videos, etc. Research suggests that gestures help considerably in language and content acquisition. Visuals, graphics and realia provide for student-teacher, student-student interaction such as cooperative learning, pairings, stand-up activities for content conversations. They also provide for excellent text scaffolding, pre-reading activities, mini-lessons, and self-editing. Visuals, graphics and realia also provide for opportunities to process content, and active manipulation of information. These are all methods and strategies of designing comprehensible instruction for all levels of English language learners for literacy/language acquisition.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Refer to participants’ contributions (Lesson Plan Analysis) and build on them as much as possible. Add to participants’ ideas from the list above if necessary and solicit additional ideas. Provide examples of idiomatic speech and figurative language. Invite participants to share their own examples. TELL PARTICIPANTS: In this slide, it lists some strategies for Comprehensible Input. Modeling is saying and doing exactly what needs to be done by using visuals and hands-on activities, coupled with a level of vocabulary appropriate for ELL students. Demonstrations are excellent for ELL students at all levels of Language acquisition stages. A teacher or other students can demonstrate by performing, showing, drawing with opportunities to process content in an active and hands-on way. The key is teacher or student delivery that is context-rich based, and full of meaningful clues. Hands-on activities that engage ELL students and provide them with instructional support; as do a variety of visuals — pictures, posters, transparencies, videos, etc. Research shows that gestures help considerably in language and content acquisition. Visuals, graphics and realia provide for student-teacher, student-student interaction such as cooperative learning, pairings, stand-up activities for content conversations. They also provide for excellent text scaffolding, pre-reading activities, mini-lessons, and self-editing. Visuals, graphics and realia also provide for opportunities to process content, and active manipulation of information. These are all methods and strategies of designing comprehensible instruction for all levels of English language learners for literacy/language acquisition.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Make connections to Vygotsky and the Zone of Proximal Development, focusing on the idea that scaffolding strategies are any strategies that support students in performing academic tasks they could not otherwise perform or could not yet perform independently. Review this concept 2 on scaffolding by referring to graphic representation charts and graphic organizers. Trainer can refer to the graphic chart Handout (#3-F) as an example. TELL PARTICIPANTS: The concept of scaffolding instruction is based on Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, which refers to: The instructional supports that teachers/educators put in place to provide language learners with access to challenging academic content. Scaffolding may refer to a sequence of instructional activities, moving students to increasing levels of independence as they develop both language and content area understanding. The term scaffolding comes from the use of temporary structures in construction that are put up while a particular portion of a building is constructed, then taken down and/or moved to another section to allow construction to continue. In the same way, we support students through the Zone of Proximal Development by providing temporary supports that assist them in performing complex academic tasks until they are able to perform those tasks independently. Now let us review the next slide for specific examples of some temporary structures (scaffolding) and temporary supports (zone of proximal development).
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: This is an example of a sequence for scaffolding writing instruction. Be sure that participants are able to see the progressive release of responsibility and the increased language demands, as each task in the sequence requires students to produce more language on their own. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Writing is the language modality that presents most difficulty for most language learners because it is both structured and formal. With scaffolded writing tasks, ELL students will experience increased success in expressing themselves through written English. As students experience success with scaffolded writing tasks, they will gain confidence to continue writing. What connections can you make here to the Classroom Conditions we discussed yesterday? Additional scaffolding strategies: Ensure that academic tasks are clearly and carefully explained. Multi-step directions are scaffolded to promote student success. Graphic Organizers provide visual representations of abstract concepts. Shared reading/writing allows students to participate in non-threatening literacy experiences. TPR, (total physical response) activities engage students with language even before they are able to speak. Think-aloud in a non-threatening optimal condition, and provide the ELL student with self-monitoring and self-assessment strategies.
  • Timing: 20 minutes Handout # 3-E, #3-Ea: Scaffolded Writing Trainers Notes: Discuss how this sequence supports language learners as they begin to write in English, reminding participants that writing is the most difficult language modality. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Look at the model scaffolded writing activity. Your task for this activity is to use the model to create a scaffolded writing activity of your own. Before you begin, think about the Stages of Language Acquisition we discussed yesterday. At what stage of language acquisition could an ELL student, with teacher assistance ( remember the definition of scaffolding ), complete an activity like this one? Follow the instructions for the Scaffolded Writing Activity. When you are finished, we will share with a table partner. Discuss with your table partner: How can this activity be adapted for students at different stages of language acquisition?
  • Trainer Notes: Move this slide as needed
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Review the language structures and functions strategies. Refer back to the opening activity: Lesson Template Analysis. Participants may want to add to their notes as we discuss this component. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Speaking and listening are as important as reading and writing, and language learners need support in all four modalities as they learn the specific structures of English. Recent research by Diane August (2003) found that a very small percentage of an ELL student’s day is spent on academic talk (2%). Thus, if ELLs are to gain the academic language that they will need to succeed in school, lessons must be deliberately planned to include explicit teaching of those skills. We can define language functions as the things we do with language — describing, comparing, analyzing. Language structures are the syntax we use to carry out language functions. (What color is the ____ ? It is _____.)
  • Timing: 25 minutes Trainers Notes: These are examples of language functions (things we DO with language.) In this activity, participants will identify language structures that correspond to these language functions. TELL PARTICIPANTS: According to Herrel and Jordan (2004), teachers plan for language development when they: Write both content and language objectives. Identify and model problematic structures. Plan an instructional sequence in which language functions, structures, and vocabulary are modeled and practiced. Student progress is documented and assessed. In this activity, we will practice identifying language structures that need to be explicitly taught in our lessons. We will do this by examining language functions and writing corresponding language structures. Working in pairs or triads, choose five of the language functions listed on your handout and write corresponding language structures in the space provided. You will need to be able to do this when you develop your lesson plans this afternoon, so keep this activity in a safe place to refer to later.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #3-F: Language Framework Planning Trainers Notes: This slide contains the instructions for the activity, and the Kindergarten Lesson Language Framework is on the following slide. Participants may refer to their handout for the necessary information. TELL PARTICIPANTS: The table on the following slide is an example of Language Framework Planning for a Kindergarten sorting lesson from 50 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (Herrel & Jordan, 2004, p. 52). Teachers who plan for language development in content lessons provide students with the language they need to access content concepts and provide opportunities for language development through content area instruction. In table groups, discuss what is similar/different in this lesson from the way that you usually plan for math lessons (hint: language functions and structures are explicitly included in this lesson). Ask table groups to share ideas. Close this activity by asking volunteers to share how this might be adapted for different grade levels.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Handout #3-F: Language Framework Planning Trainers Notes: This slide contains the instructions for the activity, and the Kindergarten Lesson Language Framework is on the following slide. Participants may refer to their handout for the necessary information. TELL PARTICIPANTS: The table on the following slide is an example of Language Framework Planning for a Kindergarten sorting lesson from 50 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (Herrel & Jordan, 2004, p. 52). Teachers who plan for language development in content lessons provide students with the language they need to access content concepts and provide opportunities for language development through content area instruction. In table groups, discuss what is similar/different in this lesson from the way that you usually plan for math lessons (hint: language functions and structures are explicitly included in this lesson). Ask table groups to share ideas. Close this activity by asking volunteers to share how this might be adapted for different grade levels.
  • Timing: 5 minutes TELL PARTICIPANTS: There are three types of vocabulary instruction that are critical to the academic success of language learners: Content vocabulary — the words students need to learn in order to understand content concepts. These are the key vocabulary words that all students must learn in each content area. Academic vocabulary — the words students need to understand in order to complete academic tasks, i.e., define, summarize, compare. See Echavarria, Vogt & Short, 2004. Functional vocabulary — the English words that students need to understand in order to make sense of a text. These words are more general and more closely related to students’ levels of language development, i.e., the use of adjectives in science, prepositions in math. Concept 1 discusses the importance of Vocabulary Development.
  • Timing: 10 minutes Trainers Notes: Review the Vocabulary Development Strategies. This slide includes two suggestions for participants. In the next activity, participants will share ideas for more vocabulary development strategies. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Thematic instruction and content integration: Vocabulary must be taught in the context of students’ own speaking, reading and writing. “There is little benefit to selecting 25 to 30 isolated vocabulary words and asking ELLs to copy them from the board and look up their definitions in the dictionary.” (Echavarria, et. al., 2004). While the dictionary is an important resource for students to use, the words must have context and meaning beyond a dictionary definition in order for students to truly own them. Thematic instruction and content integration provide an appropriate vehicle for building vocabulary in context. Word analysis: Language learners need specific strategies for word analysis in order to move toward independence in their vocabulary development. Word analysis for language learners should focus on English morphemes and their meanings, as well as the following word parts: - roots - prefixes - suffixes Teachers can employ a wide variety of methods to assist language learners in vocabulary development. Can you think of more?
  • Trainers Notes: Review the Vocabulary Development Strategies. This slide includes two suggestions for participants. In the next activity, participants will share ideas for more vocabulary development strategies. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Thematic instruction and content integration: Vocabulary must be taught in the context of students’ own speaking, reading and writing. “There is little benefit to selecting 25 to 30 isolated vocabulary words and asking ELLs to copy them from the board and look up their definitions in the dictionary.” (Echavarria, et. al., 2004). While the dictionary is an important resource for students to use, the words must have context and meaning beyond a dictionary definition in order for students to truly own them. Thematic instruction and content integration provide an appropriate vehicle for building vocabulary in context. Word analysis: Language learners need specific strategies for word analysis in order to move toward independence in their vocabulary development. Word analysis for language learners should focus on English morphemes and their meanings, as well as the following word parts: - roots - prefixes - suffixes Teachers can employ a wide variety of methods to assist language learners in vocabulary development. Can you think of more?
  • Timing: 15 minutes Handout #3-G: Give One-Get One Trainers Notes: Allow 10 minutes for the exchange. Invite participants to share out the ones they felt were particularly good ideas. Tell participants to keep these in mind as we continue the discussion on English Language Development. Here is a list of additional vocabulary development strategies that can be used to supplement the participants’ contributions if needed: - Word walls - Word sorts - Concept maps - Manipulatives - Songs, poems, chants - Total Physical Response (TPR) - Games - Modeling - Role playing - Personal dictionaries - Dictionary and thesaurus activities TELL PARTICIPANTS Identify three activities that you already do that support language development in their classroom and jot these down in the Give One, Get One answer sheet in your Handout Packet. You will have 10 minutes for the exchange. Please share out the ones that are particularly good ideas. Keep these strategies in mind as we continue the discussion on English Language Development.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainer Notes: Research supports the role of metacognition (thinking about thinking) and the effective use of metacognitive strategies in second language learning. The success of English language learners in academic settings can be linked to their ability to effectively apply specific metacognitive strategies to the process of learning language. TELL PARTICIPANTS: “ Metacognition”, or reflecting on one’s own thinking and learning, is the hallmark of the successful learner. The goal of learning strategies instruction is to assist students in developing awareness of their own metacognition and this control of their own learning. Learners who are aware of their own learning processes, strategies, and preferences are able to regulate their learning endeavors to meet their own goals. In other words, they become increasingly independent and self-regulated learners.” (Chamot, Barnhardt, El-Dinary & Robbins, 1999.) In the next slide we will examine specific metacognitive strategies.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Be sure to emphasize the distinction between teaching strategies and learning strategies. Refer participants to the Learning Strategies Handbook by Anna Uhl Chamot, Sarah Barnhardt, Pamela Beard El-Dinary, and Jill Robbins to find ideas and activities for the explicit teaching of metacognitive strategies. Make sure that these names and titles are written on chart paper so that participants can copy the information. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Metacognitive strategies must be explicitly taught and modeled, with frequent opportunities to practice their application in a variety of contexts. Strategies that specifically support language development include those listed on this slide. These strategies specifically support language development for English language learners. Metacognition is often referred to as “thinking about how you’re thinking.” In classrooms, we can model metacognition through “think-alouds.” For example, we might say: ………… .hmm, let me see. I don’t know how to read that word or sentence. But I know that the pictures might help me. Okay…. I see a boat in the water….this word has a “b” and a “t”…. it must be the word boat….oh and it is in the water….yeah I know the word and the sentence… The boat is in the water! Can you think of when you have used the “think-aloud” strategy with your students? Who would like to share with the group?
  • Timing: 30 minutes Trainers Notes: Distribute chart paper (one per table.) Assign one of the concepts to each table (comprehensible input; scaffolded instruction; language structure and functions; vocabulary development; metacognitive strategies.) TELL PARTICIPANTS: Discuss how the assigned concept might be translated into a tree diagram. Draw a tree diagram on chart paper. Select a reporter to share out with the whole group. Trainers Notes: Encourage participants to be creative. (think of different types of trees, make one up.) Circulate to provide support and assistance as needed. Allow 15-20 minutes for participants to work on their posters, Allow three minutes (per table) for each group to present and explain their chart. This is an assessment of what they know about these concepts! Carefully observe participants’ products to assess levels of understanding in each area to adjust presentation of concepts as needed. REMEMBER—Be sure to refer back to participants’ posters while discussing concepts in the following slides.
  • Timing: Part of Tree Diagram Activity Trainers Notes: This diagram will serve as an example/model of a tree diagram for participants. This tree diagram has all five concepts from the previous slides on ELD concepts. TELL PARTICIPANTS: This is a model of one possible way to construct a tree diagram. Remember that you are only diagramming ONE of these concepts of English Language Development. Be creative in expressing your ideas and be ready to share them with the whole group.
  • Trainer Notes: Move or delete as needed
  • Time: 15 minutes Trainers Notes: Encourage participants to be as creative as they wish to be. Participants can form their own small group of three or two. Chart paper, pens, will be necessary for this activity. Review as a group, but if there are late comers, have groups begin. Keep slide up so participants can read as they enter. Allow each group to share their “model” teacher/educator with the group. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Let’s review this together as a group. As others arrive after lunch they can join us by reading the slide or asking and forming their own small group of two or three. Who would like to read the first bullet on Traits of a Teacher/Educator? The next bullet? And the next? Please make sure you have all the material that you need and please be very creative. You will only have 15 minutes so your creativity will need to be “Quick & Fancy.” You will ask for groups to volunteer to share their “model” teacher/educator story and scenario.
  • Time: 60 minutes Handout #’s 3-H, 3-I, 3-Ia-e, 3-J, 3-Ja, 3-K, 3-Ka-i, 3-L, 3-La-m: ELD Lesson Plan Template and A Selection of English Language Learner Lesson Planning Resources Trainers Notes: This activity will most likely work best for participants if they sit in content area or grade alike pairs or triads. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Now you will have more time to plan a lesson using some of the strategies you have learned over the past three days. Collect the following materials to assist you in planning your ELD lesson: Class profile Lesson Template Analysis Scaffolded Writing Activity Language Structure and Functions Vocabulary Development Strategies. These completed activities will serve as resources for lesson planning.
  • Time: 35 minutes Trainer notes: This activity will most likely work best for participants if they stay with the same content area or grade alike groups from the morning lesson planning time. TELL PARTICIPANTS: You will now have an opportunity to continue developing lesson plans. You will receive sample lesson plan templates that you may use for this activity or you may develop your own.
  • Timing: 5 minutes Trainers Notes: Review the learning outcomes that were reviewed at the beginning of the day. They were provided for participants at the beginning of the day’s training. Participants should be able to identify one or two ideas that they will use in their classrooms. TELL PARTICIPANTS: These are the learning outcomes that were reviewed as a group at the beginning of the day. Did we meet our objectives? After today’s training are you able to: Add to your repertoire of effective strategies for ELL students? Identify key concepts? Apply concepts to your professional practice? Identify one idea you will use in your classrooms? Let’s share out some of these targeted learnings.
  • Timing: 15 minutes Handout #3-J: Day One Reflection Trainers Notes: The reflection for Day Three is found in the Handout Packet. Review concepts on posted agenda that were covered during the day’s training and solicit examples of responses from participants. Allow time for reflection and then provide an opportunity for participants to share their responses with the whole group if they wish. Before closing, be sure to address all issues still in the Parking Lot and provide a wrap-up of all three days and preview of next steps on planning an action plan that will address policy change for staff development that will focus on English language learner curriculum and instruction training, materials, resources and strategies for community and parent involvement. TELL PARTICIPANTS: Today’s agenda is posted on the wall. Let’s review some of the concepts. Who would like to give an example of a concept that stood out the most. In a few seconds you will have time to fill out the reflection page on your own. Because this is the last day, the reflection page is asking that you reflect on today’s agenda and then include the prior two days if you wish. When you are finished please leave on the center of the table. Before we close, let’s make sure we address any issues that are still left on the Parking Lot, or any other information that you need.
  • Ell training module

    1. 1. 2 3
    2. 2. Day One Introduction/Welcome <ul><li>Trainer’s Names </li></ul>
    3. 3. Logistics <ul><li>Training Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Parking Lot </li></ul><ul><li>Housekeeping </li></ul>
    4. 4. Community Agreements <ul><li>Everyone participates; no one dominates. </li></ul><ul><li>Start and end on time. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit side conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak one at a time; be an active listener and listen respectfully as an ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Give freely of your experience (but remember one-minute rule…). </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones off—or on silent. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a sense of humor! </li></ul>
    5. 5. Overview of Three-Day Training Module <ul><li>Handout #1-A </li></ul><ul><li>Day 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics and Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and Equity Issues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for Classroom/School Practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theories of Language Acquisition and the Relationship to ELL Student Achievement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Day 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of Language Acquisition and the Relationship to ELL Student Achievement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Language Development: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going from Theory to Practice to Close ELL Student Achievement Gaps; and Strategies for Classroom Conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Day 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English Language Development: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory to Instructional Practice and Application for Lesson Planning </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Day One Outcomes <ul><li>Explore culture and equity issues </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an understanding of how our beliefs, values, and behaviors related to culture, language, racial identity, and equity impact our practice with English language learners </li></ul><ul><li>Explore language acquisition theory/ </li></ul><ul><li>Language development </li></ul>Handout #1-B Participants will:
    7. 7. Day One Agenda <ul><li>• Please take out Handout #1-C. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome/Trainer Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics: Why Are We Here? </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Equity — Part I </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Equity — Part II </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Equity — Part III </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Language Acquisition: Instructional Understandings in Closing ELL Achievement Gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why Are We Here? Demographic Shift in U.S. Student Population <ul><li>Individually read handout on “Demographics” </li></ul><ul><li>Examine map </li></ul><ul><li>Share your reactions and </li></ul><ul><li>insights with a table partner </li></ul>Handout #1-D, Handout #1-E
    9. 9. Demographics: Did You Know? <ul><li>In table groups, take turns reading the list of statements regarding English language learners on your handout #1-F. Discuss possible answers. </li></ul><ul><li>After you have completed the Did You Know? list, the trainer will go over the correct answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole group discussion. </li></ul>
    10. 10. What’s in My Name? <ul><li>Handout #1-G </li></ul><ul><li>Share with a partner the story of your name: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who were you named for and who named you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you could choose any name, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what would it be and why? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. T-Shirt Poem <ul><li>Handout #1-H </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher? George, please call me “Mrs. Roberts.” </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, teacher. George, please don’t call me “teacher.” </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, T – You see, George, it’s a sign of respect </li></ul><ul><li>I mean, Mrs. Roberts. to call me by my last name. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes….Mrs. Roberts. Besides, when you say it, it sounds like “t-shirt.”` </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t want to turn into a t-shirt! </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Roberts? Yes, George? </li></ul><ul><li>Please call me Jorge. </li></ul><ul><li> - Jane Medina </li></ul>
    12. 12. Two Very Different Views of the English Language Learner <ul><li>Deficit View: </li></ul><ul><li>• Culturally and </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistically Deprived </li></ul><ul><li>• Failing or Low </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving </li></ul><ul><li>• At-risk </li></ul><ul><li>• Unmotivated </li></ul><ul><li>Assets View: </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally and Linguistically </li></ul><ul><li>Enriched </li></ul><ul><li>Unrecognized or </li></ul><ul><li>Underdeveloped Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Resilient </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged/Self-Motivated </li></ul>Culture, Abilities, Resilience, Effort (C.A.R.E.)
    13. 13. BREAK! Be back in 15 minutes
    14. 14. Culture and Equity <ul><li>Handout #1-I </li></ul><ul><li>“ How can we become teachers </li></ul><ul><li>who are committed to ensuring equity </li></ul><ul><li>for all English language learners?” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toward Equity: Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>McGinty, I. and Mendoza-Reis, 1998. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Handout #1-Ia </li></ul><ul><li>As educators we need to continuously confront the issue of equity. </li></ul><ul><li>We must recognize that power, wealth and status are unequally distributed among cultural groups in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>We must reflect on how those unequal power relations affect our teaching and our interactions with students. </li></ul>Implications of Culture and Equity for English Language Learners: Classroom and School Practice
    16. 16. Closing the English Language Learners Equity Gap <ul><li>Handout #1-Ib </li></ul><ul><li>Three Essential Factors of Our </li></ul><ul><li>Common Commitment to Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Raise achievement of all English language learner students. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow the gap between the lowest and highest performing English language learner students. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Eliminate negative preconceptions about English language learners . </li></ul>
    17. 17. Guiding Principle 1 <ul><li>Teachers who are committed to </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring equity for English language learners continually examine how their own life experiences, perspectives, and behaviors regarding culture, language, racial identity and equity impact their teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>EQUITABLE, INCLUSIVE TEACHING </li></ul><ul><li>WITH HIGH EXPECTATIONS </li></ul>
    18. 18. Guiding Principle 2 <ul><li>Implement a relevant and challenging curriculum that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Draws upon and affirms the cultural knowledge, life experiences, interests and competencies of each student; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Expands students’ knowledge of diverse cultural perspectives within their communities and society as a whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>ACCESSING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE AND </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPING MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES </li></ul>
    19. 19. Guiding Principle 3 <ul><li>Design and implement equitable opportunities that maximize student learning through full participation, interaction and empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>A STUDENT CENTERED FRAMEWORK FOR INSTRUCTION </li></ul>
    20. 20. Guiding Principle 4 <ul><li>Explicitly teach in a meaningful context </li></ul><ul><li>with academic and communication skills, strategies and conventions that are required for success in advanced learning and the larger society. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>CLEAR STANDARDS FOR ACHIEVEMENT AND EXPLICIT SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS </li></ul>
    21. 21. Guiding Principle 5 <ul><li>Understand, value and build upon the dynamic cultures, knowledge, languages, experiences, and critical issues of families and other members of the school’s community . </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, it looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY-SCHOOL-COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS </li></ul>
    22. 22. Create a Visual Representation of Assigned Principle <ul><li>Handout #1-K </li></ul><ul><li>In your table group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Consider what the assigned principle would look like in practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Create a visual representation of your principle (picture, poster, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Decide how to explain your representation to the whole group through a single statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Write the statement at the bottom of your poster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Determine who will report your project to the other groups </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. “ What is Culture & Equity?” <ul><li>Take a moment to think about your own family and community. What were/are shared beliefs, values and behaviors that support you in living a meaningful and successful life? Share your insights with a table partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole group share. </li></ul><ul><li>What commonalities and differences do you notice? </li></ul>Handout #1-L Think - Pair - Share
    24. 24. “ What is Culture and Equity?” <ul><li>Team Word Web </li></ul><ul><li>Please refer to your Handout #1-M in your packet for instructions on developing a team word web addressing the following prompt : </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is Culture and Equity?” </li></ul>
    25. 25. Lunch!
    26. 26. Find Someone Who… <ul><li>Locate “Find Someone Who…” in Handout Packet (#1-N). </li></ul><ul><li>Put your initials in those boxes that have meaning to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Find others who know the answers to the boxes that remain. </li></ul><ul><li>Others may sign only one square on your sheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop at signal and/or when you have completed your grid! </li></ul>Directions :
    27. 27. Quick Write <ul><li>Handout #1-O </li></ul><ul><li>Take two minutes to write down your definition of </li></ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food for thought: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why do we need language? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are some reasons people need to learn a second language? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are some of the benefits of speaking more than one language? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share your definition with an elbow partner . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Language Acquisition Theory <ul><li>Foundational theories from Stephen Krashen and Jim Cummins — Are you ready? </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
    29. 29. Monitor and Model Krashen’s Hypotheses <ul><ul><li>Acquisition Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective Filter </li></ul></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
    30. 30. Krashen’s Input Hypothesis (i+1) <ul><li>Input must be comprehensible – learners must be able to make meaning from what they hear, or they are just hearing noise. </li></ul><ul><li>i = input + = plus 1 = one level slightly above ability level </li></ul><ul><li>Think – Comprehensible Input! </li></ul>
    31. 31. Krashen’s Affective Filter <ul><li>A learner’s feelings/emotions (stress, anxiety, boredom) may block language input into the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Think – Classroom Environment! </li></ul>
    32. 32. Language Learning Theory <ul><li>Research suggests that there are THREE different dimensions of language required or learned: </li></ul><ul><li>• BICS </li></ul><ul><li>• CALP </li></ul><ul><li>• CUP </li></ul><ul><li>Hmmm, let’s see? Gee, what do </li></ul><ul><li>these acronyms mean to me </li></ul><ul><li>as an educator of ELLs? </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
    33. 33. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) <ul><li>Conversations with family, friends and neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Language used by children on a playground </li></ul><ul><li>Greetings that you exchange with others on the street or in the elevator </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
    34. 34. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) <ul><li>CALP includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material. </li></ul><ul><li>CALP is more demanding. </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
    35. 35. Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) <ul><li>In the course of learning one language, a child acquires a set of skills and implicit metalinguistic knowledge that can be used when working with another language. </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
    36. 36. Language Acquisition Theory The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf Handout #1-R
    37. 37. Language Acquisition The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf
    38. 38. BREAK! Be Back in 15 Minutes
    39. 39. BICS and CALP Sampler <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>BICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Cognitively undemanding – Context embedded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Playing a familiar game </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Cognitively undemanding – Context reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– A friendly phone conversation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CALP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Cognitively demanding – Context embedded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Locating geographic features on a map </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Cognitively demanding – Context reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– A lecture on language acquisition theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>You try it! </li></ul>
    40. 40. Table Sort <ul><li>At your table, sort the academic tasks into the appropriate quadrant based on Cummins’ criteria. (Handouts #1-S and #1-Sa) </li></ul><ul><li>We will compare the results to the table chart on the next slide when all participants are done. </li></ul><ul><li>How did you do? </li></ul><ul><li>How can an understanding of Cummins’ Quadrants help you improve instruction in your classroom? </li></ul>
    41. 41. Quadrants Sort <ul><li>Cognitively Undemanding </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitively Demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Walter, T. (1996). Amazing English. Addison-Wesley. p. 24. </li></ul>Context Embedded Context Reduced Handout #1-Sb • Understanding academic presentations without visuals or demonstrations: lectures • Making formal oral presentations • Solving math word problems without illustrations • Writing compositions, essays, and research reports in content areas • Taking standardized achievement tests • Participating in hands-on science and mathematics activities • Making maps, models, charts, and graphs • Solving math computational problems • Making brief oral presentations • Understanding academic presentations through the use of visuals, demonstrations, active participation, realia, etc. • Understanding written texts through discussion, illustrations and visuals • Writing academic reports with the aid of outlines, structures, etc. • Engaging in telephone conversations • Reading and writing for personal purposes: notes, lists, sketches, etc. • Developing survival vocabulary • Following demonstrated directions • Playing simple games • Engaging in face-to-face interactions • Participating in art, music, and physical education
    42. 42. Language Acquisition Theory <ul><li>Cummins, 1980 </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf Handout #1-T Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
    43. 43. Language Acquisition <ul><li>Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) </li></ul><ul><li>Think – Transfer! </li></ul>Cognitive-academic skills learned in the first language will transfer to the new language (English) and such skills are interdependent across languages.
    44. 44. Language Acquisition Theory <ul><li>Discuss how these elements of language transfer from one language to another: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intonation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rhyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognate Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Words that are similar in both languages (i.e., family – familia, study estudio, science - ciencias) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Language Acquisition Theory <ul><li>Cummins, 1980 </li></ul>The Diversity Kit: An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education, Part III: Language. LAB at Brown University. Available: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/diversitykitpdfs/dk_language.pdf Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
    46. 46. Training Outcomes – Day One <ul><li>Explore culture and equity issues and implications for classroom/school practice when teaching English language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an understanding of how our beliefs, values, and behaviors related to culture, language, racial identity, and equity impact our practice with English language learners in the classroom and school. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss fundamental concepts from the field of language acquisition theory and their relationship to language development for English language learners. </li></ul>Did we meet our goals?
    47. 47. Day One Reflection <ul><li>What are the key concepts from today’s training? </li></ul><ul><li>What did I learn that I can apply to my own practice? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one idea from today’s training that I can use in my classroom tomorrow? </li></ul><ul><li>Please leave at your table the handout sheet with your thoughts when you depart. </li></ul>Handout #1-U So What? Now What?
    48. 48. Welcome to Day Two! <ul><li>Community Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Parking Lot </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Handout Packet </li></ul>
    49. 49. Community Agreements <ul><li>Everyone participates; no one dominates. </li></ul><ul><li>Start and end on time. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit side conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak one at a time; be an active listener and listen respectfully as an ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Give freely of your experience (but remember one-minute rule…). </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones off—or on silent. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a sense of humor! </li></ul>Handout #2
    50. 50. Day Two Outcomes <ul><li>Application of language acquisition stages to language development </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom conditions for optimal language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging theory to practice—classroom conditions </li></ul>Handout #2-A Participants will review Culture and equity and explore:
    51. 51. Day Two Agenda <ul><li>Welcome/Opening </li></ul><ul><li>Culture & Equity Review/Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition Theory: In Relationship to ELL Student Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Language Acquisition: Introduction Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Language Acquisition : Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch/After Lunch Energizer </li></ul><ul><li>English Language Development: Theory to Instructional Practice to Close ELL Achievement Gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>Handout #2-B
    52. 52. Educator Check-In Culture & Equity <ul><li>Complete the Educator Check-In—Culture & Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss your responses with a table partner </li></ul>Handout #2-C
    53. 53. Match Game <ul><li>Review the list of indicators of Teaching for Equity. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the indicators to the Five Guiding Principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Match each indicator to one of the Five Guiding Principles, and write the number of the principle you have selected in the box provided. </li></ul>Handout #2-D and #2-E
    54. 54. Reading on Language Acquisition <ul><li>Please read the excerpt Overview of Second Language Acquisition Theory. (See Handout #2-G) </li></ul><ul><li>Tell your partner: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One thing from the reading that you found interesting; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One thing from the reading that you would like to know more about. </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Language Acquisition Theory Poster <ul><li>In groups of four, create a poster or graphic organizer that illustrates/describes the key concepts of Language Acquisition Theory presented at this workshop. </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to explain your group’s poster to the rest of us. </li></ul>
    56. 56. BREAK! Be Back in 15 Minutes
    57. 57. Language Acquisition Stages Introduction <ul><li>• Please complete the Anticipation Guide in your packet. (Handout #2-H) </li></ul><ul><li>Share your responses with a partner. </li></ul>Anticipation Guide
    58. 58. Stages of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Predictable </li></ul><ul><li>May be compared to first language acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Individual progress through stages varies as students develop at their own pace </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of instructional strategies and techniques to use at each stage will encourage the continuous growth of language </li></ul>Handout #2-Ha
    59. 59. Four Stages of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell identified four stages of language acquisition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Pre-production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Early production or early speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Speech emergence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Intermediate fluency </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Language Acquisition Stages Suggested by Theorists <ul><li>1. Silent/Receptive or Pre-production </li></ul><ul><li>2. Early Production </li></ul><ul><li>3. Speech Emergence </li></ul><ul><li>4. Intermediate Language Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>5. Advanced Language Proficiency </li></ul>Handout #2-I
    61. 61. The Silent/Receptive or Pre-production Stage <ul><li>This stage can last up to six months. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by a silent period during which the learner is unable to produce language but may respond with non-verbal gestures, (such as nodding, pointing, or responding with yes/no). </li></ul><ul><li>The learner is very receptive to language input as the learner may understand up to 500 words at this level. </li></ul>Handout #2-I
    62. 62. Stage 1: Pre-Production <ul><li>Handout #2-I </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Does not yet produce speech </li></ul><ul><li>Listens and begins responding by using non-verbal signals </li></ul><ul><li>Participates through physical actions </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on picture clues for clear understanding </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Surrounds students with language • Avoids forcing students to speak prematurely • Creates an environment that supports risk-taking • Provides abundant opportunities for active listening using props, visuals and media Minimal Comprehension with No Verbal Production
    63. 63. Early Production/ Early Speech Stage <ul><li>This stage can last six months to a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by production of one to two words or short phrase responses with increased comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates an increased vocabulary development of about 1,000 words, both in the ability to comprehend input and produce speech. </li></ul>Handout #2-I
    64. 64. Stage 2: Early Production <ul><li>Handout #2-Ia and #2-Ib </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Responds with one or two words . </li></ul><ul><li>Repeats and recites memorable language. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies people, places and things. </li></ul><ul><li>Understands the main idea of the message but may not understand each word. </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Uses questioning strategies eliciting one- or two-word responses. • Uses predictable and/or patterned text. • Asks yes/no, who, what and where questions. • Implements shared reading with props, and builds on student prior knowledge. Limited Comprehension with One or Two Responses
    65. 65. Round Robin Review The First Two Stages of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Directions for Round Robin Review: Handout #2-J </li></ul>
    66. 66. The Speech Emergence Stage <ul><li>This stage can last from one to two years. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by a considerable increase in verbal output with longer sentences, sprinkled with grammatical and syntactical errors that may interfere with communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Both receptive and productive vocabulary increase to about 3,000 words. </li></ul><ul><li>Please use Handout #2-I for note-taking. </li></ul>
    67. 67. Stage 3: Speech Emergence <ul><li>Handout #2-I and #2-Ic </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Begins speaking in phrases and short sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts the emphasis from language reception to language production. </li></ul><ul><li>Errors in grammar and syntax are common. </li></ul><ul><li>Participates more fully in discussions, including those with academic content. </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Asks questions requiring responses of phrases and short sentences. • Models, restates, expands, and enriches student language. • Continues to model standard language structures. • Focuses on communication of meaningful contexts in both oral and written forms. Has Good Comprehension and Makes Simple Sentences (with Errors)
    68. 68. The Intermediate Language Proficiency Stage <ul><li>This stage can last from one to two years. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by considerable increase in verbal and written output with more complex sentence structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulates receptive and productive vocabulary of about 6,000 words with some syntactical and structural errors. </li></ul>Handout #2-I
    69. 69. Stage 4: Intermediate Language Proficiency <ul><li>Handout #2-I and #2-Id </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Responds with a flow of related phrases and sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses more extensive vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Explores concepts in subject matter more extensively. </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Explicitly teaches more complex grammatical forms. • Introduces colloquialisms and idiomatic expressions. • Guides students’ use of reference materials for research purposes. Good to Excellent Comprehension with Grammatical Errors
    70. 70. The Advanced Language Proficiency Stage <ul><li>To get to this stage, it takes about five to seven years of English language learning (not to be confused with chronological age). </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by near native proficiency in both verbal and written language application. </li></ul><ul><li>Successfully manipulates content area vocabulary and participates like a native speaker, but may need occasional support or clarification. </li></ul>Handout #2-I
    71. 71. Stage 5: Advanced Language Proficiency <ul><li>Handout #2-I and #2-Ie </li></ul><ul><li>Student Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Near native speech fluency — uses grammar and fluency comparable to that of same-age native speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded vocabulary to succeed academically </li></ul><ul><li>Very good comprehension of information </li></ul>Teacher Strategies • Allows students to lead group discussions • Encourages independent use of reference materials and technology • Provides explicit grammar instruction • Provides opportunities for student-generated presentations • Provides a variety of realistic writing opportunities in a variety of genre Excellent Comprehension with Complex Speech Patterns, Few Grammatical Errors
    72. 72. Case Study Activity <ul><li>Please refer to the profiles in your Participants’ Packet. ( Handout #2-K, #2-Ka-d, #2-L, #2-M, #2-N). </li></ul><ul><li>You will first identify the level of language acquisition of each student. </li></ul><ul><li>Next, you will select which teacher would best support each student in his or her language development. </li></ul><ul><li>Write your answers in the space provided in your packet. </li></ul>
    73. 73. Lunch!
    74. 74. Stand and Deliver <ul><li>• In table groups or groups of 4 or 5, brainstorm and list quotations, phrases, songs, and movie titles about education and teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>• Please write this brainstorm list on Handout #2-O; assign a person to record on one chart paper for your group. </li></ul>
    75. 75. English Language Development Theory to Practice <ul><li>Just Let Them Sit </li></ul><ul><li>When I was a first year teacher, I received my first non-English speakers in May in the middle of state testing. When I asked what the best way to instruct them was, I was told by the ELL teacher that I should just let them sit. They will pick up English that way. </li></ul><ul><li>I asked my mentor teachers at the school what they did. They said they let them sit and watch. Even as a new teacher that was not good enough for me. I started teaching them like I would teach a beginning reader… or how I assumed a beginning reader would be taught. Thankfully, I had students who could translate. </li></ul><ul><li>Journal Excerpt </li></ul><ul><li>Aricka – Graduate Student in Educational Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Noni Mendoza-Reis (2003) </li></ul>Handout #2-P
    76. 76. Classroom Conditions: The Overview <ul><li>Referring back to the Five Guiding Principles of Culture, Guiding Principle Three stresses that it is important to understand that how we organize instruction influences who learns what in our classrooms. (Handout #1-J) </li></ul><ul><li>Educators need to pay attention to both the social organization of a classroom (grouping practices) and the physical organization of a classroom (rows or table groups). </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to the five charts on the wall describing the elements of Affective Filter. </li></ul><ul><li>(McGinty, I. and Mendoza-Reis, 1998) </li></ul>
    77. 77. Classroom Conditions: Things To Do <ul><li>Create a supportive climate where it is safe to take risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize opportunities to use language in meaningful, non-threatening ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Affirm students’ language and culture and equal/equitable access to learning. </li></ul>
    78. 78. Classroom Conditions: Things To Do <ul><li>Maintain high expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate instruction for student’s level of language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop opportunities for families to participate in the educational process in an equitable manner. </li></ul>
    79. 79. Carousel Activity <ul><li>1. Write a descriptor for the term positive classroom conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Begin a list of strategies and ideas that teachers and schools can use to create positive classroom conditions for English language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>3. When you hear the signal to switch, bring your pen and move to the next poster. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Add your ideas and comments to the new poster. </li></ul>Handout #2-Pa
    80. 80. BREAK! Be Back in 15 Minutes
    81. 81. Classroom Conditions Review <ul><li>• Supportive climate </li></ul><ul><li>• Opportunities to use language </li></ul><ul><li>• Affirm language and culture </li></ul><ul><li>• High expectations </li></ul><ul><li>• Differentiate instruction for students’ levels of language proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>• Opportunities for family involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Consider what you are already doing and how you might refine your current practice to enhance the language learning environment in your classroom. </li></ul>Handout #2-Pa I already do this!!!
    82. 82. Your Class Profile <ul><li>Think about the students you work with every day. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a Class Profile of your class. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to list students’ names, and make notes for yourself about their strengths and learning needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Base your profile on a variety of evidence: assessments, language proficiency measures, observations, class work, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>You will need this information tomorrow as you develop a lesson plan for your students. </li></ul>Handout #2-R
    83. 83. Training Outcomes – Day Two <ul><li>Did we meet our goals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review culture and equity issues in the education of English language learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the application of language acquisition stages to language development for English language learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the importance of Classroom Conditions for optimal language learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridging theory to practice as it relates to the critical attributes of classroom conditions. </li></ul></ul>
    84. 84. Day Two Reflection <ul><li>What are the key concepts from today’s training? </li></ul><ul><li>What did I learn that I can apply to my own practice? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one idea from today’s training that I can use in my classroom tomorrow? </li></ul>Handout #2-S So What? Now What?
    85. 85. Welcome to Day Three! <ul><li>Community Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Parking Lot </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Handout Packet </li></ul>
    86. 86. Community Agreements <ul><li>Everyone participates; no one dominates. </li></ul><ul><li>Start and end on time. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit side conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak one at a time; be an active listener and listen respectfully as an ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Give freely of your experience (but remember one-minute rule…). </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones off—or on silent. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a sense of humor! </li></ul>Handout #3
    87. 87. Day Three Outcomes <ul><li>Examine critical elements of instructional design to promote English language development. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply theories of second language acquisition to classroom practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Review and develop lesson plans for ELLs reflecting Culture, Equity and Language Acquisition. </li></ul>Handout #3-A Participants will:
    88. 88. Day Three Agenda <ul><li>Welcome/Opening </li></ul><ul><li>English Language Development: ELL Student Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>English Language Development: Concepts in Closing ELL Achievement Gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>After Lunch Energizer </li></ul><ul><li>Theory To Instructional Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>Handout #3-B
    89. 89. The Third Language: Academic English <ul><li>For English language learners, academic English is a third language — their second language being social English of the hallways, community and media. </li></ul><ul><li>This third language is full of new words, figurative expressions, grammatical structures, verb tenses, and concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Many English learners, and many native speakers, even those with well-developed social language, struggle to master the complex language of school. </li></ul>
    90. 90. Theory to Practice Handout #3-C Individual Remembering Defending an opinion: (I think it is a non-living thing because _________.) Synthesize Science journal – Depending on stage of language acquisition: 1) label; 2) cloze exercise; 3)respond to prompt Pairs Triads Monitoring Evaluating Classify Sorting activity – photo cards with pictures of living & non-living things Small group Monitoring Evaluating Compare Contrast Venn diagram – characteristics of living and non- living things Whole group Accessing prior knowledge Personal dictionary or Science Word Wall: grow move reproduce Prefix non Third person s: grow-grows, move-moves, reproduce- reproduces Describe Demonstration – list of characteristics of living and non-living things with examples – visuals to include posters, video, and realia K-2 Science: living vs. non- living things Grouping Strategies Metacognitive Strategies Vocabulary Development Language Structures Language Functions Procedures (Comprehensible Input) Topic
    91. 91. Theory to Practice <ul><li>Look at the Procedures for Comprehensible Input column of the lesson planning template. (Handout #3-D) </li></ul><ul><li>List strategies that you think will make the content comprehensible for language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a partner to complete the analysis of the sample lesson template. </li></ul>
    92. 92. Comprehensible Input <ul><li>Handout #1-P for review </li></ul><ul><li> Concept 1 </li></ul><ul><li> Comprehensible input must be provided to support optimal language development. </li></ul>
    93. 93. Strategies for Comprehensible Input – I <ul><li>Adjust rate of speech, level of vocabulary, and complexity of sentence structure to student’s level of language proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and explain use of idiomatic speech and figurative language. </li></ul>
    94. 94. Strategies for Comprehensible Input – II <ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuals, graphics and realia </li></ul></ul>Use the following techniques to present concepts:
    95. 95. Scaffolded Instruction <ul><li>Concept 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolded instruction supports language development. </li></ul></ul>
    96. 96. Strategies for Scaffolded Instruction <ul><ul><li>Graphic organizer/mind map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeled writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloze sentences/passages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent writing </li></ul></ul>This sequence is an example of activities that scaffold the writing process for language learners:
    97. 97. Scaffolded Instruction <ul><li>Writing Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The activity in your handout packet follows the Scaffolded Writing sequence we just discussed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using this sequence as a model, develop a Scaffolded Writing activity you could use with English language learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share your activity with a table partner. </li></ul></ul>
    98. 98. BREAK! Be Back in 15 Minutes
    99. 99. Language Structures and Functions <ul><li>Concept 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Language structures and functions must be taught explicitly to support optimal language development. </li></ul>
    100. 100. Activity <ul><li>Working in pairs or triads, choose five of the following language functions, and write a corresponding language structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Seeking information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Informing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Analyzing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Comparing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Classifying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Predicting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justifying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul></ul>Example: Seeking information Structures: What time is it? It’s _____ o’clock.
    101. 101. English Language Development: Kindergarten Lesson Analysis <ul><li>Discuss what is similar/different in this lesson from the way you usually plan for math lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Table group share. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how this might be adapted for different grade levels. </li></ul>In table groups, review lesson in Handout #3-F and check out the next slide.
    102. 102. English Language Development Kindergarten Lesson - Sorting <ul><li>Handout #3-F </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for English language development in content lessons </li></ul>Herrell, A. & Jordan, M., (2004). Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (2nd edition). Pearson . Large Small Medium Smaller Larger Bigger Littler These (shapes) are all the same size. This one is (smaller, larger). Classifying Describing Comparing Contrasting Sorting attribute blocks by size Size Triangle Circle Square Rectangle They are all (shapes). Classifying Describing Sorting attributes by shape Shape Vocabulary Language Structure Language Functions Activities Topic
    103. 103. Vocabulary Instruction Supports Language Development <ul><ul><li>Concept 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Academic Vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Vocabulary </li></ul></ul>Handout #3-F
    104. 104. Strategies for Vocabulary Instruction <ul><li>Here are two strategies for vocabulary development. </li></ul><ul><li>• Thematic Instruction • Word Analysis </li></ul><ul><li> and Content Integration </li></ul>
    105. 105. Vocabulary Development Strategies <ul><li>Thematic instruction and </li></ul><ul><li>content integration: </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary must be taught in the context of students’ own speaking, reading and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Word analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Language learners need specific strategies for word analysis in order to move toward independence in their vocabulary development. </li></ul>
    106. 106. Give One, Get One <ul><li>Handout #3-G </li></ul><ul><li>Think about three vocabulary development activities that you do in your classroom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• List them separately in a box on your grid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• At presenter’s signal, move around the room exchanging one of your ideas for someone else’s ideas (Give One, Get One). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Repeat process until presenter signals to stop or you have filled in your boxes! </li></ul></ul>
    107. 107. Metacognitive Strategies <ul><li>Concept 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive strategies support language development. </li></ul>
    108. 108. Metacognitive Strategies <ul><li>Metacognitive strategies must be explicitly taught and modeled: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Accessing prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Remembering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Imagining </li></ul></ul>
    109. 109. English Language Development Strategies Activity: Tree Diagram <ul><li>Tree Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>I will assign one of the following concepts of effective English language development to each table. At your table, discuss how this concept might be translated into a tree diagram. Draw your tree diagram on chart paper. Select a reporter to share out with the whole group. </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative!! </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensible Input </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolded Instruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language Structure and Functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitive Strategies </li></ul></ul></ul>
    110. 110. Contributors to Academic English Language Development English Language Development Comprehensible Input Scaffolded Instruction Language Structures And Functions Vocabulary Development Metacognitive Strategies
    111. 111. Lunch!
    112. 112. After Lunch Energizer- Traits of a Teacher/Educator <ul><li>Each pair or small group of three needs one piece of chart paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a “model” teacher/educator whom you would admire for his or her care and skill in working with English language learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate, list, or describe in a story or scenario the traits, characteristics, and/or behaviors of this teacher/educator. </li></ul>
    113. 113. English Language Development Lesson Planning <ul><li>Collect the following materials that you have worked on to assist you in planning your lesson: </li></ul>Handouts: #3-H, #3-I, 3-Ia-e, #3-J, #3-Ja, #3-K, #3-Ka-i, #3-L, #3-La-m Scaffolded Writing Activity Language Structure and Functions Class Profile Lesson Template Analysis Vocabulary Development Strategies ELL Lesson Planning Resources
    114. 114. English Language Development Lesson Sharing <ul><li>Plan a lesson or series of lessons for English language development, using information and tools provided in this workshop. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the needs of your students — look at the Class Profile you developed. </li></ul>
    115. 115. Day Three Outcomes <ul><li>Did we meet our goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Examine critical elements of instructional design to promote English language development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Apply theories of second language acquisition to classroom practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Review and develop lesson plans for ELLs reflecting Culture, Equity, and Language Acquisition. </li></ul></ul>
    116. 116. Day Three Reflection <ul><li>Handout #3-M </li></ul><ul><li>So What? Now What? </li></ul><ul><li>3 – 2 – 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Write 3 things you learned in this training! </li></ul><ul><li>Write 2 things that you will use! </li></ul><ul><li>Write 1 thing you still have a question about! </li></ul>

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