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Constitutional Supremacy - For Academic Purposes Only

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based on syllabus of Constitutional Law I (LAW437) …

based on syllabus of Constitutional Law I (LAW437)
Faculty of Law
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

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    • 1. Constitutional Law 9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty1 Constitutional Supremacy vParliamentary SupremacyLAW 437 : CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I By: azrin hafiz 1 What is a constitutional supremacy? •Adoctrinewherebytheconstitutionissupremeandthegovernmentrulesinaccordancewiththeconstitutionandatthesametimethepowerofgovernmentislimitedbytheconstitution. By: azrin hafiz 2 •TheConstitutionisthesupremelawofMalaysia •Anylawpassedafter31Aug1957whichisinconsistentwiththeConstitutionshallbevoid,totheextentoftheinconsistency. By: azrin hafiz 3
    • 2. Constitutional Law9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty 2 What is a parliamentary supremacy? •Aperemptoryruleofconstitutionallaw,thatlegislativeassembliescanmakeorrepeallawsastheyseefit,supremeoverthedictatesofthejudicialbranch,andsubjecttothestatedjurisdictionofthelegislativeassembly,ifany. By: azrin hafiz 4 By: azrin hafiz 5 Theadoptionofawrittenandsupremeconstitution,asthechartandcompass,thesailandanchorofanation,hasanumberofdistinctimplications,whichareasfollows: By: azrin hafiz 6
    • 3. Constitutional Law9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty 3 i. A higher lawii. A limited parliamentiii. Federal setupiv. Fundamental rightsv. Judicial reviewvi. Special procedure for amendmentsvii. Subversion and emergency By: azrin hafiz 7 1. A higher law •Ithassuperiorityovertheinstitutionsitcreates,andtakesprecedenceoverallotherlaws. Constitution Ordinary Law prevail unconstitutional X By: azrin hafiz 8 TheruleofconstitutionalsupremacystatedinArticle4(1)oftheFederalConstitution:“thisConstitutionisthesupremelawoftheFederationandanylawpassedafterMerdekaDaywhichisinconsistentwiththisConstitutionshall,totheextentoftheinconsistency,bevoid”. By: azrin hafiz 9
    • 4. Constitutional Law 9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty 4 a. supreme law–higher legal validity than any other rule in society whether federal or state, enacted by Parliament or SLA. b. federation–refers to the State of Malaysia including federal government. c. any law–in lights of Art 160(2). Refers to written law, common law & recognisedcustom. d. after Merdeka Day–after 31 Aug 1957 e. to the extent of the inconsistency–an act may not be void as whole, only the inconsistent part may be void = doctrine of severability. By: azrin hafiz 10 The consequences of Article 4(1) are far-reachingArt 4(1) Art 128 + Art 162(6) strengthened by By: azrin hafiz 11 Article128conferspoweronthesuperiorcourtstodeterminetheconstitutionalvalidityofFederalandstatelaws. Article162(6)laysdownthatanycourtortribunalapplyingtheprovisionsofanypre-MerdekalawmayapplyitwithsuchmodificationasmaybenecessarytobringitintoaccordwiththeConstitution. By: azrin hafiz 12
    • 5. Constitutional Law 9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty 5 Case: LohKooiChoonv Government of Malaysia [1977] 2 MLJ 187 •RajaAzlanShahFJ: “theconstitutionisthesupremelawofthelandandembodying3bodyconcepts: Fundamental rightsDistribution of sovereign power Separation of power By: azrin hafiz 13 Case: PhangChin Hock v Public Prosecutor [1980] 1 MLJ 70 •“Federallaw”includesalllawswhichParliamentiscompetenttopass,includingfederallawspassedtoamendtheconstitution,whichamendments,ifenactedaccordingtoprescribedprocedure,arevalidevenifinconsistentwithfundamentalliberties:anamendment,dulymade,„becomesanintegralpartoftheConstitution,itisthesupremelaw,andaccordinglyitcannotbesaidtobeatvariancewithitself‟. By: azrin hafiz 14 2. A limited parliamentYang diPertuanAgong Parliament Court Attorney General Auditor General Senator National Land CouncilConsolidated Funds National Development Plan By: azrin hafiz 15
    • 6. Constitutional Law 9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty 6 Case: Ah Thianv Government of Malaysia [1976] 2 MLJ 112 •LordPresidentTunSuffianaffirmedthesupremacyoftheConstitution: •„ThedoctrineofthesupremacyofParliamentdoesnotapplyinMalaysia.HerewehaveawrittenConstitution.ThepowerofParliamentandthestatelegislaturesinMalaysiaislimitedbytheConstitutionandtheycannotmakeanylawtheyplease’. By: azrin hafiz 16 Types of Limits on Parliament‟s power Substantive Limits •Limitsrelatingtosubjectmatterincluding: -jurisdictionalerror -restrictfundamentalrights -violatingthefederal- statedivisionofcompetence. Procedural Limits •Abouthowpowermustbeexercised. •Inperforminglegislativefunction,parliamentisobligedtocomplywiththeproceduralrequirementofArt2(b),38(4),66,68,159&161E By: azrin hafiz 17 3. Federal set up •Malaysiaisafederationofstates. •Thereisadivisionoflegislativeexecutive, judicialandfinancialpowersbetweenthefederalandstateassemblies. •ThisdivisionisentrenchedintheschemeoftheConstitution. By: azrin hafiz 18
    • 7. Constitutional Law 9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty 7 3. Federal-State Division of Power Legislative Executive Judicial Financial PowersFederal State By: azrin hafiz 19 Art 74 + Art 77 + 9thScheduleFederal List State ListConcurrent List Supplementary State List for Sabah & SarawakSupplementary Concurrent List for Sabah & Sarawak 28 13 14 6 9 By: azrin hafiz 20 4. Fundamental rights •TheFederalConstitution(inArticles5to13) containsachapteronfundamentalliberties. •ThoughParliamentisgivenextensivepowerstoregulatetheselibertiesonawiderangeofgrounds,itcannotbedeniedthattheconstitutionalprovisionsdocreate„obstacles…inthepathofthosewhowouldlayrashhandsuponthearkoftheConstitution‟(asperLordBirkenheadinMcCawleyvTheKing) By: azrin hafiz 21
    • 8. Constitutional Law 9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty 8 •Superiorcourtjudgeshaveshowngreatunwillingnesstoenforcehumanrights. •Areluctancetosetasidefederalorstatelegislativeenactmentsonthegroundofviolationofhumanrightssafeguards. •Example:MenonvGovernmentofMalaysia[1987]–sectionofthePensions(Amendment) Actwhichdiscriminatedagainstnon-residentpensionswasheldbytheHighCourtviolateArticle8.Thedecisionwasreversedonappeal[1990] By: azrin hafiz 22 5. Judicial review •Constitutionalsupremacyismaintainedbygivingtothecourtsthepowertoreviewexecutiveandlegislativeactsonconstitutionalgrounds. •HundredsofexecutiveactionshavebeeninvalidatedbythecourtsforviolationoftherequirementsoftheConstitution. By: azrin hafiz 23 Constitutional Challenges: a. 4against pre-Merdekalawsb.14against post Merdeka laws c. of these 18decisionsi.6reversed on appeal ii. 2rendered ineffective By: azrin hafiz 24
    • 9. Constitutional Law 9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty 9 Case: Mamatbin Daud& Ors v Government of Malaysia [1988] 1 MLJ 119 •The issue was as to who should have enacted section 298A of the Penal Code (doing acts which were likely to cause disunity among persons professing the religion of Islam) –the Federal Parliament or the State Assembly concerned? •Application of the doctrine of pith & substance By: azrin hafiz 25 Jurisdiction & locus standi •InAhThianvGovernmentofMalaysia[1976]2MLJ112at113,SuffianLPsummeduptheprinciplesoflegislativereview. •Thecourtshavepowertodeclareawrittenlawinvalidononeofthethreegrounds: If it violates the federal-state division of powers If either Federal or State written law is inconsistent with the Constitution If a State written law is inconsistent with a Federal law By: azrin hafiz 26 •Thepowertodeclareanylawinvalidonthegroundofviolationoffederal-statedivisionofpowers–issubjecttoseveralrestrictions: a)Thechallengemustliebywayofaproceedingforadeclarationthatthelawisinvalidontheground: Art4(3) b)Theproceedingmaybebroughtby: -anindividualvanotherindividual, -anindividualvaGovernment, -aGovernmentvanotherGovernment;or -aGovernmentvanindividual:Art4(4) By: azrin hafiz 27
    • 10. Constitutional Law 9/27/2014 azrin.hafiz / BLS (Hons)/ UiTM Law Faculty 10 •c.TheFederationandtheStateareentitledtobeapartytosuchproceedingstoensurethatnoadverserulingismadewithoutgivingtherelevantgovernmentanopportunitytoarguetothecontrary. •d.OnlytheFederalCourthasjurisdictiontodeterminewhetheralawmadebyParliamentorbyaStatelegislatureisinvalid:Art128(1). By: azrin hafiz 28 Reference •Shad SaleemFaruqi(2008), Document of Destiny: The Constitution of the Federation of Malaysia, Star Publication By: azrin hafiz 29 Thank you! By: azrin hafiz 30

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