Fossil FuelsFormed in the Earths crust over hundreds of millions of yearsFormed over the Carboniferous Period (360-286 million years ago)Part of the Paleozic EraAlgae, or millions of very small plants sank to the bottom of swamps ofoceans and formed layers of spongy material known as peat.The peat covered with sand, clay and other minerals formedsedimentary rock.Over millions of years, these remains turned into coal, oil, petroleum, ornatural gas.http://www.bionomicfuel.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/fossil-fuels-formation_1.jpg
Types of Fossil FuelsCoalhttp://www.mii.org/Minerals/Minpics1/CoalBituminous.jpgOilhttp://davidwebbshow.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Oil.jpgNatural Gashttp://www.wasupremecourtblog.com/uploads/image/NaturalGas.jpg
CoalCoal is a hard, black colored rock-like substance that is madeup of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and varying amountsof sulphur.The three main types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, andlignite.The earliest use of coal was in the Fu-shun mine innortheastern China.Coal is mined out of the ground or in strip mines where hugesteam shovels strip away the top layers of the coal. Layers arerestored after removal. Coal is ground up and mixed with water to make slurry andpumped through pipelines.
How is coal formed?Coal is formed from the remains of vegetation that grew over400 million years ago.As plants and trees died, their remains sank to the bottom ofthe swampy areas, accumulating layer upon layer andeventually forming a soggy, dense material called peat.Over long periods of time,deposits of sand, clay, and othermineral matter accumulated and buried the peat.Sandstone and other sedimentary rocks formed and pressurecaused by their weight squeezed water from the peat.Over time with compression and heat, the material changed tocoal.
Stages of Coal FormationPeat: forms when plant material decays and decomposes; it is theearliest stage in the formation of coalLignite: softest, brownish-black, low in carbon, high in hydrogen,oxygen content; alteration of vegetable matter has proceeded furtherthan in peat but not as far as in bituminous coal; also called brown coalBituminous: most abundant form of coal, also called soft coal,intermediate in rank between subbituminous coal and anthracite;divided into high-volatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile; organicsedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphiccompression of peat bog materialAnthracite: most highly metamorphosed form of coal, hardest, morecarbon, higher energy content
How Coal Is Used 94% of coal used in the United States is for generatingelectricity.The rest of coal is used as a basic energy source in manyindustries including steel, cement, and paper.Major uses of coal: electric power, industryCoal is baked in hot furnaces to make coke, which is used tosmelt iron ore into iron needed for making steel.http://healthandenergy.com/images/magnitka%20smoke%20stacks.jpg
OilOil has been used for over 6000 years.The demand for oil increased as the Industrial Revolutionoccurred.Oil is found under ground between folds of rock and in areas ofrock that are pourous and contain the oils within the rock itself.The folds of rock were formed as the earth shifted and moved.Companies drilled through the earth to deposits below thesurface.Oil is pumped from below ground by oil rigs and travel throughpipeline or ship.More than 50% of all the oil the United States use comes fromoutside the country, most from the Middle East.Petroleum or crude oil must be changed or refined into otherproducts before it can be used.
How Oil Is FormedOil is a liquid hydrocarbon derived primarily from simple marineplants and animals.Diatoms, remains of plants and animals, die and fall to the seafloor.They are buried under sediment and other rocks.The rock squeezed diatoms and energy in their bodies couldnotescape.Carbon turned into oil under great pressure and heat.Earth changed, moved and folded.Pockets where oil and natural gas can be found were formed.Once the oil is formed, continued pressure from overlying rockstrata forces the oil to migrate through permeable rock layersuntil it is trapped in reservoirs of porous sedimentary rocks.
How Oil Is Used As A Fossil FuelTransportation: gas for cars, tractors, trains, trucksConsumer Goods: plastic in computer, detergent, ink, crayons,deodorant, eyeglasses, CDs,DVDs, tires, ammonia, heartvalvesIndustry: power manufacturing plantsCommercial Goods: feedstockHeating and CoolingElectrical Deviceshttp://www.peyeimages.com/cars/images/ford-edge/ford-edge-picture-8055.gif
Natural GasNatural gas is lighter than air and is mostly made up ofmethane.Methane is made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms and ishighly flammable.Natural gas is found near petroleum underground.It is pumped from below ground and travels in pipelines.It has no odor and is invisible.Prior to travel in pipelines, it is mixed with a chemical that givesoff a strong odor.
How Natural Gas Is FormedThermogenic Methane - formation of natural gas made in asimilar fashion to oilNatural gas can only be created under high pressure under theEarths crust.Biogenic Methane - microorganisms break down organic matterand produce methane in the processDecomposed plants and animals buried in ocean floor and latercovered with silt and sand in ocean floor.Over million of years, remains buried deeper. Heat andpressure turned these decomposed remains into oil and gas.
How Natural Gas Is UsedElectric Power 24%Industrial 38%Residential 22%Commercial 13%Transportation 3%http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/TDR/images/Fig6_ConsumptionSect.JPG
RefineriesIndustrial process plant where crude oil is processed andrefined into more useful petroleum products such as gas, dieselfuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquifiedpetroleum gas.Hundreds of hyrodrocarbon molecules in crude oil areseparated in a refinery into components which can be used asfuels, lubricants, and as feedstock in petrochemical processesin order to manufacture products like plastics, detergents,solvents, elastomers and fibers such as nylon and polyesters.Refineries go through three steps: separation, conversion, andtreatment
Importance of RefineriesRefineries take crude oil, separate it into components, crackand reform it, and treat it to remove contamination (such assulfur).Refineries are expanding with high energy processing units torefine dirtier crude oil (more hydrogen plants, more cracking,coking, etc.)http://www.developing8.org/wp-content/uploads/oil_refinery.jpg
Downside of RefineriesMajor pollution sources from fossil fuel evaporation and burningvast quantities of fossil fuel energy to make gasoline, diesel,and jet fuel.Dirty crude oil is increasing local, regional, and global pollution.Sulfur content in crude oil (a contaminant that turns intohazardous hydrogen sulfide and sulfur oxides during refining) isincreasing.Air pollution from refineries have caused: increased levels ofcarbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide (deadly at high levels),asthma, leukemia, smog, acid rain, climate change, globalwarming, cancer, and a host of other health issues.
Exxon ValdezOn March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez was bound forLong Beach, California, encountered icebergs and struckPrince William Sounds Bligh Reef and spilled up to 750,000barrels (32 million gallons) of Prodhoe Bay crude oil.Prince William Sound is a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals,and seabirds.Spring tidal fluctuations were 18 feet at the time; this tended todeposit oil onto shorelines above normal zone of wave action.The spill impacted 1,100 miles of non-continuous coastline inAlaska.
Clean Up of Exxon ValdezCoreexit 9580 and BP1100X, dispersants, were used, but wastoxic to workers and wildlife.It broke the oil down, but created underwater plume.The oil turned into mousse. The dispersants could not dissipateoil in the form of mousse.Use of a dispersant, a surfactant and solvent mixture did notgenerate enough wave action to mix with oil in water, so use ofdispersant was discontinued.Burning of Oil: reduced 113,400 litres of oil; 1,134 litres ofremoveable residueBooms and skimmers - displaced rocky cores where oilcollected with high pressure hot water; destroyed, displacedmicrobial populations on shoreline.
Clean Up of Exxon Valdez3M Fire Boom: in-situ oil burned for 75 minutes; was noteffective because of change in oils state after the storm.Containment Booms were deployed over 100 miles to protect fish hatcheries and salmon streams.Skimmers were less effective once oil had spread, emulsifiedand mixed with debris.Once oil became viscous, sorbent part of skimmer wasremoved; conveyor belt was sufficient to pull oil up ramp.Skimmers were placed on self-propelled barges with a shallowdraft.Sorbent booms were used to collect sheen between primaryand secondary layers of offshore boom; collected sheen wasreleased from beach during tidal flooding.
Effect of Exxon ValdezSubsurface oil can remain dormant for many years beforebeing dispersed and is more liquid and toxic.Oiling of fur or feathers for animals causes loss of insulatingcapacity, can lead to death by hypothermia, smothering,drowning and ingestion of toxic hydrocarbons.Mass mortality: 2800 sea otters, 302 harbor seals, 250,000 perday seabird deaths, macroalgae and benthic invertebrates.Physical displacement from habitat by pressurized water-washapplied after spill.
Effect of Exxon ValdezCollapse of local marine population (clams, herring, seals, seaotters, orcas, killer whales)Reduction in bird population (seabirds, Bald Eagles)Destruction of billions of salmon and herring eggsStunted growth in pink salmon populationHigh death rates in following years for sea otters and duck;ingested prey from contaminated soil and oil residuesLoss of recreational sports along the shoreLoss of fishing industry for designated timeReduced tourism because of reduced "existence value" ofpristine Prince William Sound20 acres of shoreline in Prince William Sound is stillcontaminated with oil
Deep Water HorizonOn April 22, 2010, The Deep Water Horizon was drilling at35,050 feet vertical depth an exploratory well atMacondo. Tiberfield, the deepest oil well in the world, is locatedin Keathley Canyon.A geyser of seawater erupted with mud, methane gas, waterexplosion, and firestorm.The rig exploded because of a blowout.4.9 million barrels of crude oil leaked, 53,000 barrels per daywere escaping before being capped.11 crewmen were killed; 17 were injuredThe oil spill continued until July 15.This was the "worst environmental disaster the United Stateshas faced" and was twenty times greater than the ExxonValdez oil spill.
Clean Up of Deep Water HorizonCorexit EC 9500 A, EC 9527 A, chemical dispersants,facilitated digestion of oil by microbes; contain propylene glycol,2 Butoxethanol, dioctyl sodium sulfuscinateDispersit SPC 1000, dispersant; 23,500 gallons per day used;total of 1,800,000 gallons of dispersant usedContainment Boom - purpose to either corral the oil or to blockit from a marsh, mangrove, shrimp, crab, oyster ranch or otherecologically sensitive areas"Situ Burning" - burn off oil in controlled environments onsurface of ocean to try and limit enviromental damages onocean and shorelines
Clean Up of Deep Water HorizonStrategies:Contain oil spill on surfaceDilute and disperse it into less sensitive areasRemove from waterAlso tried:Burning oilFiltering off-shoreCollecting for later processingCement pumped to permanently plug leakAsphalt used because it emulsified well; no longer evaporatesas quickly as regular oil; does not rinse off as easily, cannot beeaten by microbes
Effect Of Deep Water HorizonExtensive damage to marine and wildlife habitatLoss of revenue for Golfs fishing and tourism industriesOil plumes in deep waters of Gulf of MexicoDispersants used can cause genetic mutations and cancer;toxic effect on bacteria and photoplankton (microscopic plantswhich make up basis of Gulfs food webUp to 75% of oil from BPs Gulf oil disaster still remains in Gulfenvironment.No alternative nesting sites suitable for many criticallyendangered species.Missing oil has been found in form of large oil plumes the sizeof Manhattan; oil does not appear to be biodegrading very fast.Health issues for Gulf Coast residents: outbreak of skin rash,dizziness, and headaches.
Effect of Deep Water HorizonVigorous deepwater bacterial bloom respired nearly all thereleased within 4 months and left behind a residual microbialcommunity containing methanotrophic bacteria. Methane wasthe most abundant hydrocarbon released during the spill.Corexit dispersant results in petroleum toxicity and oxygendepletion.8 US national parks threatenedAnimals at risk: Kemps Ridley turtle, Green turtle, Loggerheadturtle, Hawksbill Turtle, Leatherback Turtle, 34,000 birds, gulls,pelicans, roseate spoonbills, egrets, ferns, and blue heronDrunken dolphins have been spotted blowing oil through blowholesPrey can be negatively affected
Effect of Deep Water HorizonCoral reefs smotheredMicrobes used to consume oil would reduce oxygen levels inwater.Methane could potentially suffocate marine life and create deadzones where oxygen is depleted.Natural gas dissolving below the surface has potential toreduce Gulf oxygen levels and emit benzene and other toxiccompounds.Use of dispersants has broken up the oil in droplets smallenough they can easily enter the food chain.Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contain toxic compoundsthat are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic.Dead baby dolphins have been washing up along Mississippiand Alabama shorelines.
Effect of Deep Water HorizonThe number of aborted animals has increased at ten times thenormal aborting rate.Lost of livelihood for Gulf Coast fishermen.Anthracene, a toxic hydrocarbon by-product of petroleum, wasfound at twice the levels the FDA finds acceptable in Gulfshrimp.Toxic compounds released from spill became airborne;significant quantities brought onshore by precipitation; exposedcoastal population to chemical poisoning.