What is leadership? Presentation


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This PPT consist of basics of Leadership and can be used in small classroom group presentation.

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What is leadership? Presentation

  1. 1. Leadership Presentation
  2. 2. What is Leadership? • The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. • It has been described as "a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.
  3. 3. Theories of Leadership • Trait Theory • Behavioral Theory • • • • University of Iowa Ohio State University Michigan University Managerial Grid • Situational Contingency Theory • Fiedler Contingency Theory • Hersey and Blanchard Contingency model
  4. 4. Trait Theory • Trait theory of leadership diffentiates leaders from non leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics. • Trait theory of leadership sought personality, social, physical and intellectual traits. • Trait theory assumes that leaders are born.
  5. 5. Behavioral Theory • Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non leaders. • Assume that leader behaviors are crucial for explaining performance and other organizational outcomes. • Focuses on leader behavior rather than traits. • Major behavioral theories are: • • • • University of Iowa Ohio State University Michigan University Managerial Grid
  6. 6. University of Iowa Leadership Model • Autocratic: Leader makes decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises them. • Democratic: Leader encourages participation in decisions, works with employees to determine what to do, and does not closely supervise them. • The result of University of Iowa style of leadership was that employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader.
  7. 7. Ohio State University Leadership Model • Behaviors identified: • Initiating structure behavior • Focuses on getting the task done • Role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group members • Consideration behavior • Focuses on meeting people’s needs and developing relationships • The leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings.
  8. 8. University of Michigan Leadership Model • Job‐centered leadership style: production oriented (task) • Refers to the extent to which the leader takes charge to get the job done • The leader closely directs subordinates with clear roles and goals • The manager tells subordinates what to do and how to do it • Employee‐centered leadership style: employee oriented (relationship) • The leader focuses on meeting the human needs of employees while developing relationships • The leader is sensitive to subordinates and communicates to develop trust, support, and respect
  9. 9. Managerial Grid
  10. 10. Managerial Grid • Impoverished (1,1) • Low concern for production • Low concern for people • Authority‐compliance (9,1) • High concern for production • Low concern for people • Country club (1,9) • High concern for people • Low concern for production • Middle of the road (5,5) • Medium concern for production • Medium concern for people • Team (9,9) • High concern for people • High concern for production
  11. 11. Situational Contingency Theory • Fiedler Contingency Theory • According to Fiedler, the effectiveness of a leader is determined by the degree of match between a dominant trait of the leader and the favorableness of the situation for the leader.... The dominant trait is a personality factor causing the leader to either relationship-oriented or task-orientated. • Hersey and Blanchard Contingency model • The theory states that instead of using just one style, successful leaders should change their leadership styles based on the maturity of the people they're leading and the details of the task.
  12. 12. Fiedler Contingency Theory • Leader-member relations: • the degree to which the employees accept the leader. • Task structure: • the degree to which the subordinates jobs are described in detail. • Position power: • the amount of formal authority the leader possesses by virtue of his or her position in the organization.
  13. 13. Hersey and Blanchard Contingency model • Telling (S1) • Leaders tell their people what to do and how to do it. • Selling (S2) • Leaders provide information and direction, but there's more communication with followers. Leaders "sell" their message to get people on board. • Participating (S3) • Leaders focus more on the relationship and less on direction. The leader works with the team, and shares decision-making responsibilities. • Delegating (S4) • Leaders pass most of the responsibility onto the follower or group. The leaders still monitor progress, but they're less involved in decisions.
  14. 14. Hersey and Blanchard Contingency model • According to Hersey and Blanchard, knowing when to use each style is largely dependent on the maturity of the person or group you're leading. • M1 • People at this level of maturity are at the bottom level of the scale. They lack the knowledge, skills, or confidence to work on their own, and they often need to be pushed to take the task on. • M2 • at this level, followers might be willing to work on the task, but they still don't have the skills to complete it successfully. • M3 • Here, followers are ready and willing to help with the task. They have more skills than the M2 group, but they're still not confident in their abilities. • M4 • These followers are able to work on their own. They have high confidence and strong skills, and they're committed to the task.
  15. 15. Hersey and Blanchard Contingency model • The Hersey-Blanchard model maps each leadership style to each maturity level, as shown below. - See more at: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_44.htm#sthash.ZRmrqcAs.dpuf Maturity Level M1: Low maturity M2: Medium maturity, limited skills M3: Medium maturity, higher skills but lacking confidence M4: High maturity Most Appropriate Leadership Style S1: Telling/directing S2: Selling/coaching S3: Participating/supporting S4: Delegating
  16. 16. Thank You